Canton of Geneva
HistoryThe oldest vestiges attesting the presence of the man in the Genevese basin are gone back to approximately 11000 front J. - C. It acts of the shelters under-blocks of Veyrier (with the foot of the Salève). These temporary campings are occupied by Chasse the USSR of Renne S pertaining to the culture magdalénienne. The first traces of human occupation of the site of Geneva go back to 5000 av. J. - C. approximately. They are discovered on banks of the Lac Léman and in a site of habitat found under the temple of Saint-Gervais. The hill of the old woman-city is inhabited only in 1000 av. J. - C.
Towards 300 av. J. - C., the Celtic tribe of the Allobroges occupies a vast territory which extends from Vienna (Isere) in Geneva (limited to left bank of the the Rhone and upstream of Lyon). In 124 av. J. - C., Allobroges are subjected to Rome and integrates the Gaulle Narbonnese. In 58 av. J. - C., Jules César defends Genova (Geneva) against an incursion of the Helvètes while making destroy the bridge on the Rhone.
Towards 400, Geneva is set up in évêché. In 443, a Germanic tribe, the Burgondes, is fixed in the area. In 535, this one is occupied by the Francs: Geneva is incorporated in monarchy mérovingienne, then with the Carolingian Empire . The disintegration of this last, at the 9th century, sees being born the second Royaume from Burgundy, to which Geneva belongs. In 1032, this State passes to the Germanic emperors.
In right, Geneva depends from now on Empire. In fact, since the 11th century and until the Reform of 1535, it is controlled by its bishops become lords of the city. During the the Middle Ages, Geneva remains a secondary locality until its fairs, which reach their greater rise at the 15th century, give him, for the first time, one will have international.
However, its independence is threatened by the States of Savoy, whose princes will make an effort, of the 13th century at the 17th century, with the support of the Mammelus to seize the city, without reaching that point. At the time of the most serious danger, in the first third of the 16th century, the support of the Eidguenots , in favor of the Swiss Cantons of Freiburg and Bern preserves the autonomy of the city.
The Reform triumphs in 1535. Politically, the city is consequently a République. Jean Calvin settles in 1536 there but is driven out by it in 1538 because of its intolerance, then is recalled in 1541. It will remain there until its death in 1564. As of 1550, a crowd of Protestant, in particular French and Italy NS persecuted in their country, finds asylum there. Under the aegis of Calvin and Theodore de Bèze, they get for their new hearth a great religious and intellectual radiation.
The refugees also help to rectify the economy which is in recession since the decline of the fairs at the end of the 15th century. In the night of the 11 to the December 12th 1602, the duke of Savoy tries a night attack against Geneva, but this attempt fails. The Savoyard defeat is commemorated each year at the time of the festival of the Climbing.
After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the measurements taken by Louis XIV against Protestantism in France make flow a second large wave of Réfugié S. the 18th century is one time of great prosperity. Genevese industries, the trade and the bank are flourishing. But the city is torn by civil disorders.
The Genevese Révolution of 1792 destroys the aristocratic government of the Old Mode and proclaims the political equality. In 1798, Geneva is annexed by France and is integrated into the department of Léman. The defeat of the Napoleonean armies returns its independence in to him 1813. The magistrates of the Republic ask for his entry in the Swiss Confédération, obtained definitively in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna with ten square kilometers gained on France between Versoix and Bossey and twenty-four communes gained on Savoy. In 1846, a revolution directed by James Fazy shift the government of the Restoration and establishes the Constitution which still governs the canton. During the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Geneva accommodates many political refugees. According to the ideas of the Genevese Henri Dunant, the International committee of the Red Cross is created in 1864, first of the international institutions which the city will shelter.
GeographyLocated at the Western end of the Swiss , at the end of the Lake Léman, this canton divides more than 90% of its borders with the France. It is surrounded of the Département of Ain in the west, of the Département of Haute-Savoie in the east and the canton of Vaud in north.
