Chancellor (of the Latin cancellarius : Appariteur placed at the barrier separating the court of justice from the public) is an official title allotted in many companies derived from the Roman Empire. The function of a chancellor can be very variable.
Ancient RomeWith Rome one gave this name to the secretaries of the emperor, because, when this one returned justice, they were placed behind the bars cancelli , in the enclosure who separated the emperor from the public.
Royal and imperial FranceIn France, the title of chancellor was always common to several offices; but most eminent was the Chancelier of France, president of the Council of State and interprets wills of the king close to the Parliament. Starting from the 2nd race, the chancellor had the Minister of Justice and was charged to draw up and contresign the acts given by the king. This load was removed in 1790. Napoleon i created the title of archichancelier in favor of Cambacérès, to which it gave the administration of the civil statue of its house. The Restauration restores the chancellor of France, but the Minister of Justice removed to him, which was entrusted to the Minister for justice, and allotted the presidency of the to him Chambre of the Pars.
In the universities of the old mode, the chancellor was the guard of the seal of the university. There was at the university of Paris two chancellor, the chancellor of Notre-Dame and the chancellor of Holy-Genevieve.
EnglandIn England, one calls Lord large chancellor the 1st officer public, to which belongs of right the presidency of the House of Lords, and which is at the same time the chief of justice and the president of a called particular court runs chancery off.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer ( Chancellor off the Exchequer ) with the the United Kingdom, exerts a function similar to that of a Minister for Finance.
Worsen GermanUnder the second German empire (1871-1919), the imperial Chancelier ( Reichskanzler ) was the chief of the government named by the Emperor and person in charge that in front of him. Most famous was Otto von Bismarck of 1871 to 1890.
Some historical directions
- Large officer of the Crown. He has in particular as a responsibility the guard for the royal Sceau.
- Officer charged to keep the Seal of a Queen or a prince.
- Chancellor of the University . It delivered the diplomas.
In France today, the Chancellor is the Minister for Justice, Minister of Justice. The chancellery term is used in the legal world to indicate the Ministry for Justice.
- Guard of the Seal and administrator of a body or an order (Legion of honor, French Academy, Order of Malta).
- Chancellor of évêché . Person in charge of the Minister of Justice of the bishop.
- Chancellor of consulate . Civil servant assisting the consul in the administrative questions.
- Chancellor in the French Army . Soldier, warrant officer or officer, charged to treat the businesses of discipline, notation, advance and enabling as regards safety.
- Chancellor of the universities . Coordinator of the Higher education in a academy.
- federal Chancellor (in German, Bundeskanzler ). Titrate given the head of government in Germany and Austria.
- federal Chancellor of Germany,
- federal Chancellor of Austria,
- Chancellor of the Confederation, in Swiss, chief of the administration of the Federal council (but it is not the chief of the government, function provided by the President of the Swiss Confederation, member of the Federal council).
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