The République of Cameroun is a country of central Africa located between the Nigeria, the Chad, the Central African Republic, the Gabon, the Guinea Equatoriale, the République of Congo and the Golfe of Guinea. Part of the Trust Territory British (Cameroons) and the old Trust Territory French (which reached independence under the name of République of Cameroun on January 1st 1960) amalgamated in 1961 to form the Federal republic of Cameroun , which, on May 20th, 1972, was famous United Republic of Cameroon ; since 1984, the country is called the République of Cameroun . Cameroun in its current borders results from the colonial layouts but l´histoire of these 286 ethnos groups goes back to good longer in time. Before the colonization of the 19th century, the concept d´État did not n´existait, and the inhabitants were organized in chefferies.
See also: History of Cameroun
Since the tour of the Carthaginian Hannon which, according to the legend, in Ve front century J. - C., would have reached the Mont Cameroun which he baptized the “Tank of the Gods” , the evolution of this country knew various fortunes. In 1472, the sailors of Fernando Pôo enter the estuary of the Wouri, extasient themselves in front of the abundance of shrimps in the river which they call at once Río back Camarões , from where the current name of Cameroun
After the Portuguese comes the Dutch then the German , to which the autochtones oppose a sharp resistance. At the beginning of the Great War, the allied troops dislodge the Germans and, in 1918, the France and the the United Kingdom divide the colony: the oriental party (that is to say four fifths of the territory) is reserved for France, while the Western zone returns to the United Kingdom. Henceforth, each one of these two powers will print its mark in “its” Cameroun, France adopting the system of the assimilation and the United Kingdom that of the Indirect rule .
The shortly after the Second world war starts to blow on the Africa the wind of the Nationalisme, the movement of the UPC (Union of the Populations of Cameroun created on April 10th, 1948 with Douala by the group of the twelve) asserts independence and reunification before being prohibited then heavily repressed by the French colonial capacity, leading to the creation of maquis in country Bassa and country Bamileke. The independence of the French zone is proclaimed on January 1st 1960 and the reunification takes place the following year with the southern part of the British zone. It follows one period of violent repression against the movement of the U.P.C., and ALNK, its “ Armée with national release Kamerounaise ”, by the new government with the assistance of France, which will last until the end of the years 1960. The May 20th 1972, a referendum led to a unit State and puts an end to the federalism.
See also: Political of Cameroun
Cameroun is officially a democratic republic of the presidential type, but the capacity remains very concentrated around the president and controlled by the same president since 1982, Paul Biya. The legislative power is formally exerted by two rooms, a National Assembly and a Sénat. The Senate still waits to be created and set up. One often indicates the mode as being one démocrature .
The December 8th 2004, there is a new cabinet reshuffle with the modification of some stations, the addition of others. The new Prime Minister is Ephraïm Inoni, like wants it the use, english-speaking of the South.
On the whole, 65 ministers and Secretaries of State.
See also: Subdivisions of Cameroun
See also: Cities of Cameroun
On the administrative level, Cameroun counts ten provinces and 58 departments. The departments are divided into districts.
Cameroun, it is also a melting pot several ethnos groups. One distinguishes at least 280 various ethnos groups with each one his language, more or less distinct from the others according to their geographical proximity.
See also: Geography of Cameroun
Cameroun is a country of the Golfe of Guinea on the Western frontage of the Africa which has 320 km of coasts, it schematically has the shape of a triangle whose base skirts the 2nd parallel Northern while the top is in the lake Chad, a little after the 3rd parallel. This triangle is delimited by:
- the Nigeria and the Atlantic Ocean in the west
- the Guinea Equatoriale, the Gabon and the Republic of Congo in the south
- the Central African Republic and the Chad in the east
- the Lake Chad in north
By its surface of 475 442 km ² and its population of approximately 16.380.000 inhabitants (2005), Cameroun is an average country in Africa. But its central position, its English-French bilingualism and its level of development (in regression however since the beginning of the Years 1990) give him a weight much more important on the continent. It reached the food self-sufficiency today thanks to its rains, its sunning and its fertile volcanic grounds.
- 1.690 km with the Nigeria
- 1.094 km with the Chad
- 797 km with the Central African Republic
- 523 km with the Republic of Congo
- 298 km with the Gabon
- 189 km with the Guinea Equatoriale
See also: Economy of Cameroun, List of Cameronian companies
Cameroun has many assets: agricultural resources (bananas, cocoa, coffee, cotton) and forest, oil. Its GDP (2000 Mds of FCFA on the whole and per capita: 115.000 FCFA) represents half of that of the Economic community and monetarist of central Africa (CEMAC), which confers an important place at the regional level to him.
