Castle of Hunaudaye
It is about a strong castle of pentagonal plan irregular, with 5 towers connected by continuous curtains, of type without keep, with vertical defense, with entry with bridge levis, and surrounded by ditches. Leant with the western curtains, a home, ruined, had a room with 18 m length monumental chimney; it preserves the vestiges of a winding staircase at returns. The vault occupies the upper floor of the south-eastern tower. The roofs, destroyed at the time of the Revolution, were not restored at the time of the successive restorations of the castle.
In 1220, Olivier Tournemine obtains from the duke of Brittany the authorization to build the first strong castle of Hunaudaye. Olivier Tournemine is resulting from a noble small family in the obscure beginnings. Between the English origins or auvergnates, the assumptions diverge. With the construction of the castle of Hunaudaye, the family starts a social rise which will carry out it in the highest levels of power. She will remain owner of the castle during three centuries.
The objectives with the construction of the castle is then to supervise the Arguenon, river located at two kilometers from there and marking the border between the Penthièvre (country of Lamballe) and the Poudouvre (country of Dinan) then in conflict. The castle is then built in a marshy basin which was occupied since the 4th century by a Gallo-Roman military camp. The castle of Hunaudaye would draw its name from the proximity of the current village of Midsummer's Day, which is much older than him, and named then the " city of Hunaudaye".
During the first times, the castle of Hunaudaye does not seem to have known attacks. It is only during the War of succession of Brittany (1341 - 1364) that it is attacked for the first time. This war opposes two large Breton lords who disputing the ducal crown: on a side, the army of Jean de Montfort, soon supported by the English, other, the Family of Penthièvre, allied with the Family of Blois, and soon supported by the French. At that time, the Brittany still constitutes an independent duchy, and which it will be officially attached to the Kingdom of France only in 1532. The conflict between Montfort and Penthièvre will be transformed into true civil war. Tournemine take the party of Penthièvre. Their castle is then attacked by the army of Montfort and the English. It does not resist the attack and is destroyed. Tournemine pay a heavy tribute with this war which devastated all Brittany. The family lost there not only her stronghold, but also three of her men.
Pierre Tournemine, the junior, is the only one to survive his/her father and his two brothers. It is him which starts the rebuilding, starting from 1367. Work is entrusted to the architect of Hersadaye and will be finished only a little more than one century later, in 1474, after the death of Gilles Tournemine. An overall architectural plan is conceived, it takes account of the military innovations and gives to the castle its current form: to the small western tower and the south-eastern tower is added three news towers (south-western, north-western, northern) of similar size are built, as well as new curtains. The apartment buildings formed three still locatable wings today. The castle would have had a private vault served by a chaplain without the sources announcing them appearing truly authentic.
The rebuilding is long, but successive work respects the plan envisaged. This rebuilding is made possible in flourishing Brittany at the 15th century and 16th century. The field of Hunaudaye is set up in Baronnie in 1487 in favor of François Tournemine, knight, lord of Hunaudaye, general lieutenant for the duke. In the duchy, Tournemine take importance. The family is part from now on of the entourage of the duke. Political, military or diplomatic missions follow one another for the men of the family. The wives are named lady's companions of the various duchesses. The grounds depending on the castle extend on more than 80 parishes. The castle is saved by the disorders of the League (1592 - 1598), the opposite camps having been appropriate of a neutrality of the castle.
At the end 16th century, however, the Tournemine family dies out in a posterity without boy. The various owners of Hunaudaye follow one another the liking of the heritages. These families continue a time the installation of the castle, the made modifications are especially made in a preoccupation of comfort and a decoration. The new staircase of pageantry is thus allotted to Sebastien de Rosmadec. The castle is forsaken then little by little, so that the staircase built by Rosmadec will constitute the only true modification made to the castle between the end of the 16th century and the French revolution. In 1783, the castle is sold to the marquis de Talhouët, future mayor of Rennes.
At the time of the Revolution, the castle is again destroyed in 1793. This year there, indeed, Chouans traverse the countries. Going up towards North, they have just passed the Loire and move towards Brittany. The administration of the district of Lamballe fears that Hunaudaye them serf of place of fold and decides the dismantling of the castle. Finally, a group of revolutionists of Lamballe intervenes more or less legitimately and sets fire to the castle. Furniture, the files, the roofs and the floors of wood disappear. The drawbridge and the curtains are cut down. Then begin a long period which will extend until the beginning from the 20th century, during which the castle is exploited like stone quarry.
The castle is classified under the Historic buildings in 1922. In 1930, the collapse of the Northern curtain and tower of the refrigerator pushes the State to repurchase the monument in order to conclude work of conservation. The first work is done in the urgency as of 1932, after the collapse of the tower of the vault. Collapsed masonries went up and the whole of the walls is treated by cement castings. The court is cleared and the consolidated black tower. After the war, work continues with the proping of the military tower in 1949, then between 1955 and 1962, the consolidation of masonries of the five turns. Whereas the consolidations continue without the emergency character which they cover at the time of the preceding decades, the State starts starting from 1968 the setting in safety of the site, following an accidental fall of a visitor.
It is as in these years as the ditches are cleared. The tower of the vault is protected from a reinforced concrete cover. Since 1977, the castle is managed, maintained and emphasized by association the castle of Hunaudaye. Some installations are then carried out to allow the opening of the site the public, like the medical ones or three rooms in the black tower. The drawbridge without its mechanism is reconstituted.
Since July 18th, 2005, a vast campaign of restoration and installation began, financed by the State, the European Union, the General advice of Coast-in Armor, the Community of communes and association. The idea of this work, designed to last three years, is not to rebuild the castle. The destruction related to the French Revolution forges from now on the identity of this castle and do not have to be unobtrusive. In any case, for lack of rather precise knowledge, one could not rebuild the castle accurately. Completed work, the public will have thus always the impression to visit a medieval ruin. The goal of work is in fact to allow a better reception of the public. New restored spaces will be gradually open: showrooms, workshops for children, reception and bookstore… The curtains and the covered ways will be also arranged.
Closed for work, the castle was reopened with the public on April 15th, 2007: the first visitors discovered the completely restored tower seigneuriale. The surprise was of size for those which remembered the tower in ruins. From now on glass, windows and floors make it possible to accommodate 3 showrooms and 1 room of workshops for children. The second section began since September 2006. Currently, the building site entered a spectacular phase with the rebuilding of the drawbridge. It will replace the old bridge of 1977. Contrary to the precedent, the mechanism with arrows making it possible to raise the apron of the bridge was reconstituted. It is in particular that steel plates come to ballast the counterweights to allow an easier swing.
Since reopening, one can thus discover the castle through guided visits, exposures, conferences and spectacles. The teaching service is also at the disposal of the teachers to prepare their school visits. One will be able to perhaps also cross the soufflou , nickname given to the phantom of Hunaudaye by people of the surroundings!
- the page of the castle of Hunaudaye on the site of Casteland
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