See also: Calais (homonymy)
Calais (in Dutch: Kales , in Flemish Westerner: Cales ) is a common French. Sub-prefecture of the department of the Pas-de-Calais in the area Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
The inhabitants of Calais are called the Calaisiens .
GeographyCalais is located on the Pas-de-calais which mark the limit between the Manche and the the North Sea.
Profiting for a very long time from a situation privileged, like port (E) towards England, it was protected by many forts in the middle of the city even and in the immediate surroundings, in North and the West. It drains today the activity of the railway networks and highway. In the alignment of the highway coming from Arras, Lens, Béthune and Saint-Omer, she close the point to trans-Manche loading (with Coquelles, in south-west), brought into service since the boring of the tunnel.
- Population city: : 73200 inhabitants (Calaisian)
- Population Agglomeration: : 98800 inhabitants
- Population urban Surface: : 119000 inhabitants
HistoryKaleis is a village of fishermen attested as of, but the first official document mentioning the existence of this community is the charter of commune granted by Mathieu of Alsace, charter known by the confirmation that in fact, in 1181, Gerard de Gueldre, count de Boulogne.
In 1224, Philippe Hurepel, count de Boulogne and wire of Philippe Auguste, makes strengthen the city, signs strategic importance of the latter.
The English seat (1346-1347)At the time of the War One hundred Year old, the king Edouard III of England, resulting from the house angevine of the Plantagenêts, the crown of France asserted. After having gained the victory of Crécy-in-Ponthieu in 1346, seeking a port city which would be the key for the unloading of its troops in France, it was pressed to go to make the head office of Calais and started, the September 4th 1346, the investment of the place for a seat which was to last eleven months. At the beginning of September 1346, the town of Calais, protected by its situation in the middle of marshy grounds invaded by water with each tide, was defended by a garrison placed under the command of a knight originating in Burgundy, Jean of Vienna assisted by a certain number of knights of Artois whose Jean Froissart transmitted the names to us: Ernoulz d' Audrehem, Jehans de Surie (or, of Sury), Baudouins de Belleborne (or, of Bellebrune), Joffroy of the Mound, Pip of Were (or, of Wiere, or, of Werie), to which the chronicle Norman adds the lords de Beaulo, of Grigny.
Seeing the definitively established English army (for a seat with the finish ), Jean of Vienna, fearing with raison d'être constrained by the famine to be gone, solved to demolish useless mouths and to expel city the people deprived of goods and provisions (between 500 and 1700 people according to the chroniclers)… There was little battle on ground around Calais, but at sea, the English king made place 25 boats in front of Calais… Ships génois, with the service of France, however succeeded in forcing the blockade, as well as Norman ships and sailors of Abbeville, to supply Calais and its besieged…
The king Edouard III solved to block the entry of the channel with obstacles of any nature and as from June 1347, it was impossible for the French to supply Calais… In cause of despair, the Jean captain of Vienna wrote a letter with king de France, Philippe VI of Valois, asking him to come to carry help to him “… the garrison had other alternatives only to try a desperate exit: we like better to die in the fields honourably to eat us one the other!. ”. This letter transmitted via a boat génois was intercepted by the English navy and thus arrived never to Philippe VI.
The June 27th 1347 however, the French Army appeared with height of Sangatte. Flemings and of Teutons went English side, of Hennuyers went French side. Two papal legates were dispatched in Calais and truce a three days was concluded. The blocking of all the passages leading to Calais by the English preventing the king of France from intervening, Jean of Vienna, pressed by the population of Calais besieged since eleven months, required then of parlementer with the English king on the rendering of Calais on the condition of saving the population and the garrison.