Of 1965 with 1985, Cameroun knew a sustained high growth. The economic situation was then strongly degraded until the devaluation, in January 1994 of CFA franc. After one decade of recession characterized by a strong fall of the GDP (- 30% between 1985 and 1993) and a fall of 40% of consumption per capita, Cameroun joined again with the economic growth since 1994 and one can thus hope for an improvement of his situation.
Into 1995, the active population was divided as follows: 80% in the primary sector, 13% in the secondary and only 7% in the tertiary sector.
It is necessary moreover knowknowing that 75% of urban labor work in the informal sector (sector of the work not declared and thus in theory with low-incomes) and 6 households out of 10 draw at least part of their incomes from the informal sector. This importance of the informal sector grows more and more since the economic crisis and thus tries to cure partially the problem of unemployment (20% of the population in 1995,30% in 2003).
Natural resources: Oil, bauxite, iron, wood, Hydro-electric power
As for tourism, Cameroun is recognized “tourist destination” by the worldwide organization of tourism (threshold of 500.000 tourists per annum) since 1975.
See also: Demography of Cameroun
See also: Culture of Cameroun
The Cameronian culture is characterized by a very great ethnic diversity. One counts there more than 200 vernacular languages, among which one finds the Ewondo, the Douala, the Bassa, the Bakweri, the Bulu, the Peul or Foufouldé, the languages Bamiléké made up of several under - whole like Fe' efe' or Nufi (new thing) (Bafang), the Ghomala' (Baham, Bandjoun, Batié, Bansoa, Bandenkop), Medumba (Bangangté), Yemba (Dschang), Ngomba' has (Bamesso)… and well of others.
With regard to the official languages, the provinces of the North-West and South-west are anglophone, the remainder of the country being French-speaking. This bilingualism is a heritage of colonization, and makes it possible Cameroun to make at the same time French-speaking and anglophone part of the world. Despite everything, French remains largely favoured, and certain english-speaking complain sometimes about discrimination with regard to their language, in particular in the administration and the media.
List of the Cameronian schools
See also: Corruption in Cameroun
Cameroun was already classified twice like the State having the most index of perception of the Corruption by the ONG Transparency International . Corruption prevails on all the levels of the company, of the more high levels of the State to the civil servant of the bottom of the scale. Thus, daily corruption is qualified many names, Gombo , beer , taxi , fuel , motivation , " the tchoko" and others. The police officers are sometimes even called the " Eats-thousand " , in reference to the ticket of 1000 F CFA, saving tickets during road blocks.
Festivals and bank holidays
At Sawa: First week of December, the Ngondo, traditional Festival of the coastal people, celebrated at one time in July.
Cameroun in figuresIndex of human development (IDH): 148e on 177 in 2003
Indicating of human poverty (IPH-1): 47e on 88 Developing country (IPH-1 of 30,7 %)
Statistics resulting from the CIA World Facts Carryforward:
Telephone lines: fixed: 110.900 (in 2002)
Cellphones: approximately 1.077.000 (in 2003)
Radios: 2,27 million (in 1997)
Television stations: 450.000 (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 60.000 (in 2004)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 5 (in 2002)
Roads: 34.300 km (including 4.288 tarred km) (in 1999)
Railways: 1.008 km (in 2004)
inland Waterways: 2.090 km
Many airports: 47 (including 11 with tarred tracks) (in 2004)
See also: Cameronian famous
As famous Cameronians, we can count some several but we will quote only some of them, namely:
- Manu Dibango the jazzist who composed the face B of the anthem of the 8th Cut of Africa of the Nations. Go to the address: ManuDibango to take note of the article
- Albert Roger Milla, inveterate player of better football crowned to play African in 1976 and 1990. He is currently roving ambassador. To know some more about its career, go to the address: RogerMilla
- Samuel Eto' O wire, football player currently with the Spanish club of Barcelona. He was crowned better African player three times of continuation into 2003,2004 and 2005. For further information on the player, go to the address ci_après: SamuelEtoo
CodesCameroun has as codes:
- CAMWOOD, in the international Code list of the number plates,
- CM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- CM, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- CMR, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- CMR, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- CMR, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- FK, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- TJ, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
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