See also: Center (homonymy), Chest
The center (of Latin sine , “curve, sinuosity, fold”) or the Chest as a whole, constitutes the higher ventral area of the chest of a Animal, and in particular that of the Mammifères which includes the Mankind. In this last case, they are the fleshy part located on the former face of the Thorax.
The center also indicates at the Mammifère S females (of which the Femme), the Mamelle which contains the Glande mammaire Sécrétrice of the Lait to allow to the Allaitement young people Bébé S as of the birth. In the mammals domestic females , one calls them “Pis”. The term is generally used in the plural because nature equipped the mammals with several udders.
The centres are more visible among adult women because they are prominent. But the human ones of male sex have also centres which, although generally less important, are structurally identical (homologous) to the woman, because they develop embryologiquement starting from same fabrics.
This article treats primarily human center Féminin and Masculin. For the other mammals, to see the articles: Worse and Gland mammaire.
EtymologyThe word comes from Latin sine , “curve, sinuosity, fold”, which indicated in particular a fold of the Toge recovering the chest. Its employment with illustrated made it indicate the corresponding part of the body. But one employed rather that of mamma , “center”, and mamilla , “small center”, from where the French word: “Udder”. Also, mammicula indicated a “small udder”. It is from there from which the word “Mammifère comes” whose characteristic first is to be equipped with udders or centres for the human being.
The slang thesaurus of the words on the centres is important, as well as a primary education Sexual character.
At the womanA network of milk channels is present at the rudimentary state at the individuals of the two sexes, of the embryonic age at the adulthood, but only the women, under the hormonal influence starting from the Puberté, along the cycles and during the pregnancy and breast feeding, develop the glandular part.
The centres contain the glands lactogenes (or glands mammaires) which become active in period of Allaitement and produce the Mother's milk whose the human Bébé is nourished during the first months of its life. During the period of lactation, milk is secreted by these glands mammaires and is poured by channels separated on the level from the Mamelon.
The essence of the body of the center makes up of fat Tissu. The centres see their volume varying according to various parameters such as the cycle of Ovulation, the Température or the excitation like during the Grossesse. The limit of the Areola, its pigmentation and its glandular network vary with the pregnancy and breast feeding. The nipple is érectile.
It is vulnerable to the Cancer.
On the surface level, the center is covered with skin ( fascia superficialis ) extending unbounded clear until the area mamelonaire, round and pigmented.
The skin of the areola has a grained aspect because it is strewn with cutaneous and sébacées glands (Glande of Morgani) which hypertrophy with the Grossesse and take then the name of Tubercule of Montgomery. The areola is equipped with smooth muscle fibers, muscles sphinctériens périalvéolaires, which control the function excrétrice of the center at the time of the lactation.
The nipple is the central part and elevated of the areola. The milk channels which ensure the evacuation of lacteous secretions emerge there by separate pores.
On the internal plan, the center primarily consists of a conjunctive Tissu fat and of ligaments of Cooper. The glandular fabric responsible for the production Exocrine of milk represents only one small proportion of mammaire volume.
The Glande mammaire consists of lobes, separated by conjunctive partitions, which are glandular whole of buds or acini developed in period of breast feeding, drained by milk channels equipped towards their ends with a sine milk and emerging separately for the level with the nipple.
The center is richly vascularized.
On the level of the lymphatic system, the center is divided into 4 dials, 2 external, 2 interns. The external dials are drained towards the external thoracic artery, the hollow axillaire (ganglion of Sorgius) and the ganglion known claviculaire. The internal dials are drained under the sternum by the intrathoracic ganglion then the known relay claviculaire.
On the major level, one distinguishes 3 muscles: the Large pectoral on which the gland mammaire slips, the pectoral Petit and the under-keyboard.
The center is supported by the skin and a ligament hanger: the fibro-glandular span. At the lower level, the furrow under-mammaire is formed by a thickening of these spans which draws in-depth skin.
The higher limit of establishment of the center is at the 2 or 3rd coast, its lower limit between 6th or 7th coast.
The possible presence of more than two centres is called the Polymastie.
Cut, form and supportThe centres vary at the same time in the face and form. Their support is done anatomically speaking, on the whole of the Rib cage.
CutThe centres vary in the face. The smallest size of bonnet is AA, which corresponds to a size lower than an inch, that is to say 2,54 centimetres. What does not remove the possibility of breast feeding.
is known universally to have been the woman with the natural centres largest of the world. Whereas it was 12 years old, it carried at the time a bra of a size 34DD (according to British measurements) until its 15 years, it reached at the 17 years age a size of 34GG . Its final size was 36HH but is currently of 36DD after surgical operation. Always in British measurements.
According to the magazine The People of the the United Kingdom, the record of the woman to the natural centres largest of the world would be a 16 year old young woman in 2005, Chloe Rogers: the size would reach titanic a 34KK , either of the 90P in the French face, or 43,18 cm (17 inches will comparez with the diagonal of your écran) of difference between the turn of chest and it tower of the rib cage under the centres, bra included/understood. Or a tower of the chest with the centres included/understood, equal to 130 centimères approximately. Each center would weigh 4 to 4,5 kg. She would suffer from a chronic evil of back and seeks to reduce the size of her centres by Plastic surgeon. Its life jacket (or English bra) is made overmeasure and would cost £100 (approximately 150€). Rachel Aldana would be also notorious with the the United Kingdom for a size of centres of 32JJ .
As one can note it, the size of the natural centres largest of the world is the subject of publications in the Presse people, especially with the the United Kingdom. And like European, American and English measurements differ, it is not easy to make conversions. Exceeded a certain measurement, it seems nevertheless that this size of centres proves more one physical handicap for these young women that a benefit, even if that can attract notoriety to them. They can benefit like Linsey Dawn McKenzie from it, but the latter finally yielded to the benefits surgery, for quite simply “reducing” its back.
