Cape of La Hague
Peninsula on a Peninsula, to the north-western point of the Cotentin, the course of La Hague offers wild landscapes of any beauty and kept, essentially, its villages and its traditional habitat. The principal economic activity comes from the plant reprocessing of nuclear waste, which is source of controversies and often named “ La Hague simply”.
GeographyThe Doyenné of La Hague was delimited in the south by the river Diélette (which is thrown close to the Cape of Flamanville, in the east the Divette river (which is thrown in the sea with Cherbourg-Octeville) and in the west and north by the sea of the Manche. Thus, in addition to the 20 parishes of current the Canton of Beaumont-La Hague, it also included/understood Siouville-La Hague, Héauville, Teurthéville-La Hague, Sideville, Nouainville, Querqueville, the parishes of Équeurdreville and Hainneville, and Octeville. Today, only the the Community of communes of La Hague, single intercommunality has to be entirely on this territory, communicates on this name.
It is thus about a small peninsula to the north-western angle of the Péninsule of Cotentin and department of the Manche, with two remarkable courses:
- the Nose of Jobourg, with the rocks dating from the Precambrian (two billion years).
La Hague presents a varied littoral: abrupt cliffs (between Urville-Nacqueville and Omonville-la-Rogue, and between Auderville and Vauville), with the foot of which is a succession of bays, great beaches (Urville-Nacqueville and with Vauville), small islands and platiers rock (Cape of La Hague, points of Jardeheu, Saint-Germain-of-Are worth…), dune solid masses (Biville), strikes of rollers (Saint Martin's day Handle), marshes back-littorals (Pond of Vauville) and small valleys wooded (Hubiland, Sabine…). The east coast also decorated of small ports (Goury, Houguet, Port Root, Port of Hâble…) and of dampings.
The proximity of the sea and the influence of the Gulf Stream make that the area generally does not know freezing. It is thus an important place for the migratory birds in winter (pond of Vauville), the woodcocks. The botanical garden of Vauville exposes many plants of the southern hemisphere.
It is separated by the Raz Blanchard from the Channel Islands.
The littoral haguais is protected with the title from the law of May 2nd, 1930 relating to protection from the monuments and natural sites, since the valley of Hubiland (Urville-Nacqueville) to the dunes of Biville, except for the handle of the Winches, where are located the installations of reprocessing the Plant of La Hague. It belongs to the operation Grand national site, the Conservatoire of the littoral engaged an intense policy of acquisition (today 50% of the coasts belong to him). The east coast skirted by the coastguard path (GR. 223).
Fauna and floraThe peninsula haguaise is mainly a country of Lande S (and Bocage inside the grounds), made of ferns, Bruyère S, Genêt S, gorses (of Gall and of Europe)… On the coast, one finds in the hedges Aubépine S, Chêne S, Frêne S, Sycomore S, Sureau X. There exists also a concentration of Orme S in the hedges of the northern coast, unfortunately very reached by the Graphiose.
The cliffs are covered with Lichen orange S, blacks and, of Salicorne S, prostrate asparaguses, statices of the west and carrots with gum. The cornices accommodate close-cropped lawn, armeries and maritime Silène S. With the accesses of the beaches is present the marine Chou, object of a protection, the Veronique out of ear, the Œillet of France.
In the gardens protected from the marine winds by high walls, one traditionally finds many hydrangeas, of the camellias, and some palm trees.
La Hague has several ornithological reserves (Nose of Jobourg, the Grassy ones…), where the Goéland S are côtoient (silver plated and marine), the gannet, the large corbels, the fulmars boréals, the tridactyl Mouette S, the Cormoran S, the foulques ones. The pond of Vauville accommodates more than 140 species of birds: migrating (like the Fuligule tufted duck or the Pipit farlouse), ducks (mallards, teals…), gravelots, or will hérons. Also nest in La Hague some raptors like the Busard of the reeds and the Faucon kestrel.
