A canon (Latin canonicus , been subject to rules known as guns) is a member of the Clergé ecclesiastical, alive according to a rule and attache with the service of a church. The word undoubtedly comes from the Greek κανών / kanôn , the rule, applied to those which serve a church. It is about a priest attached to a church cathedral or collegial, of which it forms the chapter and where it celebrates the divine service jointly.
The name of canon was given with this direction as of the 4th century to the coenobite S, monks who lived joint under the same rule, it appointed the clerks who lived in community according to the rule of holy Augustin. The distinction of a body of the canons compared to the remainder of the clergy could go back to Chrodegang, bishop of Metz and author in 763 of a rule of Community life (the Regula vitae communis ) inspired by the rule of Saint Augustin. According to this rule, the members of the clergy living joint under the episcopal roof do not have to make wish of poverty but must respect a certain number of obligations, such as manual work and the confession twice a year.
It was also specified that they were to twice a day hear a chapter (Latin capitulum ) of the rule of their founder. The term would have then changed direction to indicate the meeting of the council of the bishop with the clerks who assist it: the canonic chapter. The canons then took an increasingly significant part with the administration of the episcopal church.
As of the Carolingian period , the canonical life (Latin vita canonica ) became an object of concern of the Concile S, in particular in order to avoid the personal enrichment of the canons and to ensure the compliance with the rule. Thus, various reforms were undertaken by the sovereign-pontiffs, like Nicolas II (in 1059), Alexandre II (in 1063, creating the regular canons, and excluding the laymen from these kinds of communities), Innocent II (and the council of Lateran, in 1139), or Benoît XII (in 1339).
The canons can be simple clerks; but, in the use, they all are priests and can baptize, exonerate, and offer Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. In the churches cathedrals, there is always a chapter of canons, of which the members compose the council of the bishop; the functions curiales of the cathedral belong to them collectively with all, and are exerted by one of them in the name of the chapter. The title of canon is at the 19th century almost always conferred as reward, or like retirement. Today and in France, the title of canon is given by a bishop to a Curé or a priest of sound Diocèse to the exemplary career.
Titles of canon of the president of the French RepublicTraditionally, the President of the French Republic is canon honorary of Saint-Jean-of-Lateran, under the terms of a foundation of Louis XI of 1482 and renewed by Henri IV in 1604, giving to Saint-Jean-of-Lateran the abbey of Clairac. This foundation was restored in the form of purse by Napoleon III which remunerates as from 1863 a substitute with the chorus (station removed in 1871).
For this reason, the president of the Republic can claim with a stall in the Abbaye of Beauchêne (Cerizay), which is an abbey of regular canons of Midsummer's Day of Lateran.
- Since Louis XI, the kings of France and their successors, the presidents of the French Republic, is also of right canons of the cathedral of Embrun.
- They are still honorary canon of the cathedral of Saint-Jean-with-Maurienne, since François Ier, which required this priviliège during its invasion of the Savoy in 1536.
- regular canons of the Immaculate Conception
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