Calcutta is the capital of the Indian State of the Bengal-Westerner. Until August 1998, the city was known under its name of Calcutta, anglicized , that it gives up officially on January 1st, 2001 for the name of Kolkata (or Kolkatta) (IPA: ) or: কলকাতা in Bengali.
The surface of Calcutta is of 185 km ².
In 1968, the the United Nations estimated that 40% of the population lived under “infra-human” conditions, of extreme pauvreté.
Its metropolitan surface counted:
- approximately 13 million inhabitants (: 13216546): census of 2001;
- : 14681589, of which: 4580544 for the city itself (except suburbs) in 2006, which places it at the third world rank for the number of inhabitants and at the first rank for the population density (: 24760 on average).
- telephone Code: 91 (0) 33
- Registrations: WB-01 to WB-04
Probable etymology of the word(A) Calcutta comes from Kâlî Kata, meaning “Foot of the Kali goddess”. According to the legend, the Kâlî goddess would have made the round the world tour, and its foot would have been posed on the site of the city. (b) Kâlî - will kshetra, meaning “Field (or field) of Kâlî”.
The city was the capital of India during British Raj until 1911. In the past center of education, science, the culture and the policy modern in India, Calcutta knew one period of economic stagnation following the independence of India in 1947. However, since the year 2000, an economic renovation stopped the decline of the city, driving with an erratic growth of the city. Like other big cities, Calcutta knows major problems of poverty, and must fight against certain misdeeds of the urbanization like the pollution and the congestion of traffic.
A vibrating city with a distinct sociopolitic culture, Calcutta is famous for its revolutionary history, extending from the Indian fight for independence with the movements on the left and trade-union. The discovery of close Chandraketugarh, an archaeological site, provides the obviousness which the sector was inhabited during more than two millenia. The documented history of the city, however, starts with the arrival of the British East India Company in 1690, when the company consolidated its commercial businesses with the Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator of the company which settled thereafter in Sutanuti after having invaded by the kingdom of Hijli, was traditionally credited as a founder with this city (however, recently the experts approved the fact that Charnock was not the official founder of the city). In 1699, the English supplement the construction of the strong old man William, who is employed for poster of the troops and as bases regional. Kolkata (then Calcutta) is declared a town of presidency (Presidency City), and becomes later the seat of the presidency of Bengal. Confronted with the frequent skirmishes with the French forces, the English start to improve their fortifications in 1756. After having protested against the militarization, the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-Ud-Daulah attacks and captures strong William. Many English will die in one of the parts of the fort. This event will remain in the memories under the name of “Night of the Black hole”. A combined force of Sepoy S of the Company and troops British carried out by Robert Clive take again the city the following year. Calcutta is named capital of British India in 1772. For this period, the marshes surrounding the city are drained and the sector of the government is built along banks of the river of Hooghly. Richard Wellesley, General governor between 1797 - 1805, are mainly responsible for the growth of the city and its architecture which led to the description of Calcutta like “city of the palates”.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Calcutta is cut in two distinct sectors - an English, an Indian, known under the name of “black city”. Even then, the poverty of the huts “of the black city” is regarded as shocking. The city undergoes the fast industrial growth of the years 1850, particularly in the sectors of the textile and the Jute; this causes an massive investment in projects of infrastructure like the rail and the Télégraphe by the British government. The Coalescence of the British and Indian culture had like consequence the appearance of a new social class, the “Babu”, bureaucrats Indiens anglophiles often resulting from high the Caste S. Throughout the nineteenth century, a sociocultural reform, often indicated under the name of the Rebirth of Bengal had like consequence the improvement of the living conditions of the people. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjea organized a national conference - the first of its kind to the nineteenth India century. Gradually Calcutta became a center of the Indian movement of independence. In 1905, the cutting of Bengal in two distinct areas per Lord Curzon has like consequence a spread public agitation and the boycott of the British goods (movement of Swadeshi). These activities encourage the English to move the capital with New Delhi in 1911, qu ' they regards as better located geographically. The port of the city was bombarded twice by the Japanese during the second world war. While stocks of food were diverted to feed the troops combined, of the million people died of hunger during the famine of Bengal of 1943. In 1946, the requests of the creation of a Moslem state led to communal violence with large scales having for result the death of more than: 2000 people. The Partition of the Indies also created many violences of many demographic movements - a great number of Moslems for Pakistan Is (current the Bangladesh), whereas the hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled in the city.
