See also: Capitole (homonymy)
The Capitole ( Capitolinus Mons , today: Campidoglio ) is one of the Seven hills of Rome. It is the religious center and of being able of the city. By extension each Roman city was to have its Capitole.
Capitole of Rome
Capitole is smallest of the Seven hills of Rome, with a length of approximately 460 meters for an average width of 180 meters, and being between the Forum Romanum and the Champ de Mars. The hill was surrounded by stiff cliffs on all sides except in south-east, where it was accessible from the valley of Forum Romanum. It is the legendary site of the breast feeding of the twins Romulus and Remus by a she-wolf.
Capitole was the natural fortress of Rome. Its strategic position in the middle of the ways of the terrestrial and river communications, dominating on a side the river the Tiber and other side the Valley of the Forum ( Velia , made it possible to the Romans to control the crossing and the increase of the river.
It is in fact made up of two hills connected between them by a depression:
- In north, the Hill of Arx , strengthened right from the start Rome and on which was the Citadelle, 39 meters height.
- In the south, the Capitolium (Capitole itself), where was a religious complex. Its name would come from discovered from a human cranium at its top ( caput ), 38 meters height.
- Between the two, a depression: the intermontum (" the between-mounts "), also called Asylum (site of current the place of Capitole ), 30 meters height. Since the Forum, the rise of Capitole rises.
It is also the religious center of old Rome with the temple devoted to Jupiter, Junon and Minerve. It is also the place of Rome Républicaine and imperial where seat the power which directs the Empire. In the zone of the temple rose many small temples, shelters, gantries and some triumphal arches among which that of Scipion the African, decorated with seven gilded bronze statues. There were also very many statues and busts of emperors and generals, which one is unaware of still today the exact positions for the majority. Under Auguste, there was so much, that the emperor made some transfer a great number in the new district from the Champ de Mars.
Side of the the Tiber is also famous the Roche Tarpéienne, the top of which were precipitated, under the ancient Rome, traitors with the fatherland. It is also the religious center of old Rome, with the Temple of Jupiter Capitolin devoted to Jupiter, Junon and Minerve.
History of Capitole of the ancient Rome
The Mur of Servius Tullius was increased to include the whole hill.
The primitive temple, Temple of Jupiter Capitolin would have been built by Tarquin Old the and is finished by Tarquin Superb the, but according to Tite-Live it was devoted only in 509 av. J. - C. at the time of the first year of the Roman République.
In 390 av. J. - C., during an invasion of the Gallic, the cry of the Geese of Capitole, devoted to Junon, according to the legend , would have given alarm to the garrison, thus saving the majestic city of the invasion. The true version of this glorious made allotted to the birds is more prosaic. Gallic scouts being hoisted on the bastion launched out bread to the Chien S to prevent them from barking. The Goose S, famished like all the others besieged, disputairent with the recipients this pitance unhoped-for. The din which followed informs the Romans.
In 244 av. J. - C., construction of the Temple of Junon Moneta which was at the origin of the Roman Monnaie.
In 83 av. J. - C., rebuilding of the Temple of Jupiter on order of the dictator Sylla, by.
In 26 av. J. - C., rebuilding of the Temple of Jupiter by Auguste.
Jules César would have made remove 3.000 visitors' books to resell them, but that it replaced by gilded copper.
In 75 a. J. - C., rebuilding of the Temple of Jupiter by Vespasien.
In 83 a. J. - C., rebuilding of the Temple of Jupiter by Domitien. It was completely covered with Marbre, which henceforth will save it later fires.
History of Capitole of modern Rome
Capitole of today was drawn from the ruins thanks to the genius of Michel-Angel and its successors. One can find there, the Musée of Capitole, the oldest museum of the world, created in 1471 by the pope Sixte IV, in order to return to the Romain people some exceptional bronze statues, like the " Louve" , the " Camille" , the " Gunner of épine" and the " head of Domitien" today recognized like that of Constancy II.
On the two sides at the top of the approach ramp the groups of Dioscures of late imperial time were placed.
Nowadays, Capitole accommodates the Musées capitolins. The Palate of the Senator shelters, as for him, the seat of the Town hall of Rome.
Old monuments of Capitole of Rome
It is built at the request of Sylla into 78 before JC, by Q. Lutatius Catulus. It is the only component of the Capitole antique of which there remain significant elements today. It gathered the files of the State Romain. The old laws of Rome Antique were engraved there on bronze table.
The Jupiter Capitolin Temple
It is built on the initiative of King Tarquin the Old one to replace older temples built by Sabins. It is finished at the end of the Life before JC by Tarquin the Superb one then dedicated into 509 before JC, the first year of the Republic. This temple was largest of Rome Républicaine, it symbolized the power of the city and was the religious center.
The Temple of Junon
This temple is built by L. Camille into 343 before JC on the second height of Capitole (Arx). It was dedicated to Junon Moneta. It practically entirely disappeared.
Posterior capitoles at the time Roman
Capitoles and Statue of Marc Aurelio IPIX Panorama
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