See also: Carouge (homonymy)
Carouge is a common Suisse of the Canton of Geneva.
GeographyIt is next to the town of Geneva from which it is separated by from it the river the Arve. It belongs to the Republic and Canton of Geneva since 1816. It is famous for its old Carouge , a district which keeps a certain charm and where the terraces of the bars are very run when the beautiful days return. The commune of Carouge is also called the " city sarde" because of its past.
Birth of CarougeIt is by the Traité of Turin, signed on June 3rd, 1754 between the République of Geneva and the Royaume of Sardinia, that the birth of Carouge materializes. This agreement puts an end to ceaseless quarrels between the Maison of Savoy and the city of Calvin about grounds, parcelled out a such mosaic, along the Arve, of which it is quite difficult to make there respect the legitimacy of the respective jurisdictions. After long negotiations, the two parts are directed towards an exchange of grounds. Geneva yields 6973 ground installations, pours 50.000 ecus with the Kingdom and obtains in exchange 5357 installations, which constitutes an agreement rather favorable to the house of Savoy. Indeed, if Carouge is not whereas a small formed hamlet of some houses and inns, it is nevertheless in an ideal situation, on the other side of the river, hardly with some encablures of the large city.
The development of Carouge
Benefitting from the resources which its powerful neighbor brings to him, Carouge develops quickly. In 1766, it counts already 36 establishments of Vin, flourishing industry, but also contrebandière, who is hardly weakened by royal the Gabelle S. It is however only towards 1770 that a true political project and economic is set up under the crook of Pierre-Claude of Fléchère, Count of Veyrier, which is the local representative of the Savoyard nobility. This man who had extremely well included/understood the rather exceptional géo-strategic situation of the territory, is not long in requesting Victor-Amédée III privileges allowing Carouge to develop, in particular by calling upon foreigners. In 1777, Carouge obtains two annual fairs and a weekly market. The number of inhabitants exceeds the thousand of hearts.
Carouge, capital of province
The borough of Carouge becomes by the Édit of May 2nd, 1780 the capital of the province of the same name which enters approximately: 37000 inhabitants. The borough progresses quickly to become a royal city and, on January 31st, 1786, it receives its blazon (a lion with the foot of a tree) to be set up in " Ville" by letters patent of the king. Its population exceeds the 3000 inhabitants.
Carouge and the concept of Tolerance
The singularity of Carouge resides primarily by the installation by the local magistrates of a liberal policy which is largely supported by the capacity inhabitant of Turin. Not only this last grants privileges particular to the city carougeoise - single in the kingdom - but accepts also the arrival from abroad, of number, whatever their origins or their religious membership, and this, in order to support the economic advancement of the province. Thus the Francs-maçons make their appearance with Carouge in 1777, followed Protestants in 1779 which obtain the civil tolerance and nun in 1783. Finally the Jewish , coming primarily from Alsace, also arrive in 1779. It is necessary to underline for this purpose the big role played by Pierre-Claude of Fléchère, like by the Intendant general Giovanni-Battista Foassa-Friot, which will have largely contributed to the installation of this policy, rather innovative for the time. The August 27th, 1787, Victor-Amédée III proclaims the Edit of Tolerance, making it possible in particular to the Jews to profit from the application of the common right and to enjoy a total freedom of the exercise of their worship, extremely rare case in the history of the Europe. The Freemasons will have to them Loge, the Protestants them Temple, and the Jews them Synagog, as well as a denominational cemetery located along the current street of the Sand Gunners. It should be noted that in 1789, Pierre-Claude of Fléchère, little before its death, suggests with the capacity inhabitant of Turin to accept the arrival with Carouge of the Musulmans and to authorize to them the creation of a Mosquée. This ultimate vision of the Count de Veyrier will never be born. Carouge, soon French, must give up the particular characteristics of a liberal policy which had made this city a " exception".
In 1789, the shivers of the French revolution are clearly felt. To prevent any agitation, the garrison of the city passes from 144 to 650 men. If this measurement reassures some time, the days of Carouge the " Sarde" from now on are counted. The October 2nd, 1792 the French troops, goes from there for their Campagne of Italy, penetrate without clashes in the province of Carouge and annex it to the Département of Mont Blanc having Chambéry for chief town, then with the new whole Département of Léman in 1798 whose Geneva, it also annexed, becomes the prefecture about it. Carouge will remain thus French until in September 1814.
After one rather mouventée period where Carouge becomes again Sardinian (peace treaty of the May 30th, 1814), then French (during the return of Napoleon), and again Sardinian (after the defeat of Waterloo), Carouge is offered to the Canton of Geneva by the treated of Turin of March 16th, 1816, like 31 other Savoyard communes and French. The canton had joined the Swiss Confédération at the time of the treaties of Paris and Vienna in 1815. This transfer is accompanied by a small zone free from Sardinian customs. One of the places of Carouge is called besides “place of Sardinia”.
The first Tramway (which one named then “American Railroad”) of Switzerland is set up on the line Carouge- New Place, which is today oldest section of Europe still in service. Thus, after Paris, Birkenhead (suburbs of Liverpool) and London, Carouge and Geneva have cars on rail, drawn by horses. Traction Hippomobile was then replaced by the vapor as of 1878 then electrified as of 1894. The line “12” is created in the Années 1900 and is international: it connects Saint-Julien-in-Genevese and Annemasse, two French cities, while crossing the Canton of Geneva. Since 1995, tram 13 also crosses the commune, and since 2007, the tram 14 connects Carouge to the district of Avanchets.
|Random links:||Sundial | Dam Devegeçidi | Démétrios de Pharos | Championship of Algeria of D2 football 2006-2007 | Hellraiser: the pact | Traiteur_A20|