In addition to the birds, one also finds batrachians (toads obstetricians, green tree frogs) and small reptiles (green lizards, slow worms…). Large dolphins and Marsouin S are present at the broad one. The military tunnels of the Manor house-Vendon shelters colonies of Chauves-souris.
Since a score of years, the cliffs of Jobourg shelter a Harde wild goat's milk cheeses. Traditionally, each farm had some goats in order to clean moors and hedges. The use losing itself with mechanization, these animals were left little by little with the wild life, forming a herd which surveys the way of the customs officers. They allow the maintenance necessary of the moor and, from now on are for this reason protected by the Academy from the Littoral.
Concerning the breeding, the omnipresent cows as in all Normandy, divide the meadows with the sheep roussins (which are the subject of an annual fair with Jobourg), and some asses of Cotentin and Norman asses.
Prehistory and etymologyThe site Acheuléen of the Rock Gélétan (Saint-Germain-of-Be worth) was occupied by the preones towards 300.000 front JC. It acts, with the site of Mondrée with Fermanville, of the more viel habitat in Normandy. A second wave of inhabitants left several sites towards 100.000 front JC.
The prehistoric remarkable monument of the La Hague-Dick (1000 av JC) which bars La Hague of west in east would give the etymology of the word La Hague. Indeed into proto-Germanic *khag- means enclosed, and gave in French the Hague, but before in Vieux norrois hagi, in Francique haga or hagja (hedge or wooded height), in Dutch haag, as for the town of $the Hague, called in English The La Hague . The name can thus be allotted as well to the Viking S as with the Saxons. It is now proven that La Hague-Dick was used to protect the inhabitants from the point against the attacks coming from the continent. La Hague-Dick (E) separates the “point” from the remainder of La Hague. It was re-used at various times as defense, to the Vikings. Then its watershed was used as way. The best place to see the remainders of them is on the road of Diguleville with Beaumont.
Under the Old Mode, the Doyenné of La Hague included/understood all the communes between the rivers Divette (sliding ring with Cherbourg) and Dielette. The name of these communes was generally followed word La Hague, or mention " in La Hague " in the instruments, and this since the years 1300.
Maritime influence and territorial insulationIn 56 before JC, the legions Roman overcame the local tribe of the Unelles, based in Coriallo (which is perhaps only another name given to the point).
Traces of Roman camp (in Jobourg) and villas Gallo-Roman were identified. Many place names attest of a strong colonization… is by the Viking S, or by the Saxons. Because of the number of close roots in the Scandinavian languages and saxonnes, it is difficult to separate them. There is one century the " explanation; any Viking" prevailed and the Saxon contribution was ignored. In the 2 cases one with the impression that all the new contributions came from the sea and not from the " continent".
The area concerned évêché Coutances, but the evangelists of La Hague came from Ireland or England. Thus Holy Germain known as " Scot" or " with the rouelle" (425? - 480?) or the son of a German mercenary in the armies of British Isles was either Irish prince. The round slice would be in fact a Coracle, small round boat still existing in Ireland. Saint Germain left then towards the east and its efforts of conversion especially turned to communities saxonnes which were arianists. One can thus think that it unloaded in La Hague because of the presence of such a community. Saint Clair (845-884) settled in Nacqueville while coming from England. One of the characteristics of the area is that the oldest churches were at the edge even of the sea (with Saint-Germain-of-Be worth, Dielette, Carteret). One with the impression that Coutances ignored the area and the files évêché are unaware of Saint Germain superbly. The last evangelist of the area is the happy Thomas Hélye, deceased with Vauville at the 13th century.