Form and supportThe general form of the female center is variable, generally conical round. They can be pointed, in form “of Poire S” or rounded like “Orange S”, etc Pourtant, their appearance does not predict theirs internal anatomy or of their potential of breast feeding. The form of the centres of a woman depends mainly on their support, which comes mainly from the ligaments of Cooper, and the subjacent chest on which they rest. The center is attached to the base of the thoracic wall by a thick Aponévrose on the pectoral muscles. On its higher face, a little support is given to him by the skin which continues on the upper part of the thorax. It is this support which determines the form of the centres. At a small number of women, the lactiferous frontal sinuses (or “bulbs”) in the centres are not aligned with the surrounding fabric mammaire, which causes a visible swelling outside the zone of the sines.
On the support of the centres, it is useful to establish a distinction between the centres which are in lower part of the chest, and those which are not it. Centres rounded and tops cover almost horizontally starting from the thoracic wall. At the beginning of puberty development, all the centres are thus made and such a form is frequent in the young women and the girls. The centres " carried hauts" or prominent are anchored on the basis of chest, and their weight is uniformly distributed on the zone being at the base of the dome mammaire or the conical form of the centres. The centres " carried bas" have part of their weight supported by the Thorax against which the lower part of the center rests on her surface, and by a deep anchoring of its base. The weight is thus distributed on a larger surface, which causes to reduce the tension. Among the men and women, the Rib cage goes down soft inclined, gradually towards the outside of the Entrée of the thorax (in top of the Sternum), until more the bases coasts which mark its lower limit, which allows the support of the centres.
Linen room and maintenance
See also: Bra
The Bra, part of female linen room is indissociable centres of the modern woman so that they do not subside. It is an object used to cover and prevent that the centres do not fall too low on bottom from the rib cage. The centres tend to subside with the age. Thus, with a firm maintenance of the centres throughout the life, they do not lengthen, this being a synonym of beauty and less embarrassment in the movements. Certain women of tribes African be who do not carry a maintenance of this type however hold in beauty the fact that the centres lengthen. The modern bra, replacing old (and choking) Corset is designed to be light, practical to put, even sportsman in his forms adapted.
As the bra is an undergarment worn by the woman, it is a common object but also of refined luxury (see Lingerie). The methods of manufacture (factory, final improvements with the hand) as well as matters entering its composition (Cotton, Lace, élasthanne, Lycra, Polyamide, Polyester, etc) are multiple.
ModificationsIn the field of the Plastic surgeon, the center can be the object of modifications wanted like the introduction of a Implant mammaire under the Pectoral.
PathologiesLike any body, the center can be affected pathologies:
Medical techniquesPalpation can be made by the Médecin or the patient itself. In position upright, the hand flat explores each quadrant in the search of a mass or a irregularity. Palpation ends in the search for ganglion S in the hollow axillaire.
The mammography is a radiological examination systematically to make starting from a certain age in order to detect the Cancer S of the center: the center is wedged in sandwich between a horizontal photographic plate and the tube transmitting X-rays.
Echography is a painless examination and without danger using a transmitting and receiving probe of Ultrason S. It makes it possible to supplement the mammography usefully.
Thermography is a painless examination and without danger, measuring the differences in local temperature of the center via an infra-red image. This examination is not practiced any more, because its results are neither rather reliable, nor sufficiently precis.
See also: Breast feeding
The center allows the breast feeding of the young children as of the birth.
See also: sexual Attraction
The centres, secondary Sexual character, constitute in the human society a female element of Séduction extremely used. Seen qualitatively by the target with a voluminal component, possibly dominant, the female chest gives an index of fruitfulness (depend on the rate on estrogen/progesterone) for the reproducer. If the full-breasteds are a favorable index, the small centres are it also with certain anatomical conditions. The use of this tool of Séduction is more or less easy to implement without enfreindre the rules of propriety, i.e. only by the development of their volume and their form. This situation stimulates a lucrative sector in the market of the Sous-vêtement aiming at providing bras developing the such Righting-centres for example, even in the market of the Vêtement grinding. Moreover, their anatomical situation and their statute of secondary sexual character, allow them, contrary to the female sex, to be shown partially and to thus undoubtedly strike the field of vision of congeneric required. There too, the industry of the undergarment benefits its, notably noticed with the firm Wonderbra and the mannequin Eva Herzigova. This stimulation is also required in the Concours of wet tee-shirts.
The potential of attraction of the Décolleté are managed per many women between a need for seduction and good social suitability. Beyond the interest for the personal seduction, the centres are used like attractile visual in innumerable publicities (perfumes, beauty products, dietetics, etc), and spectacles, or contest. This vision, to differing degree, is called into question by the majority of the schools Féministes which consider that it infériorise and makes perceive the woman mainly like object of convoitise/ou commercial target. Let us note that the use of the center as attractile visual is not a recent fact. As much in the sculpture that in the most ancient painting and mosaics, the centres since probably made it possible to the artists to collect the glance of each one so sometimes then bringing the observer towards another reading level.
ScandalsScandalous businesses for one or “publicity stunt” notorious for the others are from now on current in the televised retransmissions . Organized media businesses or not-desired awkwardnesses, these vidéos, images, are the subject of records on the Internet search engines. Let us quote:
- the Scandal of Nipplegate concerning Janet Jackson.
- the center revealed of Sophie Marceau to the Cannes festival 2005.
At the manFleshy part of the thorax, the centres are normally atrophied at the male individual, except hormonal modification: very frequent at the Bodybuilder S or by genetic inheritance. The erotic function of a male muscular chest or pectoral Muscles is present as well as a female chest.
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