Center control of the company for Bengal since 1757, Calcutta benefits from a fast industrial growth starting from the Années 1850, particularly in the textile sector, in spite of the poverty of the surrounding area. During 150 years following, the population of Calcutta passes from: 117000 with: 1098000 inhabitants (suburbs included/understood), to reach today a metropolitan population of more than 13,2 million. Calcutta had the strongest population of India until in the Années 1980, when it was caught up with by Bombay (old Bombay).
During years 1960 and years 1970, the serious electric breakdowns, the strikes and a violent movement of Marxist-Maoist - Naxalites - damaged most of the infrastructure of the city, driving with a stagnation. In 1971, the war between India and Pakistan led to the surge of thousands of refugees in Calcutta having for result a massive constraint on its infrastructure. In the middle of the years 1980, Bombay caught up with Calcutta like the most populated city of India. Calcutta was a strong base of Indian Communism while Western Bengal directed by before left dominated of CPI (M) during three decades now. The economic re-establishment of the city was started again thanks to economic reforms in India presented by the central government in the middle of the years 1990. Since 2000, the services of technology information (IT) revitalized the stagnant economy of the city. The city also tested a growth of the sector of manufacture.
Calcutta is an industrial center and a important port. Traditional industries are the treatment of the Jute (80% of the Indian production), even if the Partition removed at the city part of its resources, the export of the (Darjeeling is in Western Bengal), the exploitation of the coal ore. Calcutta shelters also factories pharmaceutical and chemical, glassmakings,… Calcutta is the hub businesses, the commercial and financial main thing of Eastern India and states of the North-East. It is at the house with the Stock Market of Calcutta - the second larger purse of India. It is also commercial and military port, and of the only important city in the area to have an international airport. Once principal the city of India and capital, Calcutta tested a regular economic decline in the independence following of India of years due to the condition and the rise widespread not stabilized policies in the trade-trade unionism supported by the parts of left. Between the years 1960 in the middle of the years 1990, the capital flight was enormous as many large factories were closed or reduced and the companies replaced. The lack of capital and resources coupled to a world superabundance in the request in traditional industries of the city (for example jute) was added at the decreased state of the economy of the city. The liberalization of the Indian economy in the years 1990 with the election of a new minister as a reformist chief, Buddhadeb Bhattacharya had like consequence the improvement of fortunes of the city.
Until recently, the flexible production had always been the standard in Calcutta, and the sector not structured comprised more than 40% of labor. The employees of state and federal government compose a great percentage of the labor of the city. The city has a large population of not qualified semi-skilled labor and, with other manual professional workers and. The economic revival of Calcutta was carried out mainly by IT maintains, with IT annual sector increasing with 70% - twice that of the national average. There has these last years be a sudden rise of the investments in the sector of infrastructure of housing with several new projects being raised in the city. Calcutta is at the house with many production facilities actuated by large Indian companies with products extending from electronics to the jute. Some notable companies sat in Calcutta include ITC Limited, Bata India, Birla Corporation, Coal India Limited, Damodar Valley Corporation, banks plain of bank of Vijaya of India, the bank of UCO and the bank of Allahabad. Recently, the various events as the adoption of the policy is “to seem” by the government of India, to open passage of Nathu in Sikkim as border trade-lead with China and the immense interest for the Asian countries of south-east to enter the Indian market and to invest it put Calcutta in an advantageous position.
Culture and Education
Calcutta is finally an important cultural city, the Bengali traditionally playing the part of the intellectuals of India. Inter alia artists, the writer Rabindranath Tagore is originating in Calcutta, where it passed the majority of its life. The famous economist Amartya SEN, prize winner of the Nobel Prize, is another important reference for Bengal and the Bengali.