The insular character of La Hague, the difficulty to go there made that the area had the bad reputation of a country of defrauders under the Old Mode. It should be said that the proximity of the Channel Islands facilitated the smuggling, which was of two types: that of the textile, with the 17th century, and that of the tobacco at the 19th century. The first was the fact of some noble, of which most famous is probably the Chevalier of Rantôt. They were opposed to the monopoly manufactures Normans imposed by Colbert. The smuggling of tobacco was as for it the object of several organized bands, carried out as much by farmers as of the fishermen. One thus finds in the walls of La Hague of the masks with tobacco, servants (low-size, near the houses, collecting the tobacco for a family consumption) and large hiding places, dissimulating the bundles of tobacco braided several kilos. But the strong presence of the customs officers and the reinforcement of the incurred sorrows put an end little by little to the fraud at the beginning of the 20th century, whose remain today the way of the customs officers along the coast (GR. 223).
Bad reputation of Haguais in fact also of the Naufrageur S, without no research being really conclusive. On the other hand, the poor population was accustomed to “going to gravage”, i.e. to attend the beaches after the grosses tempètes, to collect the goods failed or last over edge, and recovering the wood of the failed boats. Also reads one in a report/ratio of the constabulary of Valognes in 1748: “ It is a country of moors and rocks, where one practiced quantity of caves being used as retirements to the robbers, to assassins and to defrauders, who wait with insurance and peace the favorable moment to pass to the close Islands. Most main road of this canton is of two or three feet, on the two sides of which chasms are. The inhabitants are gueux, bad, distinguished defrauders, and live only of armed robberies. There are parishes where the clerks with the assistances and the employees in the farms were a considerable time without daring there to go; they do not even go there yet readily. ”
During the German Occupation, La Hague was an area closed, where only the inhabitants could reach, with one leave-to pass particular. The territory of Auderville and of Saint-Germain-of-Be worth particularly was supervised, because of their strategic position vis-a-vis in England and of the important military parkings. The road connecting the two communes was thus entirely prohibited to the civilians, while a curfew as from 8 p.m. covered all the canton, with obligation to hide by curtains any interior light which could have helped allied aviation. In addition to many the Casemate S built throughout the coast to prevent an unloading, an imposing battery was installed with the Vendon Manor house to take part in the defense of the fortress of Cherbourg, another at the village of $the Hague with Auderville facing that of Aurigny where four were Concentration camps.
May 27th, 1944, La Hague undergoes heavy bombardments meurtiers. After the catch of Cherbourg, on June 26th, the American troops take the directtion of the course. Vauville is cut into two during 10 days, until June 29th. Gréville, Beaumont-La Hague and Jobourg are released in the day of June 30th. The guns of US Army then give an opinion with Jobourg to ram the installations of Auderville, of which the radar. Auderville, then saint-Germain and Digulleville are then released the following morning. Nearly one year after, the engagements are not finished for as much since Auderville essuit on April 11th, 1945 a rain of drawn German shells since Aurigny, which capitulated after May 16th.
Economic development by the nuclear powerDuring centuries, the life in La Hague enormously did not vary. The principal resource is agriculture (breeding and pluriculture), allowing a relative autarky. The industrialization of the techniques has little catch on its small pieces difficult to work, with the hands many small farmers. Fishing is often a resource complementary to the farmers (one speaks about the farmer-fishermen or crateurs ), seldom a trade with whole share, except in Omonville-la-Rogue, Goury and Diélette. Isolated, the peninsula a long time remained far away from tourism, setting with share the seaside resort of Urville-La Hague at the beginning of the 20th century, destroyed during the bombardments of 1944.
The navy was often the only possibility of escaping the agricultural destiny, because of proximity of the military port of Cherbourg and its arsenal. But years 1960 saw the establishment of reprocessing the Plant of La Hague which upset the aspect of the central plate. This installation makes come from the personnel external with the area, and brings new resources that agriculture could not have gotten.
Indeed, one sees in 1960 some engineers inspecting the moors of Jobourg and Omonville-the-Small, according to them for the possible establishment of a factory of plastic, or pans. The decision to build the atomic power plant of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique on the heights of La Hague is then made, without the least information of the town councilors, leaving the local populations, if not in ignorance, at least in the blur, that the classification " secrecy défense" installation accentuates.