One gives the name of Genevese basin to this area engraved in three dials by the lake Léman of which the Pierres of Niton are used to measure altitude (373,6 meters), the the Rhone, and the Arve coming from the Massif of Mont Blanc via the White Vallée. She is girdled, on French territory, by the Massif of the Jura in the North-West whose culminating point is established with the Crêt of Snow to 1720 meters, where the highest point of the canton is located around 513 meters on the commune of Jussy (with Monniaz), Vuache in the east, as well as Mount-of-Sion in the south, described by César in the Guerre of Gaules like the only passable passage for the convoys of tanks wishing to leave Genava in direction of the Narbonnaise. The Salève, at south-east, is located in France but it is called the mountain of the Genevese from his great accessibility (Téléphérique) but also his privileged situation of overhang above the canton and the lake, which offers a at the very least spectacular sight. In clear weather, one profits from an active panorama of Fort the Lock, passage of the Rhone dug during the last glaciation by his glacier which one estimated to extend to the neighborhoods from Lyon and which worked the undulating and stony reliefs plain, until Nyon in the canton of Vaud.
The principal characteristic of the canton consists of this mixture very homogeneous between side a medium-sized city by its size, but large by its international radiation helped in that by its airport created in 1923 (8 million passengers in 2004) and other by a campaign preserved still well, located to the maximum at approximately 15 kilometers of the downtown area: The Mandement, in the North-West of the canton, is an undulating part which was in particular dug by the Allondon, an affluent of the Rhone taking its source with the foot of the Jura and which gathers the wine communes of Dardagny, Russin, and Satigny. The Barrage of Verbois builds on the Rhone provides a good part of Genevese energy and connects Mandement to the area of Champagne, on left bank, between the communes of Russin and Surface-the-City.
To note that in Champagne the commune of Chancy is who holds the palm of the most Western commune of Switzerland. It is with Bernex, the principal village, that the locality of the Signal is, the second point highest of the canton with 509,9 meters, on which one lit formerly a fire of alarm intended to be seen by the greatest number and that one relayed of tops in monticules well before the advent of Internet or of the Natel. Bernex gathers under its administration the villages of Lully and Sézenove, and is on the way to become a city bordering the 10.000 inhabitants. One still find in this area of small villages to the very typical seal as those which were yielded by the Duché of Savoy in 1815 at the time of the entry of Geneva in the Confederation such Sézegnin, Athenaz, Avusy, Laconnex or Soral, and those which were yielded by the Sardinia like Cartigny or Avully. Most of the border between Champagne and France is delimited by the Laire, small affluent of the Rhone which passes near Soral and Sézegnin. The area comprises mainly farms but such wine and provides, from the layers of sediments deposited by the glacier of the Rhone, of important gravel resources whose installations and excavations disfigure the landscape somewhat.
Evolution of the population of the canton of Geneva of 1999 to 2005:
- OFS - State of the population and demographic trends - Analyzes
See also: Political of the canton of Geneva
EconomyThe Genevese economy is mainly directed towards the services even if the canton has an agricultural long tradition and wine. It includes/understands important a financial sector which is specialized in the banking environment and the financing of the International business.
Geneva is the international seat of companies like Serono and STMicroelectronics. Many of other companies Multinational S like Procter & Gamble, Dupont, Hewlett-Packard, Reuters, Electronic Arts and Sun Microsystems installed their European seats there.
There exists also a long tradition of Horlogerie with marks such as Rolex, Patek Philippe, Baume and Mercier or Franck Muller. Two major producers of Flavor S and Perfume S, Firmenich and Givaudan, have their seats and their production centres there. Geneva reception also the European seat of Procter & Gamble
Bank holidaysThe Genevese Jeûne is one bank holiday specific to the canton of Geneva and which is celebrated Thursday which follows first Sunday of September.
See also the list of bank holidays in Switzerland.
CommunesThe canton of Geneva counts 10 cities (>10' 000 hab, population at end 2006) out of its 45 common Genevese:
- Geneva, 185.893 inhabitants
- Sliding gauge, 31.824 inhabitants
- Lancy, 27.492 inhabitants
- Meyrin, 20.670 inhabitants
- Carouge, 19.155 inhabitants
- Onex, 17.380 inhabitants
- Thônex, 13.229 inhabitants
- Versoix, 12.217 inhabitants
- Large-Saconnex, 10.402 inhabitants
- Oak-Bougeries, 10.189 inhabitants
- State of Geneva
- History of Geneva
- Gate of Genevese agriculture
- Wines of Geneva
- Stories, Photographs and Vidéos of the canton of Geneva by the Seniors
- cantonal Office of the statistics
|Random links:||Rene Frégni | Hausgauen | ORDVAC | Billy Madison | Salt of Gállego | Miquel Abós Serena | L'Arkansas|