Among the writers novelists writing in English (the Indian-english) and most important nowadays: Amitabha Ghosh, Amit Choudhury, Vikram Seth, Arundhati Roy, Jhumpa Lahiri - are resulting from Bengal (Arundhati Roy - Bengali on the side of his/her father). Though, some of these authors live today as a foreigner (the USA, Canada,…)
Calcutta was a long time known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage. As an old capital of India, Calcutta was the birthplace of the modern Indian thought literary and artistic. The inhabitants of Calcutta have a taste pronounced for art and the literature; its tradition of reception and opening in made the “city of furious creative energy”. An inhabitant of Calcutta is known like Calcuttan, Kolkatan or sometimes, in a pejorative way, like Calcatian.
A characteristic of Calcutta is the Para. or vicinities having a strong direction of the community. Typically, each Para. has its own club of the community with a clubroom and often, a field of play. People here usually deliver themselves to the adda or the carefree talk, and these sessions of adda are often a form of conversation of free intellectual of style. The city has a political tradition of graffiti to depict all unworthy calumny to the joke full with spirit and limericks, caricatures with propaganda.
The city has a tradition of the dramas in the form of will jatra (a kind of people-theater), theaters and theaters of group. Calcutta is known for its Bengali cinema “Tollywood” doubled by industry, and for its films of Article Its long tradition of filmmaking includes the directors acclaimed like the ray of Satyajit, the probe of Mrinal, Tapan Sinha and Ritwik Ghatak with the contemporary directors such as the probe and Rituparno Ghosh d' Aparna. The city is also noted for its appreciation of the Indian classical music and the rich literary tradition regulated by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Jibanananda Das, the Islam of Kazi Nazrul, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Samaresh Basu, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Buddhadev Guha and Sunil Gangopadhyay between others.
The principal elements of the kitchen of Calcutta include rice and to chew it jhol (fish curry), with the rasgulla, and mishti DOI (soft yoghourt) as serves. The vast repertory of Bengal of the dishes fish-based includes the various preparations of hilsas (a favorite among Bengali). Foods of street such as the beguni (fried beaten eggplant sections), the bearing of kati (bearing of flatbread with vegetable or stuffing chicken), the phuchka (crepe cooked with the fryer with sauce with tamarinier and lens) and the Chinese food of the city of China in the oriental parties of the city are completely popular. The men prefer usually the clothing of Westerner-model and also the dhotis and the kurtas traditional, although the women tend to prefer to wear traditional saris.
Calcutta has many buildings decorated with (mogol including) with the reasons Gothic, baroques, Romans, Eastern and Indo-Islamic. The “city of the palates”, as one often calls Calcutta, is dotted with the colonial buildings. Some of the principal buildings of this period are well maintained and several buildings were “heritage acknowledged structure”, while others are in various states of weakening. Established in 1814, the Indian museum is the oldest museum of Asia and vast collection of houses of Indian natural history and Indian art. The memorial of Victoria, one of principal tourist attractions in Calcutta, has a museum documented on the history of the city. The national library of India is the principal public library of India. The academy of fine arts and other art galleries hold of the regular exposures of art.
Durga Puja is more notable religious and social festivals in Calcutta. Durga Puja occurs during five in October days. Other notable festivals include Diwali, Eid, Holi, Christmas, boishak of poila (New Year's Day), puja of Saraswati and parbon of Poush (festival of harvest). Some of the cultural festivals are those of the book of Calcutta, the Festival of music of lane of Dover, the festival of film and the national festival of theater. Calcutta is twinned with Length Beach, California, the United States.
The schools of Calcutta are directed by the government of State or private organizations (for much has religious vocation). The schools employ mainly English or the Bengali like language of training, although the Hindi and the Urdu are also employed. The schools prepare their high with the Indian certificate of secondary education (ICSE), with the central council for secondary education (CBSE), or the Western council of Bengal of secondary education. Within the framework of plan 10+2+3, after their secondary studies, the students fit typically in a university junior 2 year old (also known under the name of pre-university) or in the schools with a higher secondary service subsidiary company with the Western Council of Bengal of a higher secondary education. The students choose usually one of three jets - arts, trades, or science liberal, although the professional jets are also available. At the time achieving the requested coursework, the students can are registered in general or of the professional programs of degree.