Two technical reasons are advanced for this choice: an old geological base (going until the Precambrian ) and stable, therefore with the shelter of the earthquakes, and the presence of currents marine and strong winds, favourable with the evacuation and the dispersion of the effluents. One can also think that the weak density of population, the offset situation and the insulation of this peninsula as many appeared assets for its acceptance and in the event of Nuclear accident slackening radioactive materials .
In 1962, the ECA starts to buy at ransom price grounds of moors, sometimes plowed at the time of the sale to draw a better price from them. The 190 hectares are acquired without any expropriation, in spite of 150 owners, so much these large sums made it possible some to modernize their exploitations, to even reconvert itself. Several of these owners negotiated in addition to the value of the pieces, their entry as paid factory or that of a son.
In parallel of the first work, the ECA to be accepted and reassure, develops a campaign of lobbying, near the elected officials and of the religious elites. Thus the notable ones of the canton could visit in large pumps the sites of Marcoule and Saclay. Pride to accommodate a state-of-the-art technology, difficulties of the agricultural medium, and the dismissal into 1962 of the last minors to the closing of the iron mine of Flamanville - Dielette finish convincing the population. Thus in 1966, the first irradiated fuel castles arrive without the least dispute of the Nuclear plant of Chinon.
In 1969, Infratome seeks at the request of the ECA a place for the hiding of waste slightly radioactive. The site of La Hague seems perfect. But no commune wants to become a discharge. However, the mayor of Digulleville agrees to accommodate what will be the Center of storage of the English Channel in edge of the reprocessing plant. Passed under the bosom of the ANDRA in 1991, it received its last parcel in 1994, and is since in phase of monitoring, for 3 centuries.
June 1st, 1976, the atomic power plant of the ECA becomes reprocessing plant of the COGEMA. The activity becomes civil, the secrecy defense rises a little, and especially, the professional tax and the local taxes are exigible. Vis-a-vis this financial manna without precedent, which should have primarily benefitted the communes from Jobourg and Omonville-the-Small, and with the equipment which it is necessary to install for the reception of the new population, the elected officials of the canton decided the constitution of a district, which is born in 1977.
The movements ecologists are not made hear at the time. The first mobilizations answer the project to establish a nuclear power station with Flamanville. The site is occupied several days at the end of the years 1970. The demonstrations against nuclear transport towards Cogema develop with the beginning of the year 1980. The disengagement of the soldiers unties some languages, and CFDT causes a mini-scandal by producing a critical film dealing with work in confined surroundings.
The opening of the factory involves the arrival of new populations. At the same time as the enlarging of factory (UP3), it is thus decided to launch the " large chantier" , to build residences, schools and infrastructures. Whereas the canton aged and lived of a small autarkical agriculture, the population of La Hague increases in a few years, is renovated, diversifies. Certain villages double their number of inhabitants by accommodating cities, like Coriallo with Beaumont-La Hague, or that of the Trees with Omonville-la-Rogue. Auderville will be distinguished in 1984 from the national price from the habitat for good management from the arrival from these horsains . But generally, they are in periphery of the boroughs, which did not facilitate mixing. However, this surge of a many and atypical population (many frameworks, chemists or scientists arrive, in an area primarily made up of farmers, and some workmen, soldiers and small notable local) was digested without clash and Acculturation.
At the time of the construction of the factory of reprocessing, important parts of the coast were the subject of classifications prohibiting or reducing the possibilities of construction. Around the factory, the coastal fringes thus kept a traditional aspect.
Today, the debate on the advantages and the dangers of this factory are closely related to the Débat on nuclear energy. The security measures in force on the factory are defended by the " pro" , while " anti" recall the many accidents of its counterpart English of Sellafield, and the negative impact in term of image for the area and its productions resulting from agriculture and fishing. The local population is divided between the fear of an invisible pollution, and the recognition towards an industry which transformed the local economy and held in life a promised point with the turning into a desert.
