Central African Republic
See also: History of the Central African Republic
The French colonized the area at the end of the 19th century and managed it under the name of Oubangui-Chari. During the Second world war, the colony united with the allied Forces. The country becomes the Central African Republic on February 1st 1958 and proclaims its independence the August 13rd 1960.
See also: Political of the Central African Republic
The first Head of the State, Barthelemy Boganda, regarded as the father of the Central African nation and author of the “Zo kwe zo” (a man is worth some another, in sango) which still appears in the preamble to current Constitution, dies on March 29th, 1959 in an air crash whose causes were never élucidées.
Its successor and cousin, David Dacko, teacher, are reversed by a Coup d'etat carried out by the captain Jean-Bedel Bokassa who is made crown Empereur in 1977. Bokassa is reversed in 1979, David Dacko briefly succeeds to him. It will be driven out capacity in 1982 by the general André Kolingba, who establishes a military regime. André Kolingba will remain with the capacity until in 1993, year when, according to the current of democratization launched by the top of Baule, the first multi-party elections take place and Angel-Felix Patassé is elected president of the Republic.
In 2001, an coup attempt of State causes violent one confrontations in the capital, Bangui.
After a new series of disorders and in spite of the intervention of international community (MINURCA), the March 15th 2003, the general François Bozize makes a success of new a Coup d'etat and reverses president Patassé.
A presidential election took place after several carryforwards the March 13rd 2005 in which presented themselves, inter alia, François Bozize (already Head of the State), the former president André Kolingba, and the former vice-president Abel Goumba. Candidatures of several other candidates, of which those of Charles Massi of the FODEM, the former Prime Minister Martin Ziguélé of the former minister and former Mayor of Bangui Olivier Gabirault and Jean-Jacques Démafouth, were refused by the electoral commission before the mediation Gabon ease and the agreements of Libreville. Following these agreements, only the candidature of the former president Angel-Felix Patassé was definitively rejected by the electoral commission.
The Central African Republic is made up of 14 prefectures, 2 prefectures economic. The 14 prefectures are: Bamingui-Bangoran, Low-Kotto, High-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kémo, Lobaye, Mambéré-Kadéï, Mbomou, Chick-Mambéré, Ombella-M' Poko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pendé, Vakaga. The two economic prefectures are: Chick-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré. Bangui has the statute of commune.
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country. The Ngaoui Mount with its 1.420 m is the culminating point. The basement contains Diamant S, Uranium and Or. The Oil and hydroelectric energy are other important resources.
The country suffers from Inondation S and the Déforestation S. (See also: Forest of the Basin of Congo).
The tropical climate dominates the essence of the country with one wet season from May to October and a dry season from November to April. In the South, the border of both Congos, the climate is of type equatorial, intertropical of Carnot with Berbérati with the West, subsahélien towards Birao in North with one dry season which can go from 8 to 9 months, and intertropical but fresh and stormy on the reliefs.
Central Africa comprises two large separate basins. One runs out towards North (basin of Chad) with rivers like Logone, Ouham, the Chari. The other basin is formed of the affluents of the Oubangui which run towards the South (basin of Congo). The edges Western and Eastern of the plate comprise the most important reliefs. The plate is surrounded in the North-West with steps of the granitic solid mass of Yadé are staged of 1.000 meters to 1.400 meters (except for the Ngaouli mount: 1410 m); in the North-West, three small quartzitic chains, the Délembé-Sergobo units, Ouanda Koumou Djallé-Mount and Kotto-Bahr forming the solid masses of Dar Challa and Bongo, culminate with the Toussoro mount with 1330 meters.
The annual average of the temperatures borders 26°C. In Bangui the maximum ones are about 38°C and the minima of 15°C. The pluviometer indicates on average: for the rainy season 226 mm (July), and for the season dry 5 mm (December).
See also: Economy of the Central African Republic
The North-West and the center of the country represent an important agricultural basin for the cultures of Coton and Canne to sugar. However, the weakness of the infrastructures and the support for the production, which mainly remains extensive, very strongly limits the outputs, much lower than those of the adjoining countries. The enclavement of the country remains an important handicap and the river transport is paramount for l economy.