Furious of the resistance of Calais, Edouard III wanted to massacre the population of it, but it accepted nevertheless, under the terms of this negotiation, to save it in the condition that six notable comes to him, head and barefeet, with a cord around the neck to be hung: they were Eustace of Saint Pierre, Jehan d' Aire, Jacques de Wissant and his brother Pierre, Jean de Fiennes, and Andrieux d' Andres. On their arrival at Edouard III, these six middle-class men of Calais however were saved thanks to the intervention of the wife of the English king, Philippa de Hainaut, which, melting in tears, beseeched her husband to save them. Edouard III still agreed to make grace, but exiled all the Calaisians which did not make him oath of allegiance to replace them by citizens English.
In the center of the principal place of Calais, the original of the nine copies of the monument carried out by Auguste Rodin, the Middle-class men of Calais , is set up in commemoration of this event.
English occupation (1347-1558)The city was occupied by the English, at the end of August 1347, and the king re-embarked for England, leaving troops to the guard of Calais under the orders of Jean de Montgomery to the service of the English king, with the captive French knights - among whom above mentioned Jehan of Vienna and Jehan de Sury. Philippe VI repurchased these noble prisoners when they were put at ransom in 1348 after being remained six months in England. During three years, as from 1347, Edouard III being satisfied to maintain Calais, from the truces were concluded between France and England.
The municipal charter of Calais previously granted by the countess of Artois was confirmed the same year per Edouard. In 1360, the Traité of Brétigny subjected Guînes, Marck and Calais - collectively called “Blade off Calais” - with the English domination with perpetuity, but this tender was abstract and was applied only partly. In 1363, Calais becomes customs port. Become parliamentary administrative division, it sends, starting from 1372, of the representatives to the House of Commons of the Parlement of England keeping however a bond with France while continuing to belong to the ecclesiastical diocese of Thérouanne. During these years, Calais was regarded as forming integral part of the kingdom of England. Above the principal door, an inscription ( When shall the Frenchmen Calais win When iron and lead like Cork shall swim ) proclaimed that it would be French only when the Fer and the Plomb would float like the Liege.
The great importance of Calais like place of access to the trade of tin, lead, fabric and wools - by far, the most important element - is worth to him to be described as “jewel more the brilliance of the English crown”. Its customs receipts rose sometimes with a third of the income of the English government. On a population of approximately: 12000 inhabitants: 5400 were related to the trade of wool. The governorship of Calais was a lucrative public office strong appraisal; thus, Richard Whittington was simultaneously lord-mayor of London and Calais in 1407.
The French reconquest (1558)In the absence of any natural defense, the maintenance of the English seizure on Calais depended nevertheless on maintained fortifications at ransom price. The proximity of Calais with the free-Burgundian border frequently put the English domination to the test of the forces of France and the Duché of Burgundy. The English domination on Calais largely owed its longevity with this competition between Burgundy and France, both coveting the city but preferring to rather see it with the hands of the English than of their rival.
The victory of the French crown over the duchy of Burgundy and its subsequent incorporation with the territory of the crown of France marked the end of this status quo. Having finally the freehands to take again Calais, France names, with its return of Italy in 1557, the duke François de Guise, known as “the Gash”, general lieutenant of the kingdom. The January 7th 1558, this last benefits from the weakening of the garrison and the dilapidation of the fortifications to reconquer Calais.
This loss was regarded by the queen Marie Tudor as a dreadful misfortune. She would have, with the advertisement of this news, known as: “When I die and open, one will find Philippe (his husband) and Calais registered in my heart. ”
Lord Wentworth, governor of the city and the English inhabitants of Calais and Guînes were then returned in England and the Calaisis was famous “Country reconquered” to commemorate the re-establishment of the French domination.
In 1596, Calais was, during an invasion assembled starting from the Spanish Netherlands close, captured by the Spaniards but the Spain returned it in 1598 to France according to the terms of the Traité of Vervins.
Calais was also on the frontlines of the conflict of France with the the United Kingdom during the Napoleonean Guerres. In 1805, it accommodated the army of Napoleon and the fleet of invasion for its fallen through invasion of Great Britain.
