Charles Cagniard de Latour
Polytechnicien of the Year III (autumn 1794 - summer 1795) in the body of the engineers geographers, he becomes listener of second class to the Council of State the 1810 and is affected in the administration of the powders in 1811. Listener of first classifies close the minister and the section of the Interior in 1812 and 1813, he becomes also listener at the commission of the Petitions in 1813.
It rather quickly leaves these activities of Fonctionnaire to devote itself to its research in fields as various as the Mécanique, the Chimie, the Physique and the Acoustique.
Its major inventions and discoveries are:
the cagniardelle , in 1809, machine intended to insufflate the air under a liquid whose principle is founded on a Archimedes' screw slightly tilted, so that the lower end is completely immersed and the higher end only partiellement ; the screw is actuated in the opposite direction of that which would make assemble the eau ; to each turn, the air enters by the higher end and goes down, by driving back water, along the whorls towards the lower end where a pipe recovers it.
- a portable mill, with the use of the armies, of a tiny weight of seven books and which made it possible to the soldiers to grind corn with the right in the middle of the champs ; the army Napoleon ienne made use of it during the Hundred Days
- of the lighting equipments to gas for the Saint-Louis hospital and the royal factory
- the siren , in 1819, machine allowing to produce sound of a calculable and adjustable frequency at will
- a new machine with fire
- it gun-pump
- a steam engine which raises water without piston
- the pump with thread-like stem
- the chronometric balance
- a machine to study the flight of the birds
- discovered, in 1838, multiplication, by budding, of its role and brewers' yeast in fermentation alcoolique ; it showed thus that the process of fermentation is due at living organisms.
- study of volatilization in isolation, at high sufficiently high temperature (362°C for water), in a space two to three times larger than the volume of the liquid, alcohol, ether and water, experiment which is still today one of the experimental bases of the theory of the gases
- study of the propagation of the sound in the liquids
The lighting equipments were worth to him, in 1819, to be made baron by Louis XVIII.
Member of the Academy of Science, it succeeds on March 17th, 1851 Gay-Lussac.
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