Canton of Bern
See also: Bern (homonymy)
The canton of Bern goes down from the Respublica Bernensis . This vast State-City in the north of the the Alps had been created by the town of Bern, founded in 1191. Its sovereignty extended from the Lac Léman (annexation of the Pays of Vaud in 1536) with the Argovie (1415). Member of the Swiss Confederation since 1353, Bern reaches, after the Réforme (1528), with the row of European power.
The canton of Bern is located in the North-West of Switzerland, at the border between the French-speaking and German-speaking part of the country. It extends from the the Bernese Alps until the the Jura while crossing the Swiss Plateau. It has a border with 10 other cantons. In north with the Canton of the Jura, in the west with the cantons of Vaud, Neuchâtel, and Freiburg, in the south with the Were worth and in the east with Soleure, Argovie, Lucerne, Obwald and Uri.
In the east of the town of Bern is an area of the préalpes name of Emmental, it is from there that the cheese Emmental comes.
The French-speaking part of the canton is located at north and names the the Bernese Jura. It is made up of 3 entirely French-speaking districts. A bilingual district, that of Bienne, is also inhabited by Bernese French-speaking people, at a rate of approximately 40% of its population. The area of Zeeland and the town of Bern gather the remainder of the French-speaking minority.
The surface of the canton is of 5959 km ² including 31% of forest, 43,3% of useful agricultural surface, 6,4% of transport and living space and 19,6% of unproductive surface consituté of the mountainous part of the canton.
Its most point is the Finsteraarhorn to 4274 m and the other major tops are the Aletschhorn to 4195 m as well as the Jungfrau to 4158 Mr. Its point low is at the level of the Aar close to Wynau (401,5 m).
Its population consists of 959.100 inhabitants including 11,3% from abroad. The density of the population reaches 161 habitants/km ². Its inhabitants speak the following languages: German for 84% among them and French for 8,2%.
A particular status is granted to the 3 French-speaking districts of the the Bernese Jura like with the French-speaking population of the bilingual district of Bienne. This statute is intended to promote the French-speaking culture of these areas like reinforcing their political participation in the canton. This law founds the Conseil of the Bernese Jura for the Bernese Jura and the Conseil of the French-speaking businesses of the bilingual district of Bienne for the district of Bienne. Law on the particular status, LStP
Electorate or people : Extract of the Constitution of the canton of Bern, Article 55:
All the Swiss ones and all the Swiss women who reside in the canton and are 18 years old completed have the cantonal matter right to vote.
the law regulates the right to vote of Swiss and Swiss women from abroad and the exclusion of the right to vote due to prohibition or incapacity of understanding.
Legislative power : The legislative power is held by the Grand the Council, consisted of 160 members (deputies) elected officials with the poll proportional by the electorate. The Bernese constitution guarantees a minimum of 2 seats per district. The Great Council is entirely renewed every 4 years. The latest to date is the April 9th 2006.
The election of the April 9th 2006 saw the number appointed to decrease by 200 to 160 seats following the acceptance of the new law on the Great Bernese Council by the electorate during the cantonal voting of the September 22nd 2002. The French-speaking seats guaranteed to the the Bernese Jura remain unchanged by the new law, they are 12 for the three districts of the Bernese Jura and the bilingual district of Bienne is seen guaranteeing 3 French-speaking seats. This makes it possible the French-speaking minority of the canton to obtain a greater political weight at the cantonal level, that is to say a little less than 10% of representativeness.
In 2007, the Great Council with the following composition:
Executive power : The executive power is held by the Executive council , equivalent of the Council of State. It is composed of 7 members (advisers of state) elected officials by the majority vote by the electorate, whose seat is guaranteed by the cantonal constitution with the French-speaking area of the Bernese Jura.
Members of the Executive council:
The chancellor is Kurt Nuspliger.
Some former advisers of States:
- Henri-Louis Favre (1978 - 1986)
- Markus Feldmann (1945 - 1951)
- Rudolf Gnägi (1952 - 1965)
- Albert Gobat (1984 - 1912)
- Pierre Jolissaint (1866 - 1873)
- Simon Kohler 1966 - 1978
- Georges Moeckli (1938 - 1954)
- Virgile Monk (1948 - 1966)
judicial Power : The judicial power, with regard to the civil cases and penal, is represented by the Tribunal of district (court of 1st authority) and the Supreme court (court of recourse). There exist 13 courts of district which gather from one to three districts. The Supreme court is made up of 20 judges named by the Large Council for one 6 years duration.
In parallel, the Administrative court ensures the questions of administrative law and the litigations concerning the Social Security. Its members are 18 (more 2 substitutes) and it is the Great Council which elects them for 6 years.
DistrictsThe canton of Bern is divided into 26 districts which bear all the name of the chief town:
- District of Aarberg
- District of Aarwangen
- District of Bern
- District of Berthoud
- District of Bienne (bilingual district)
- District of Büren
- District of Cerlier
- District of Courtelary (French-speaking district)
- District of Fraubrunnen
- District of Frutigen
- District of Gessenay
- District of Interlaken
- District of Konolfingen
- District of Neuveville (French-speaking district)
- District of Laupen
- District of Moutier (French-speaking district)
- District of Nidau
- District of Niedersimmental
- District of Oberhasli
- District of Obersimmental
- District of Schwarzenburg
- District of Seftigen
- District of Signau
- District of Thoune
- District of Trachselwald
- District of Wangen
CommunesThe canton of Bern counts fourteen cities of more than 10.000 inhabitants:
- Bern, 122 ' 707 inhabitants (2002)
- Bienne, 50 ' 295 inhabitants (2004)
- Thoune, 40 ' 597 inhabitants (2002)
- Köniz, 36 ' 993 inhabitants (2002)
- Ostermundigen, 15 ' 220 inhabitants (2002)
- Berthoud, 14 ' 672 inhabitants (2002)
- Steffisburg, 14 ' 667 inhabitants (2002)
- Langenthal, 14 ' 443 inhabitants (2002)
- Muri EIB Bern, 12 ' 394 inhabitants (2002)
- Spiez, 12 ' 031 inhabitants (2002)
- Worb, 11 ' 033 inhabitants (2002)
- Ittigen, 10 ' 817 inhabitants (2002)
- Lily, 10 ' 817 inhabitants (2002)
- Münsingen, 10 ' 727 inhabitants (2002)
See also the list of the Common canton of Bern
See toorelated Articles
- Official site of the Canton of economic Bern
- Promotion of the Canton of Bern
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