A cation (of the Greek cata- : “in bottom” and ion : “which goes”) is a Ion which, having yielded one or more electron (S), carries one or more load (S) electric (S) positive (S). It thus is called because it is attracted, during an electrolysis , by the negative electrode, named Cathode, in the same way that the poles of opposite loads of the Aimant S attract each other.
Because of strong the Polarity of its Molecule, the Eau is excellent a Solvant Ion S. the only cation present in the Pure water is the ion Oxonium (H3O+), usually and improperly named Hydronium, formed by the Solvatation of the Proton (H+) generated during the Autoprotolyse. Principal the inorganic cations is the Calcium (Ca2+), the Magnésium (Mg2+), the Sodium (Na+), the Potassium (K+) and the Ammonium (NH4+).
According to the number of electric charges, one distinguishes the cations monovalent, divalent, trivalent, etc the monovalent cations are those of the alkaline metals (Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium…) ; the alkaline-earth metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium…) divalent Cations give; the metals of transition can give cations mono, di-, sorting, tétra-, pentavalent. For example, the Fer can lose two or three electron S (Fe2+ and Fe3+).
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