The word " chérubin" from the Latin comes ecclesiastical cherub (plural cherubin ), transcription of the Hebrew He dir=rtl texte= '' כרוב '' trans= '' kerūb '', plural He dir=rtl texte= '' כרובים '' trans= '' kerubīm ''.
In the Jewish religion, a chérubin is a angel, in particular charged to occupy a load of guard. In the Genèse, they are thus chérubins who keeps the tree of life with whirling swords (Genesis 3:24), after God drove out Adam and Eve of the garden of Éden. The book of the Exode describes the representation of chérubins on the Ark of the Covenant (Ex 25:18 - 22):
“You will make two gold chérubins, you will do them of gold foil, at the two ends of the propitiatory one; make chérubin with the one of the ends and chérubin at the other end; you will make chérubins leaving propitiatory at its two ends. Chérubins will extend the wings over, covering their wings the propitiatory one, and facing one with the other; chérubins will have the face turned towards the propitiatory one. You will put the propitiatory one on the arch, and you will put in the arch testimony, that I will give you. It is there that I will meet with you; top of propitiatory, between two chérubins placed on the arch of testimony, I will give you all my orders for the children of Israel. ”
Later makewill be made two monumental statues chérubins, side-by-side, with the spread wings covering all the width of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6.23-28):
It made in the sanctuary two wild wood chérubins of olive-tree, having ten bent height. Each of the two wings of the one of chérubins had five bent, which made ten bent end of one of its wings at the end of the other. Second chérubin had also ten bent. Measurement and the form were the same ones for two chérubins. The height of each of two chérubins of ten was bent. Solomon placed chérubins in the middle of the house, in the interior. Their wings were spread: the wing of the first touched with the one of the walls, and the wing of the second touched with the other wall; and their other wings met by the end in the middle of the house. Solomon covered with gold chérubins.
A traditional representation of chérubins is given in the book of Ézéchiel (Ez 1:5 - 28):
“In the center still, four animals appeared, whose aspect had a human resemblance. Each one of them had four faces, and each one had four wings. Their feet were right, and plants it their feet was like that of the foot of a calf, they étincelaient like polished bronze. They had hands of man under the wings at their four sides; and all the four had their faces and their wings. Their wings were united one with the other; they were not turned while going, but each one went right in front of oneself. As for the figure of their faces, they had a whole a face of man, all four a face of lion on the right, all four an ox face on the left, and all four a face of eagle. Their faces and their wings were separated by the top; two their wings were united one with the other, and two covered their bodies. Each one went right in front of oneself; they went where the spirit pushed them with going, and they were not turned in their walk. The aspect of these animals resembled burning coals of fire, it was like the aspect of the torches, and this fire circulated between the animals; it threw a bright light, and it left the flashes there. ”
The appearance of biblical chérubins, hybrid beings associating with the human and animal characteristics, without any doubt is influenced by the iconography of the old Middle East (in particular winged sphinges or winged bulls with human head of Mésopotamie).
In the Christianity, chérubins is the angels of the second chorus of the first hierarchy. They precede the Thrones and follow the Séraphin S. To the Middle Ages, they are represented with 3 pairs of wings. From the rebirth, they are often depicted like young people and gracious children equipped with only one pair of wings, the putti . The painter Raphaël gave a famous illustration of it.
- a site devoted to biblical chérubins
- Into heraldic, the chérubin or cherub is a imaginary heraldic Figure without notorious modification of the traditional icon: head of angel flanked of two wings . Present at once, it is more frequent in the Ornements external of the ecu.
Arts and literature
Chérubin , young page of the count Almaviva, is a character of two plays of Beaumarchais, the marriage of Barber and the guilty mother . He also appears under the name of Cherubino in the opera of Mozart, Nozze di Figaro . It is also the title of an opera of Jules Massenet, Chérubin (1905).
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