The forestry development contributes largely to the GDP, with important wood resources tropical. At the beginning of colonization, one exploited the Hévéa for his latex, today the gasolines are diversified. The least noble are transformed locally by a small industry of Contreplaqué S, while most invaluable are exported without transformation in the form of Grume S.
The mining activity (Gold and diamonds) constitutes the other important resource of the Central African Republic in terms of export earnings: the official production - mainly artisanal - of Diamant S alluvial of very good quality (diamonds of jewelry) is established with approximately 500.000 Carat S per annum. The real production is estimated with the double approximately, it thus exists a saving in important smuggling in this sector. The production, the trade, as well as the size of diamonds, are activities which are the subject regularly of plans aiming at nationalizing them, or on the contrary to liberalize them.
The industrial fabric, which forever very developed compared to the adjoining countries like Cameroun for example, suffered from the military and political disorders successive, and is almost non-existent today. Some industries developed in the years 1970 (manufactures of fabrics, shoes…) disappeared. There remains a local production of beer and transformation of Aluminum. The private sector employs approximately 11.000 worker.
The public services (water, electricity, telegraphic telephone…), state monopolies, are in difficult financial positions, and the equipment, fault of maintenance and of investment, are for the majority decayed, involving very frequent ruptures of service. The important weight of the debt in the national budget and the weakness of the level of the own resources returns the management of the difficult State (non-payment of wages of the civils servant, strikes and social movements) and contributes to the brittleness of the political institutions.
A legislative framework anachronistic, unsuited, and steady in a way sometimes surprising, a strong implication of the State in the productive sectors, characterize the economy of the Central African Republic, which also forms part of institutions aiming to sous-régionale or regional integration like CEMAC.
It is it should be noted that one finds in Central Africa a very diversified flora and a fauna, in particular a population of African elephants of forest. This situation remains very fragile because of the poaching for the Ivoire and of the consumption of Viande of bush, but represents a potential Cynégétique and of important éco-tourism. Tourism remains still anecdotic, as much because of weakness of the infrastructures of reception and transport that insecurity which reigns in the country.
The growth was of 2% in 2005.
The general Census of the population and habitat (RGPH) carried out in 2003 gave a figure of 3.895.139 inhabitants: - women: 1.955.813 (50,21%), men: 1.939.326 (49,79%) - young people of less than 18 years: 49,8% - population in rural area: 2.419.824 (62,12%), population in urban area: 1.475.315 (37,88%).
The principal cities are (estimate of the population in 1996: Bangui (597 000 H), Berbérati (47 000 H), Bouar (44 453 H), Bambari (43 863 H), Carnot (43 810 H), Kaga Bandoro (38 260 H), Bossangoa (34 272 H), Bria (29 391 H), Bangassou (28 000 H), Nola (24 108 H) and Bimbo (22 031 H).
The preceding censuses of 1988 and 1975 had established the figure of the population respectively with 2.688.426 inhabitants and 2.056.000 inhabitants.
The country counts more than eighty ethnos groups speaking each one a different language. The Sängö, the common language, represents a true language of communication, largely shared in the country to trade and exchange.
The pandemia of Sida is serious there. The average rate of prevalence is around 16,5 percent, according to the last data (2004) of the representation of the Funds world for the fight against AIDS and the Tuberculose in Central Africa. With this rate of prevalence, the RCA occupies the 10th world rank and the first in central Africa of the countries most touched by the VIH/SIDA.
See also: Culture of the Central African Republic
CodesThe Central African Republic has as codes:
- CIF , according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country),
- CF, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- RCA, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- CIF, in the Code list country of the CIO,
- CIF, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3
- CT, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- up to date OperationsPaix.net Chronology and documents on peace operation in progress, the Multinational force in Central Africa
Beats-smg: Centrėnės Afrėkas Respoblėka Be-X-old: Цэнтральна-АфрыканскаяРэспубліка Simple: Exchange African Republic Zh-min-nan: Tiong-hui Kiōng-Ho-kok
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