Calcutta has nine universities; the many universities are subsidiary to these nine or other universities located apart from Calcutta. The university of Calcutta (founded in 1857) has more than 200 subsidiary universities. The university of technology and the Science of Bengal and the university of Jadavpur have the notable establishments of technology. Other notable establishments are university of the presidency and university of street Xavier. Some establishments of national importance are the Asian company, institute of Bump, the Indian statistical institute, the Indian institute of management, Indian association for the culture of Science, the institute of Saha of the nuclear physics, the Western national university of Bengal of legal sciences, the Western university of Bengal of technology, the research institute of marine technology and research and the Indian institute of the education of Science and research (IISER), Calcutta.
Dakshineshvar, the temple of Kâlî going back to 1809
- Victoria Memorial, museum of paintings and historical documents, built out of white marble between 1906 and 1921
- the cathedral Saint-Paul (1840 - 1847)
- the Botanical garden in the south of the city, on western bank of the Hûghlî where one can see one of the two larger trees banyan S of the world.
- College Street Coffee-House : policy, poetry, literature in general, the movement of the little magazines (small literary journals), editors and writers, young couples in love and university brilliances: Coffee House is located at College Street, in the north of Calcutta: the hive of the mental activities of the city, surrounded by prestigious institutions such as Presidency College, Scottish Church College, Bethune College, Medical College of Calcutta, Indian Institute off Social Welfare and Business Management, Hare School, Hindu School, Scottish Church School, Bethune School, Holy Child School and the University off Calcutta… Coffee House, a coffee which attracts the intelligence of the city since decades. The district is also famous for its innumerable small bookstores; it is the largest market of books of occasion of the whole world.
Transport and communications
Public transport is ensured by the railway network of suburbs of Calcutta, the subway of Calcutta, like by trams and buses. The network of suburbs is developed and serves the remote suburbs. The subway of Calcutta, managed by the Indian railroads, is the oldest underground transport system of the country. The line is parallel to Hooghly, along a North-South axis, and covers a distance of 16,45 kilometers. The buses are the principal mode of transport and are used either by government organizations, or by private operators. Calcutta is the only city of the country to still having a network of tram, limited to certain sectors of the city, managed by Calcutta Tramways Company. Air-conditioned buses of luxury recently brought into service connect also certain points of the city to the international airport Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
The private services include the yellow taxis, as well as the motor bike-rickshaws. Almost all the taxis of Calcutta are ambassadors, unlike the majority of the other indinnes cities where them Tata Indica and the FIAT are more common. In the cntre-city, the rickshaws with cycle and the rickshaws drawn with the hand are used for short distances. The private vehicles fewer and are used in comparison with other Indian cities. However, the city is pilot of a regular increase in the number of recorded vehicles; data reccueillies in 2002 revealed an increase in their number of 44% during the seven last years. The space dedicated to the circulation (matched with the population density) only of 6%, is compared with 23% in Delhi and 17% with Mumbai, creating serious problems of traffic. The subway of Calcutta and a certain number of new roads and infrastructures relieved congestion the traffic to a certain extent.
Calcutta has two main stations: Sealdah and Howrah. An invitation to tender for the construction of a third station was launched at the beginning of 2006. The city is the seat of two divisions of the Indian railroads - the Eastern railroad and the railroad of south-east.
The single airport of the city, the international airport Netaji Subhash Chandra Bump (code AITA: CCU), located at Dum Dum in the north of the city, accommodates the domestic and international flights. Calcutta is also an important port. The harbor authority of Calcutta manages the docks of Calcutta and the docks of Haldia. A service of passengers connects Port Blair in the islands of Andaman and Nicobar. There exists also a service of serving cargo liner of many ports in India and, exploited abroad by Indian Shipping Corporation. Moreover, of the services of vat connect Calcutta to its twin city of Howrah.
Note: It is interdict to take photographs of the bridge or subway of Calcutta
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