The Érythrée is a country of the Corne of the Africa close to the Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south and of Djibouti in the east. This country acquired its independence of Ethiopia in 1993. Since, the two countries deliver a sporadic war. The republic of Érythrée owes its name with the Greek eruthros meaning “red” because of the proximity of the Red Sea.
See also: History of Érythrée
Érythrée was first of all colonized by the Italy in 1896, then by the Great Britain as from 1941. In 1952, the the United Nations decided to form a federation with the Ethiopia and Érythrée. When independence demonstrations burst, Ethiopia annexed purely and simply Érythrée (1961), starting a civil war which was completed 30 years later, in 1991, with the victory of the Eritrean troops. Independence was declared in on May 24th, 1993. Erythrée was in 1993 a ruined country. But its people, Christians and Moslems confused, forged themselves during the engagements an original national conscience in Africa.
Beautiful and courageous, fighting them of the Liberation popular front of Erythrée their weapons forsook but were not demobilized. Engaged, often as of adolescence, in resistance to the oppressor, they continue not to make any difference between Christians and Moslems and militate for a laic State, removed from traditional gravities. They assert especially the same responsibilities as their male comrades.
Red seaport, Massaoua fell to the hands from the Eritrean men of the maquis as of February 1990. The Ethiopian ones then rammed the city during five days, devastating buildings dating from the Italian colony (1889 - 1941). The chaotic urban transport causes assemblies débonnaires in front of an architecture which still carries for a long time the scars of the war. From now on, on its docks rafistolés, the old pearl of the Horn of Africa acceuille 24:00 on 24 cargo liners charged with Australian Blé, American Sorgho or German Huile of colza.
The new government has two top priority: to set up on the mountainous slopes, between Asmara (the capital) and Massaoua 40 000 km ² of cultivable terraces and, to fix water, to plant twenty million trees; especially, to keep on the Red Sea the control of the port of Assab, in order to box the incomes of its oil refinery. To develop, Erythrée hopes on unexplored resources: copper, but, oil and gas.
In 1998 a new war burst between Ethiopia and Érythrée on the layout of the border. It made approximately: 100000 dead. The conflict ceased in 2000 with the Accords of Algiers which led to the deployment of the blue helmets. An independent commission of UNO emitted a Arbitrage on the question of the border in 2003, but this solution was rejected by Ethiopia.
See also: Political of Érythrée
The Eritrean Constitution envisages a Parliament monocaméral of 150 members, the National Assembly. However, for the moment, all the seats are occupied by the political principal party, the Popular front for the democracy and justice. Since 1993, date of independence, elections were regularly envisaged then cancelled. In 2001, the government censured all the private press. In 2002, all the religious groups were prohibited except for 4 groups sanctioned by the State. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch as well as the American State Department gives a report of arbitrary detentions and violation of the human rights in the country. The 5th world classification of freedom of the press - bench in October 2006 by RSF - the place in antepenultimate position, in front of the Turkménistan and the North Korea. In 2007 and for the first time, the defense organization of the journalists based in Paris, placed Erythrée in last position of her world classification.
See also: Subdivisions of Érythrée
Érythrée is divided into 6 areas:
- the Center
- Southernmost Red Sea
- Septentrional Red Sea
- the South
See also: Geography of Érythrée
Érythrée is located in the Corne of Africa and is bordered in the North-East and the east by the Red Sea, in the west and the North-West by the Sudan, in the south by the Ethiopia and in south-east by Djibouti. The arid and sandy east coast. The Îles Dahlak located in the Red Sea constitute an area interesting for fishing. High plateaus of the center, whose altitude varies 1 800 with 3 000 meters, are less arid and have a more moderate climate. The culminating point of the country is the mount Soira with 3 018 m above the sea level.
See also: Economy of Érythrée
The economy of Érythrée is that of a country chronically underdeveloped. Agriculture always provides 80% of the Gross domestic product. The war with Ethiopia was devastator for the Eritrean economy. The offensive of May 2000 only caused with it 600M US$ of damage and prevented harvests in the producing area of the country, decreasing the production of food of 62%.
In spite of these problems, the infrastructure is relatively developed, in particular the roads and the ports, but they are under-utilized. The country evolves/moves under a system of mixed economy.
See also: Demography of Érythrée
Both principal ethnicities are Tigrinya which form 50% of the population, as well as the Tigre and Kunama which constitute 40% of them. The Afar S and the Saho occupy one the third of the country. The Tigrinya and the Arab are the two principal languages; the Italian and the English are also spoken.
The principal religions are the Christianisme, the majority of the Eritrean Christians belong to the orthodoxe Eritrean Église, one of the churches (improperly) known as " Copte s" (monophysites, and nonGreek-orthodoxe), in communion with its counterparts Ethiopian and Egyptian, and the Islam, mainly Sunnite. Each one of these religions is represented by approximately 50% of the population.
See also: Culture of Érythrée
Population: 4.465.651 inhabitants (in 2003). 0-14 years: 44,7%; 15-64 years: 52%; + 65 years: 3%
Surface: 121.320 km ²
Density: 37 hab./km²
Land borders: 1.630 km (Ethiopia 912 km; Sudan 605 km; Djibouti 113 km)
Littoral: 2.234 km
Ends of altitude: - 75 m > + 3.018 m
Life expectancy of the men: 54 years (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the women: 59 years (in 2001)
Growth rate the pop one: 3,84% (in 2001)
Birth rate: 42,52 ‰ (in 2001)
Death rate: 12,07 ‰ (in 2001)
infantile Death rate: 74 ‰ (in 2001)
Fertility rate: 5,45 children/woman (in 2003)
Rate of migration: 7,91 ‰ (in 2001)
Independence: May 24th 1993 (formed part of Ethiopia before)
Telephone lines: 23.578 (in 2000)
Radios: 345.000 (in 1997)
Television stations: 1.000.000 (in 2003)
Users of Internet: 120.000 (in 2004)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 1 (in 2004)
Roads: 3.850 km (including 1.810 tarred km) (in 2000)
Railways: 317 km (in 1999)
inland Waterways: 0 km
Many airports: 20 (including 2 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
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