The search for another imageAfter having accommodated like a relief the factory, the town councilors little by little became aware of the heavy counterpart for the image of the area. The plutonium factory, then the atomic power plant (indicated sometimes inhabitants like " là-haut") became the factory of Jobourg, before the Cogéma does not name it officially the “Factory of La Hague” and “Cogéma - La Hague”.
The elected officials initially sought to protect nature from the peninsula, by classifying important parts of the coast, prohibiting or reducing the possibilities of construction. Hitherto, insulation and a relative poverty had been worth with the area to remain with the variation of mixings of population. After a first attempt with the Nose of Jobourg in 1979, the littoral of La Hague is retained in 1991 by the Department of the Environment for the operation Grand national site. La Hague could preserve intact its landscapes with its dry stone low walls delimiting the pieces since the Revolution, and its traditional habitat, hones some with covers in roofing stone S cemented of blue schist, gathered in hamlets blottis with the liking of the reliefs to protect itself from the marine winds. Thus, today, the coastal fringes, strewn with some remainders of blockhouse of the Atlantic Wall, kept a traditional aspect, and about half of the coast haguaise belongs to the Conservatoire of the littoral.
For a few years, Haguais have sought to increase the tourist attraction of the peninsula, while keeping its wild character. They created equipment the such observatory Planétarium Ludiver and the arts center of Tourp, and project the installation of a regional center of the sports related to the wind with the Maneyrol Camp of Vauville and of a horse stage. They communicate around the assets of the area to prove that La Hague is more than the factory which is spread out over 2% of the territory and only 4% of its population employ.
Tourism is today the third provider of employment after industry and the territorial public function and tends to becoming one of the pillars major of the local economy. To accompany this change by the resources, the Tourist office of La Hague saw its legal status passing from association to EPIC and just since 2007 the canton of the Piles. This new territorial definition thus joins again advantage with the geographical and cultural coherence of ancestral La Hague; that of the Doyenne pear of La Hague. They is thus as much these villages remained authentic in their preserved natural site that it is necessary to admire which the few large houses which are the castles of Nacqueville and Vauville, the Manoir S of Hard-ECU and Tourp, and other large farms. One can visit the museum-houses of village of Jean-François Millet and Jacques Prévert. Recent constructions on the peaks, with the access of the villages old or close to the sea threaten the harmony of the landscape of the peninsula which sang in haguais, alternative of the Cotentinais, the poet Côtis-Capel, born with Urville.
The Community of communes of La Hague
See also: the Community of communes of La Hague
The old District of La Hague, which was made up in the years 1970, manages the local taxes paid by the factory and the companies soustraitantes.
It gathers the 19 communes of the canton of Beaumont-La Hague and exerts many competences as regards economic development and territorial, of cultural activity(AP), and management of the services in collective matter (water, telecommunications, waste…).
La Hague with the cinemaThe wild landscapes of La Hague are accommodated turnings of several films, among which:
- the Lady of Monsoreau , Rene Somptier (1920)
- a life , of Alexandre Astruc
- the Two English ones and the continent , of François Truffaut (1971)
- Tess , of Roman Polanski (1979)
- the Star of North , of Pierre Granier-Removes iron (1982)
- the green Ray , of Eric Rohmer (1986)
- the migrating People , of Jacques Perrin (2001) (Pond of Vauville)
- Paul in his life , of Remi Mauger (2004)
- the Block box , of Richard Berry (2005)
- the Passenger of the summer , of Florence Moncorgé-Gabin (2005)
- Wind bad , of Stephan Allagnon (2007)
|Random links:||Boreal whale | Samarkand (province) | Turn Pooch (Bristol-board) | Castle of Beauregard (Charente) | County of Swain | 5_AVANT_JÉSUS_CHRIST|