Cambridge is a town of England, with the the United Kingdom, located at 80 km in the north of London. It is known for its university of world famous. It is also the administrative center of the county of Cambridgeshire. Since 1951, Cambridge has officially the statute of city
In 2001, the population of the city was estimated at nearly 109.000 inhabitants, a including little more than 22.000 students (among which 17.000 students of the university of Cambridge).
Campings existed around the place before the Roman Empire. The first found proof of an occupation, a collection of hunting weapons, dates from the Bronze Age which starts to approximately -1000 before JC. There are other archaeological lucky finds of objects dating from the iron age, a Belgian tribe having unloaded in Castle Hill in Ier century before JC.
The place starts to develop during the Roman invasion of Great Britain into -40 before JC. Indeed, Castle Hill then makes of Cambridge a place interesting for before military station in order to defending the Cam river. It is also the point of meeting of Via Devana which connects Colchester to Essex with the garrisons of Lincoln and of north. This Roman camping is called Durolipons.
The camping remained a regional center 350 years after the Roman occupation, until the year 400. The Roman roads and fortifications are still visible besides today.
After the departure of the Romans, the Saxony S seize the territory of Castle Hill and her neighborhoods. Fragments of their tombs were found in this zone. During the Anglo-Saxon time, Cambridge profits from commercial links through this marshy country difficult to cross. However, in VIIe century, according to visitors coming from Ely, Cambridge strongly declines. Cambridge is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle like Grantebrycge. It is the first known reference of a bridge in Cambridge.
The arrival of the Vikings in Cambridge was recorded in Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. The law Viking, the Danelaw, was imposed in 878. The strong commercial practices of the Vikings made it possible Cambridge to quickly grow bigger. For this period, the center of the city moved of Castle Hill on the Left bank of the river at a place called Quayside on the Right Bank. After the end of the period Viking, the Saxon ones briefly returned to the capacity, in particular building the church St Simpleton in 1025. It is always visible in Benet' S Street.
Two years after its conquest of England, Guillaume of Normandy builds a castle on Castle Hill. As the remainder of the new kingdom, Cambridge falls under control from the King and his representatives. The typical round church ( Round Church ) date of this period. During the time Norman, the name of the city becomes Grentabrige or Cantebrigge, since the river running named there Granta. With time, the name of the city became Cambridge, even if the Cam river is still called Granta. It is only later that this river became the Camwood, in analogy with the name Cambridge. The university uses an adjective pseudo Latin cantabrigiensis (often contracted in " Cantab") to mean " of Cambridge" , but it is obviously about a word which rises from the English name.
Beginning of the universityIn 1209, students who fled the violence of Oxford are taken refuge in Cambridge and founded a university there. Oldest still existing college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284. One of the most impressive buildings of the city, King' S College Chapel, begun in 1446 according to the will of the king Henry VI, was completed in 1515 under the reign of the king Henry VIII.
The publisher Cambridge University Close began with a license to print obtained in 1534. The first project of drain to bring drinking water to the downtown area ( Hobson' S Led ) was launched in 1610 and certain parts exist still today. The hospital Addenbrooke' S was founded in 1766. The railway and the station were built in 1845. According to the legend, it is the university which imposed its site: sufficient far from the downtown area so that the students are not distracted by a rapid escapade in London.
A long time university town, Cambridge officially became a municipality in 1951.
Cambridge todayExtending on its left with the University, the area of Cambridge is now known under the name of Silicon Fen, thanks to the growth of industries of high technology and the Incubateur S which developed in the scientific parks and other development programs inside and around the city. The University was joined by most of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU), and its reputation as regards education led other entities (such as the Open University of East Anglia) to come to base itself downtown.
A study carried out by the cabinet of consutants CACI in 2004 arrives at the conclusion that a district of the downtown area of Cambridge would be " the capital of the fumeurs" from the United Kingdom. Indeed, the inhabitants of this district seem to spend more money in cigarettes that those of other areas of the country, with more than two thousand pounds sterling (approx. 3000 €) per annum. This district is that several colleges of the university, such as Clare, King' S and Trinity.
