The department of the Charente (16) belonged to the administrative divisions of the France. It was created on geographical criteria (the upstream reservoir and average of the river Charente) which crosses it and from where its name was drawn.
See also: History of Charente
The department was created with the French revolution, the March 4th 1790 pursuant to the law of the December 22nd 1789, around the Angoumois and includes in the west cognaçais it (until Bassac) and south-Charente starting from Barbezieux, which belonged to the Saintonge, and in the east the grounds limousines of confolentais, like some communes of the Poitou in North and the Périgord in the South.
Charente was inhabited as of the average Paléolithique (sites of Vilhonneur, Guards-the-Pontaroux, Sers, Mouthiers). During the historical period there had never yet been unit, neither policy, neither nun, nor legal. The cut between the Angoumois in the east centered by Angouleme and the Saintonge in the west centered on Cognac which existed already among Celts and perduré until the Révolution did not completely disappear besides.
Saintonge is thus named because it was the territory of the Santons, but it is another Gallic tribe which occupied the Angoumois. All Charente was a rich person Gallo-Roman area and it remains in particular of this time the thermal baths of Chassenon and the theater of Bouchauds.
Following the disorders and invasions set up fortified towns, and between the 10th century and the 12th century each village built its Romance church. Strengthened cities and castles (Cognac, Angouleme, Villebois-Lavalette…) were put at evil during the 100 year old war and the English occupation. Rebuilt they suffered from the Wars of religion, which were a disaster for this department (departure of more than 50% of the craftsmen).
During the Revolution, few things occurred and the Terreur was very moderate.
The trade was done by the river (salt, cognac, materials…) and various industries (paper mills, foundries.) date from the 17th century. The 19th century with the industrial revolution and the trade of the cognac was one period of great richness. The crisis generated by the Phyloxera caused a strong rural migration. To this fall of population was added the bleedings of the wars and Charente still did not find its level of population of 1821.
See also: Political of Charente
Charente voted massively Bonapartiste with the election of 1848, by desire of peace. Vigny wrote " Charente is only the one Vendée Bonapartiste ". It will remain it until the end of the 19th century and in 1889 only Confolentais Républicain votes whereas Angouleme elects Paul Déroulède, and it is only after the by-election of 1906 that the department become completely Républicain. At the time of the by-election of 1939, Marcel Déat is elected to replace Rene Gounin, USR like him, devanu senator.
With leaving the war, the four elected deputies on November 10th, 1946 are 1 PC, 1 Socialist, 1 RGR (radical) the young person Felix Gaillard and 1 MRP. In same time the two elected senators are moderated, they are Guy Pascaud just of return of deportation and Pierre Marcilhacy which will be then re-elected constantly until 1980.
From 1958 the poll become majority of district, which is very unfavourable for the left. The PC starts a slow descent and in spite of approximately 23% more of the voices any more deputy does not have. The three elected deputies are a UNR, Raymond Réthoré, Independent a Républicain conservative, Jean Valentine, and a Radical Felix Gaillard. They will be re-elected in 1962 and 1967.
With the presidential election the De Gaulle general obtains a vast majority: 53,12% in 1965, and with the legislative elections of June 1968 they are two UNR which is elected, Raymond Réthoré and Michel Alloncle. Felix Gaillard saves his armchair but after its accidental death in 1970 it is replaced by a third deputy UNR, Francis Hardy.
The presidential election of 1974, and the score of 54,01% of François Mitterrand with the second turn, mark the rise of the left: Jean-Michel Boucheron, PS, is elected mayor of Angouleme in 1977 and appointed in 1978. André Soury PC finds the head office of Confolens which it had lost in 1958, and if Francis Hardy guard the seat of Cognac, it will lose it in 1981 with the profit of Bernard the Villette, PS. Charente passed from three deputies of right-hand side in 1970 to three deputies of left in 1981.
But the rural voters remain preserving and in 1980 they are Raymond Réthoré and Michel Alloncle which is elected senators, and in 1982 the general advice remains on the right with 20 advisers against 14 and Pierre-Rémy Houssin, mayor of Bathe-Holy-Radegonde assume the chairmanship of it.
With legislative of 1986, the results balance, Jean-Michel Boucheron and Jerome Lambert for the PS, Francis Hardy for UNR and Georges Chavannes for the UDF.
Georges Chavanes in Angouleme and RPR Pierre-Rémy Houssin in Cognac is elected in 1988 and is re-elected then, Jean-Claude Beauchaud the substitute for Jean-Michel Boucheron replaces it 1993, while Jerome Lambert is beaten by the gaullist Henri de Richemont but recovers its seat in 1997.
