Canton of Neuchâtel
See also: Neuchâtel (homonymy)
HistoryThe men populated the area since highest antiquity already, but, striking fact, between -3800 and -3500 the grounds neuchâteloises are the origin of the Civilization of Cortaillod whose men started to build villages, to cultivate cereals and to work potteries. The exceptional archaeological discoveries made at the time of the Correction of water of the Jura (1868 - 1878) on the site of Tène (commune of Sailor-Epagnier) gave to the second age iron the name of Tène (of -500 with -50). Witness who the place was to be an important toll on the road between the the Rhone and the the Rhine.
Until the year millet, one has little material concerning the area in particular. It is known that in 998 the monks of Cluny found the Abbaye of Bevaix. These years see also the creation of the town of Neuchâtel. In 1011, first written appearance of the name of Neuchâtel in a deed of gift of Rodolphe III of Burgundy to its Irmengarde wife. The cantonal territory found Vassal the Burgundian ones, then also Combourgeois with the Germanic cantons or under the cut of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire.
As of 1531, Guillaume Farel distilled the reform in the canton. With the revocation of the edict of Nantes, Neuchâtel lives to flow number of Huguenot S. In addition the top of the canton started to become populated. Reigning of the time, the Orleans-Longueville, in particular Henri II, paid much attention to this corner of country. At the time of the death in 1707 of Marie de Nemours, Neuchâtelois were chosen like Suzerain the King de Prusse, the geographical distance enabled them to be quieter… In 1806, Napoleon, after having obtained Neuchâtel by an exchange with the king of Prussia, gives the principality to the marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier. In 1814, the king of Prussia takes again officially possession of the principality. Neuchâtel is received in the Swiss Confédération, with full equality of rights.
During one century the future canton developed economically, with the rise of the Horlogerie and the creation of many textile manufactures (Indian S). The Typographical Société Neuchâteloise during this period published of many books prohibited in France.
The principality of Neuchâtel adheres to the federal Pacte in 1815 and the final act of the Congrès of Vienna recognizes with king de Prusse the quality of prince de Neuchâtel, and in Neuchâtel, the statute of Swiss canton. But it is only with the revolution of March 1st 1848 that the canton is integrated fully into modern Switzerland and breaks the bonds with the Prussian Monarchie. On this date the canton becomes République. The Republic is proclaimed the March 2nd. In spite of the episode of the Business of Neuchâtel in 1856, the history neuchâteloise merges then with that of Switzerland.
GeographyThe territory neuchâtelois is rather clearly divided into two. There is the Top , a high plateau with approximately 1000 meters of altitude where the two clock making cities of Locle and La Chaux-de-Fonds are next to the French border . And the Bottom which extends on most of the northern Littoral of the Neuchâtel Lake to the chief town and then until the limit of the Lac of Bienne. Between the two, the tunnel of the the Sight-of-Alps brings closer these two populations since 1994 while passing in the middle of the solid mass of the the Jura. Two small valleys hesitate between the membership of the Haut or the Bas , the Valley-with-Ruz and the Valley-of-Through. The culminating point of the canton is on the south-western edge of the Chasseral to 1552 Mr.
DistrictsThe canton is divided into six districts which form the four areas of the canton:
- District of Neuchâtel, Area the Littoral
- District of Boudry, Area the Littoral
- District of Valley-of-Ruz, Area Valley-with-Ruz
- District of Valley-of-Through, Area Valley-of-Through
- District of the Chaux-de-Fonds, Area Mountains Neuchâteloises
- District of Locle, Area Mountains Neuchâteloises
CommunesThe canton counts three cities statistically:
- La Chaux-de-Fonds, 37.287 inhabitants (2004)
- Neuchâtel, 31.872 inhabitants (2004)
- Locle, 10.351 inhabitants (2004)
Soft corn and White Partridge two specialities of the vineyard neuchâtelois.
- Official site of the canton of Neuchâtel
- Charts of the canton
- Network of the Jurassic libraries neuchâteloises and its catalog
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