See also: the Caribbean
The Caribbean Sea , or Caribbean Sea , is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located at the east of the Central America and at the south-east of the Gulf of Mexico. It extends on approximately 2 415 km of are in west and on average twice less north in the south and cover a surface of 2 640 000 km ².
The name of this sea finds its origin in that of the Caribbean Peuple, which lived this area until the arrival of the Spaniards at the 15th century.
Its definition is vast because it includes the Gulf of Mexico, the sections of the Atlantic Ocean which include/understand the the Bahamas and territorial water of the Guyana, of the Surinam and the Guyana. This definition is given by the Convention for the Protection and the Development of the Maritime environment of the area of Large Caribbean the , said Convention of Carthagène , only obligatory regional environmental treaty, adopted with Carthagène (Colombia) the March 24th 1983 and coming into effect the October 11th 1986. This Convention currently counts 21 contracting States out of the 28 included/understood in the area, and its protocols constitute a legal engagement for these countries, in order to protect, develop and manage common water, in an individual or joint way.
The principal countries or islands which border the Caribbean Sea are:
- the Mexico, the Honduras, the Nicaragua and the Costa Rica in the west;
- the Panama, the Colombia and the Venezuela in the south;
- the Lesser Antilles (Grenade, Martinique, Guadeloupe, etc) in the east;
- the Greater Antilles (Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Jamaica and Cuba) in north.
This sea communicates to the North-West with the Gulf of Mexico by the Canal of Yucatán, and with the Atlantic Ocean through the Archipel of small the the Antilles. It artificially communicates also with the Pacific Ocean by the Canal of Panamá. The passage of the Wind - name given to the zone located between Cuba and Haiti - is an important sea route between the the United States and the Canal of Panamá.
The populations of the Caribbean maintain the privileged relations with the Caribbean Sea, which constitutes their common heritage, and share an private interest see it declared Special Zone in the context of the Développement of durable Tourism of the United Nations (UNO).
In order to prevent the consequences devastators on the coastal and marine environment of a possible accident or terrorist act implying a loading of nuclear matters, the Member States of the Association of the States of Caribbean (AEC), was always opposed in a vehement way in the passing of loadings of nuclear waste by the road Panama Canal - Caribbean Sea.
These loadings do not represent the only threat which could affect the Caribbean Sea, one of the principal inland waterways of the world. It is crossed each year by approximately 63 000 boats, which generate close to 82 000 tons of refuse. Moreover, approximately 1500 fishing vessels circulate in the area. The rejections of the populations on the dry land, an intensive tourist development and important oil loadings also constitute risks for the environment.
The December 12th 2001, the Heads of State and/or government of the countries of the AEC, joined together on the island of Margarita (Venezuela), adopted the Déclaration of Margarita , “recognizing the Caribbean Sea like common inheritance of the area, and a priceless credit”, with an aim “of consolidating a clean identity caribéenne”. They were committed “converting the area of Large Caribbean into zone of co-operation ”, which “will consist first of all of joint actions in the fields established like priorities by the AEC, namely the trade, durable tourism, transport and the natural disasters”.
Text of the Declaration of Margarita
List of the seas and oceans
- the Antilles
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