In 1997, it is thus the return of Jerome Lambert in Confolens, the arrival in Cognac of Marie-Line Reynaud, in Angouleme of Jean-Claude Viollet and the re-election of Jean-Claude Beauchaud with 65% with the second turn.
In 2002, Jerome Lambert, Jean-Claude Beauchaud and Jean-Claude Viollet is re-elected, but Jacques Bobe, take his seat with Marie-Line Reynaud which recovers it in 2007 whereas Martine Pinville replaces Jean-Claude Beauchaud (Martine Pinville was the candidate of the militants presenting itself against Malek Boutih parachuted by the national PS).
The general advice sees a push of the left in 2001 (and the election of the first green general adviser, Patrik Fontanaud) and its swing on the left with the elections of 2004. Michel Boutant PS becomes the president about it.
The big cities Angouleme and Cognac remain UMP, Jarnac is PS but most of the communes are directed by lists " interests communaux" without marked tendency.
List of the deputies of Charente
- List of the senators of Charente
- List of the general advisers of Charente
- List of the prefects of Charente
GeographyAdministrative divisions are:
- Districts of Charente
- Cantons of Charente
- Intercommunalités of Charente
- Common of Charente
- Old communes of Charente
See also: Geography of Charente
The borders of the department of Charente coincide with the limits of the upstream reservoirs and means of the river Charente, which makes him include areas geographically very different which are of upstream downstream:
Confolentais or Charente limousine in the East of the department, on the ground made up of impermeable crystalline rocks, which is geographically located in the Limousin. This area was pilot of an major event 214 million years ago, the impact of a meteorite of more than one kilometer in diameter which fell in Pressignac, halfway between Chassenon and Rochechouart.
In Angoumois then in Saintonge the slope of the Charente is weak and regular and the river marks very broad meanders. Charente and its affluents cross in Angoumois of the plates generating limestones fissured of pits and resurgences and on the remainder of its catchment area of the impermeable grounds but also limestones which once gorged with water behave like impermeable grounds.
Its affluents are several types:
- Tardoire, Bandiat, Bonnieure which disappears partly in cracks and feeds the Karst which is guaranteeing of a flow of minimum low water level.
- the Touvre, Resurgence born from two sources, the Door frame and the Ebullient one.
- the Aume, the Soloire, the tributary Antenna and the Born which runs on impermeable ground and grows bigger with the least rains.
The risings are usual, and water starts by covering the zones with marsh and the meadows which border Charente and its affluents. When water goes up more, approximately every 20 years the true rising with cut roads takes place, low districts of Angouleme, Jarnac and flooded Cognac and in 1960 of Châteauneuf-on-Charente to the mouth the meadows formed only one immense lake.
The department of Charente comprises entirely 24 zones Natura 2000 located some of others partly on its territory, valley of the Charente river and its affluents, thatches and other types of habitats for Oiseau X, Chauves-souris, Loutre and mink of Europe or orchises.
See also: Climate of Charente
The department of the Charente has a oceanic Climat of Cognac until Angouleme which changes while going from west towards the east in degraded oceanic climate. In the Confolentais the winter, the cold is marked more.
Charente is characterized by two distinct economic entities with two chambers of commerce, that of Angouleme and that of Cognac. The common activities and affinities are so weak that the CCI of Cognac plan to join rather that Rochefort than with that of Angouleme
The traditional activities are the Papeterie, the Cognac, the Tuilerie S and Briqueterie S and the Fonderie S.
- the extractive activities are primarily
- in the sector of Roumazières-Loubert clay for bricks and the tiles (manufacture of 1/6) of the French tiles) mainly by Terreal, in the past French Tuileries and Brickyards (TBF).
- close to Cognac, with Cherves-Richemont the Gypsum for the plaster and maintaining for the factory Placoplatre.
- the calcareous stone which was exploited for the stone of size is for the aggregates.
- gray marl for the cement factory Lafarge SA of the Crown.
- the white clay of Oriolles and Chantillac.
- agro-alimentary the
- Cognac with 47.131 ha of vines which account for 45% of the agricultural incomes of the department, of the home distillers and profession and a hundred traders who ensure 40% of exports of the Poitou-Charentes.
See also: Cognac (brandy)
- the Dairy S for butter and cheese are declining, as the industry of the meat although the breeding remains an important activity.
- the Papeterie is in strong decline, after the closing of the the Nile but with always ICP (Charente-native Paper Industry).
- the foundry which exists since the creation of the royal Fonderie in 1750.
- the Poudrerie become SNPR
- electric industries with especially Leroy-To summon
- the Verrerie with Saint-Gobain which took again the factory of Claude Boucher.
- other industries related to the cognac: paperboards, label S, transport, farm equipment, Cooperage S, material of distillation.
See also: Economy of Charente
The inhabitants of Charente are the Residents of Charente.
