Located on the Cérou and old the Trunk road 88.
The foundation of Carmaux, according to any probability, goes back to the 10th century. The core of the population was probably formed on left bank, with three principal districts: the old bridge and the old town hall, Rajol, and the suburb of the Tower with the mill of Cérou. Since 1229, the fortress of Carmaux is a military stronghold of the baronnie of Monestiès; it concerns the bishops of Albi. At that time, coal is not yet the main resource of the place: one weaves there especially the hemp, collected on banks of Cérou in what is called " lous cambous".
In the enumerations of the 16th century, one raises in particular Hebrard, with the title of lords of Carmoulx. The first blazon of Carmaux, composed of azure with three rocks, posed 2 and 1, indicates that the title is taken again then by the family of Ciron.
J. - B. of Ciron, adviser then president of the Parliament of Toulouse, from 1674 to 1724, thus carries the title of marquis de Carmaux and Saint-Beno4it cheese. However, in 1723, the marriage of one as of his/her daughters, with François-Paul of SOLAGES makes enter the ground of Carmaux, estimated then at 250.000 books, in the house of Solages. With the following generation, Antoine-Paulin de Solages is marquis de Carmaux. Its male descent will die out with its grandson. Among his children, it had had a girl, Pauline de Solages who had married in 1759 Jean-Antoine de Barrau, from where descent in the house of Barrau.
Under the first Empire, Carmaux is yet only one village, only important work being financed by the State.
1832 should be waited until, and the municipal mandate of Mr. Palies, so that a foreground of alignment of the city is adopted. May 7th, 1837, Mr. Carme, driver of navigation, a plan submits to the communal assembly. Here are the broad outlines.
District of the Carmaux old man: the width of the streets is increased to 6 meters. A foirail of octagonal form will communicate to the east with the place of the town hall by the opening of a street, and to the west with the Royal Road (trunk road 88); it is the current Dulac corner. The place of the town hall will have 46 meters 50 length out of 30 meters broad. The place of Gueyt will be a regular octagone of 34 meters width. District of the Tower: the width of the streets will be increased to 8 meters and the place co. Marie (of the Tower) will be a 52 meters length rectangle on 45 meters broad. District of the walk: creation of a road " nationale" of great communication connecting Gaillac to the Port of Besse (current Jean-Jaurès Avenue).
The plan is approved by the King on February 3rd, 1839. As of this date, Carmaux will not cease increasing and being modernized. This metamorphosis is explained especially by the extension of coal industry and the wish of the Company of the Mines to engage only people residing at less than 5 km of their work place.
Then it was the time of the great strikes, the time of the minors and the glassmakers, the time of Jean Jaurès.
It was also the history of its first magistrate, Jean-Baptiste Calvignac, minor and mayor, elected against the Marquis de Solages, owner of the Mines and its own owner, for whom it will have been necessary the rising of all the city in order to avoid the dismissal following his election…
Animations are numerous, in addition to the parish fair of the Saint-Privat and celebrates it minors of Holy-Bores: the city counts, in 1914, of multiple sports associations and musical. But if it is an event which marked Carmausins of the " Beautiful Epoque" , it is undoubtedly the aeronautical meeting of 1911: they could admire the aviator Sadi Lecointe and its flying machine… and especially to see them to be crushed twice!
The inter-war period is one transitional period for Carmaux: the city increases little but it is embellished. Two parks of approval, that of Pre-Large and that of Sérinié, are carried out respectively by the Company of the Mines and the municipality. New boulevards are traced and the Fairy Electricity arrives downtown. In 1923, then in 1937, Carmaux homage to its deputy Jean Jaurès returns, assassinated in 1914. A statutory whole of G. Pech is set up on its central place, then a bust of the large powerful orator, carried out by Ducuing, is inaugurated in the park of Sérinié.
In 1932, Carmausins can admire the fountain of the Dulac Corner and its mural surface of 200 m2; it carries the currency of " miscuit useful dulci" , i.e.: " it joint the useful one for the agréable". In 1933, Jules PENDARIES exposes to the Living room of the Art schools " Rest of Mineur" , whose modelling is exposed to the Pendariès room of the Arts center. The war memorial of the Great War is inaugurated in 1935; the work, a 25 meters height, dominates the Jean-Jaurès park.
About 1960, coal industry enters to France slow but irresistible recession. In Carmaux, all the winding shafts close successively: Grillatié, Sainte-Marie then Cagnac, and finally Tronquié. In 1983, Carmausins are seen constrained to use, for their heating, either coal gas but imported natural gas of Lacq (Yrénées-Atlantiques). These " years noires" are also marked by the plastic bomb attack of the statue of JAURES in 1981.
A project of extraction of coal with open sky is launched in 1975: it will be " large the découverte" operational in 1984, which will give again a renewal of hope to the field. However the city is conscious that its future lies from now on in the diversification of its activities, and either in the monoindustrie of coal.
In 1992, during the inauguration of the Arts center Jean-Baptiste Calvignac, the short speech of the President of the Republic, François Mitterrand, thus depicts these women and these men of Carmaux: " You are a symbol, I like continuity, you are continuity, I like the concrete ideal, you are incarnation of an ideal, fidelity with this ground, so that it produces, fidelity also with the change necessary… ".
Since the abandonment of the coal exploitation, Carmaux tries to diversify its fabrics industrial and accommodates in particular the École des Mines of Albi-Carmaux. The great discovery sees its impressive crater being decorated of a lake, synthetic tracks, etc and transforming it into " First European pole multiLoisirs" : Cape discovered.
With proximity, the Park of the Titans impresses us gigantism of these carcasses… Those of the machines which have it there a few years hardly dug this mine with open sky.
The visit cannot finish without the discovery of moving Musée by the Mine, built and told by former minors, for an unforgettable diving in the basements of the Earth and the History…
History never easy, social struggles, glassmakers and minors of funds (which had only the honor to carry the coffin of Jean Jaurès to the Pantheon), last glories… First socialist city of France, resistance and heroic release, triple-champion of France of Rugby to XV (which registered in 1951 its name on the Bouclier of Brennus)…
To accept and even anticipate the change, without anything to disavow of what they were, such is the challenge of these men and women of Carmaux.
Places and monuments
the mine with open sky
- Cape discovered
Personalities related to the commune
- Jean Jaurès: French Politician,
- Theodore Fastré: mining engineer and first Mayor,
- Jean Baptist Calvignac: old Mayor
- Jean-Pierre Romeu: French player of Rugby to XV,
- Pierre Soubrié: Trade unionist and French player of Rugby,
- Jack Cantoni: French player of Rugby to XV,
- Jean-Marc Aué: French player of Rugby to XV,
- Marc Andrieu: French player of Rugby to XV,
- Paul Rivenc: Linguist French
- Elie Astruc: Contractor.
- Common of the Tarn
- Official site of the Town of Carmaux
- Carmaux on the site of the national geographical Institute
- Carmaux on the site of INSEE
- Carmaux on the site of Quid
- Localization of Carmaux on a chart of France and communes bordering
- Plane on Carmaux on Mapquest
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