March 5th 2004, the statute of city of the equitable trade was decreed in Cambridge.
The city and the University of Cambridge
the University of Cambridge is universally famous with that quite as known of Oxford. Both form the quintessence of the English élitiste university system. For 800 years, there has existed a certain competition between the two universities but Oxford and Cambridge have despite everything many common points, from the point of view of their structure, their traditions, their elitism or their architecture. The name Oxbridge was created to speak about these two universities.
The city and the university are narrowly overlapping. There is not, contrary to the traditional diagram, of campus specific to the university. The city and the university being developed simultaneously for 800 years, of many buildings (laboratories, amphitheaters, administrative buildings) have been disseminated within the city, the historical center being of course occupied by the colleges or the laboratories oldest.
The University is made up of 32 colleges, worth visiting for the majority. The most prestigious colleges, from their seniority and their architecture, are Trinity College, whose resources are colossal, King' S College, bastion of the economy keynésienne and whose monumental King' S College Chapel has one of the most famous choruses of England, St-John' S College, rival of his Trinity neighbor, and finally Selwyn College, more recent and modest but famous for the quality of academic work of its students.
The football club of Cambridge, the Cambridge United Football Club, played in English national division of 1970 with 2005 in its cave of the Abbey Stadium , before being relegated in Conférence. When relegation became inevitable, the club was placed under legal administration, victim of important debts, but the financial management of the club is become again healthy at the time of season 2005/06. There exists another football club in Cambridge, based in the district of Chesterton, the Cambridge City F.C which plays in just lower division, in its stage, the City Ground .
The city is also famous for the sporting meetings which oppose the Université of Cambridge to the Université of Oxford, in particular the Varsity Matches of Rugby and the race of oar, The Boat Race. These events are followed by many people all around the sphere, of which much has nothing to do with these universities.
ReligionThe Christian community of Cambridge is very active from where the big number of churches of the city. There is also a mosque, used by the Moslem inhabitants and the students, and an any news Synagog HaMaayan.
RouteCambridge being very quickly developed at the XXe century, the highway network of the city is very often bottled. Measures were taken to reduce circulation to the downtown area. The historical center is even prohibited with the cars certain hours of the day, the taxis and bus which can nevertheless continue to circulate.
See also: Station of Cambridge
Cambridge is served by a station located at approximately 2 km of the downtown area. The building, set up in 1845, was voluntarily built remotely city and university so, according to the legend, to prevent the students from being inattentive by the idea of one strolls in London. More simply, it would seem that the geological nature of the grounds at this place lent itself more to construction. Today, the station was indeed caught up with by the agglomeration of Cambridge. Aujourdhui, from many railway lines pass by Cambridge. A shuttle service express train managed by the First Capital Connect connects the city to the Gare of King' S Cross with London (via the East Coast Main Line ) in 45 minutes. A connection semi-rapid also exists with the Gare of Liverpool Street (via the West Anglia Main Line ). The city is also connected to Kings Lynn, Ely, Norwich, Liverpool and Birmingham and a service shuttle also exists between Cambridge and the Aéroport of London Stansted. Until 1968, the Varsity Line connected Cambridge to Oxford.
AirportA small regional airport Cambridge City Airport (code AITA: CBG) is located at approximately 4 km of the downtown area. It is not served by regular companies but only not of the private companies or business.
Directly connected by the road and the rail, the airport of Stansted, platform of predilection of the charters and companies low cost, is located only at one forty kilometers, halfway between Cambridge and London.
BicycleCambridge is blocked an enough city but the downtown area is not very wide. Moreover the ground being rather flat, bicycle circulation is developed an enough means of circulation. It is also the most practical means to move in the small streets of the center. Many students use these means of transport to move between the various places of teaching or sports grounds disseminated in the city. Cambridge thus has the greatest density of bicycles per capita of the United Kingdom.
Beats-smg: Kėmbrėdžos Simple: Cambridge
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