See also: Demography of Charente
The population of the department remains stable around 340.000 inhabitants, figures similar to those of before the revolution or the beginning of the 19th century, but the rural cantons of the East of the department underwent an important exodus whereas the agglomeration of Angouleme increased until accounting for the 1/3 of the population.
CultureCharente shows its culture in its built inheritance, and its faience manufacturers, painters, sculptors, its poets and its writers, of which we have the trace since the " court of Cognac" of Louise of Savoy.
See also: Culture in Charente
How to summarize between the inheritance of the Romance churches, the castles rebirths like Rochefoucauld, of the poets (of Alfred de Vigny with the Tower of Fire), of the painters and the faience manufacturers, the writers (of Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, François of Rochefoucauld and Jean-Baptiste of Quintinie to “the School of Barbezieux”)? Only the detailed article can give an outline of the cultural life in Charente.
- the Saintongeais . The western zone good wider (which includes/understands Chalais, Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire, Angouleme, Jarnac, Cognac, Villefagnan, Ruffec) belongs to the Saintongeais which is a language of oil . The Charente-native Patois is a name to which some are attached, to indicate the Saintongeais.
- the Occitan . To the east, the zone including/understanding Aubeterre, Villebois-Lavalette, Montbron, Rochefoucauld, Saint-Claud, Champagne-Sheep, Confolens belongs to the field of the Occitan or language of oc (under the variety of the north-occitan and more precisely of the the Limousin ). One speaks sometimes about Charente Périgourdine and Charente Limousine ( Charanta Lemosina ) or more simply about Charente occitane ( Charanta Occitana ). This one is located at the north-western border of the Occitanie.
the Newspapers are the free Charente and South-western edition Charente
- Charente is divided between France Blue La Rochelle and France Blue the Limousin
- France 3 the Limousin Poitou-Charentes
- cagouilles (the snails small-gray) either roasted, or out of sauce or stuffed with the sausage meat.
- stew of beu (ox)
- sauce of worse and gigourit: kinds of stew of pig which differ by their composition (bacon, throat, head, lungs, blood.)
- large cricket and Charente-native cricket
- natural melon or with the Pineau of Charentes
- broad beans with crunches with salt
- baraganes (Poireau of vine S, of taste different from cultivated leek) cooked, tepid, vinaigrette.
- mogettes (beans)
- wonders (kind of fritters)
- millas (cake containing cornstarch, it is a " choke chrétien")
- Cornuelle : triangular cake with central hole, in sanded paste furnished with anise grains. It would come from the very old pagan festivals of spring
- Charente-native Galette. More marrowy than crushed the poitevin much harder
- " Fuck fourrée" : Chou pastry in form of male sex, filled with the whipped cream or the English cream. Originating in the area of Barbezieux (Southern Charente). Made at Easter exclusively.
- garlic, condiment essential to the resident of Charente and Aillet during all of spring
- bit of aillet of May 1st: this morning there festive in-case with aillet believed, bread, cricket, fresh cheese,… festival which of Gallic origin
- would be raisiné (compote cooked in the reduced grape juice)
Personalities related to the department
- Louise of Savoy (1476-1531), duchess of Angouleme, duchess of Anjou and countess of the Maine
- Marguerite of Angouleme
- François of Angouleme, commonly called François 1st, was born on September 12th, 1494 with Cognac. He was King de France of 1515 with his death, in 1547.
- Guy Chabot of Saint-Froze, 7° baron of Jarnac, (1514, † August 6th 1584), author of famous the Coup of Jarnac the July 10th 1547.
- Élie Vinet
- Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac
- François of Rochefoucauld
- Jean-Baptiste of Quintinie born in Chabanais
- the abbot Jean-Pierre Rousselot, one of the founders of experimental phonetics, was born on October 10th, 1846 with Saint-Claud and died on December 16th, 1924 with Paris. He was professor of experimental phonetics to the Collège de France.
- Alfred de Vigny which remained in Maine-Giraud
- Burgaud of Marets (Jean-Henri), poet saintongeais, born in Jarnac the November 2nd 1806, deceased with Paris the October 6th 1873.
- Jacques Burrs
- Henri Fauconnier
- Odette Comandon, author of comedies and tales, actress and narrator patoisante (Angouleme 1913 - † Royan 1996).
- Louis Delage
- Claude Boucher
- Strong Felix, appointed
- Guy Pascaud, senator
- Pierre Marcilhacy, senator
- Jean Monnet was born with Cognac on November 9th, 1888. It was one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
- François Mitterrand born with Jarnac (1916 - 1996), was president of the Republic of 1981 to 1995. It is buried in Jarnac.
See also: Tourism in Charente
Notes and references of the article
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