The First World WarAt the time of the First World War, Calais will be the first French city to undergo an attack of airships. The February 23rd 1915, the Zeppelin ZX flies over the town of night. With 4:20, ten explosions awakes the Calaisians, the Gare of Fontinettes and the railways are aimed but they undergo only light damage. However, to the 8 of the street Dognin, there are five died. A curfew is established, but another raid of zeppelin ZX II takes place the March 18th 1915, striking Fort-Nieulay, the ways of railroad, the Gambetta boulevard as well as the Notre-Dame cathedral whose stained glasses are pulverized. A third raid follows, the May 17th 1915, when another zeppelin releases its bombs on Strong Nieulay, making victims. It is however reached by the planes and painfully regains its base of Maubeuge. Other raids will follow the July 28th 1915, the September 22nd 1916 and the last the February 17th 1917.
The Second world warAfter the invasion of France by the German forces, the area was administratively attached by Reich to Belgium. At the end of the war, fearing an unloading of the allied forces in the vicinity, they had founded an area closed around the port. One finds still today, near the town hall, a vestige of the wall delimiting this zone.
In February 45, whereas the city is already released, Calais will undergo a tragedy bombardment due to an error of appreciation of the British thinking of flying over… Dunkirk! The fire of the old city, which resulted from it, destroyed most of its past.
Sub-prefectureCalais, whose toponym is closely associated in the name of its department, did not occupy, until the January 9th 1962, which the modest row of chief town of canton. The sub-prefecture of Calais becomes operative the January 10th.
The armorial bearings of Calais were granted by the king Henri II in 1558. The cross of Jerusalem and the crescent evoke the passage, in this city, of the French and English crusaders. The flower of lily and the crown mark the satisfaction of king de France to recover Calais after more than two centuries of English occupation. The Cross of Lorraine refer to the liberator of the city, the duke of Lorraine, François de Guise.
Places and monuments
the turn of Guet , dating from the 13th century, has a 38 meters height and was classified historic building by decree of November 6th, 1931.
the church Notre-Dame (of XIIIe, XIVe and XVe), with the Style so particular Tudor, obtained its classification Historic building by decree of September 10th, 1913.
on March 18th, 1915, its stained glasses were destroyed during the bombardment by the Zeppelin Z XII . The General De Gaulle there Maria on April 7th, 1921 with Yvonne Vendroux.
- the building, having undergone other extensive damage lasting the Second world war, is not for the moment that partially rebuilt. The part corresponding to the chorus, the Retable and the Vault of the Virgin , since nearly 60 years always on standby of a restoration, are prohibited with the public. (to Voir the external bond below proposing a virtual visit of this not restored part! )
- the royal Cistern of the Notre-Dame church, with the very thick walls (of 2 meters at certain places with 4 meters with the keystone) and of a capacity of 1800 m ³.
the Citadel of the 16th century.
Vauban will also come to improve it and make of it a military city in the style of Brest and the La Rochelle. Finally the castle will be definitively shaven with.
The interior works will be destroyed during the Second world war. One can still there discover the medieval ramparts, and traverse the flowered alleys of the door of Neptune. It shelters a general sports stage.
strong Nieulay (17th century).
Basin of the paradise
Longitude Is 1°50' 55.32" northern latitude 50°57' 40.68" A notch formed at the first millenium of our era to the outlet of the river of Guines, gives rise to a port where gathered marine and fishing. Désenvasé under the English occupation in 1397, it is deepened, increased and modernized during the centuries. The basin of the paradise, which sheltered until 100 boats, is a vestige of the old installations. Its périclita activity as from 1900. From now on, a score of boats maintains the tradition, of the fishermen yachtmen especially, that do not reject its draining with low tide. Previously, August 15th, to release ducks allowed courageous swimmers to try to catch them there. Since a few year, this tradition, following lodged complaints by militants worried by " ill treatments towards the animaux" (above mentioned carnards) are replaced by naval tournaments. At the end of the quay of Angouleme, a martyrdom of the sailor was set up in 1988 with wood coming from the pier Is.
the Northern Headlight of Calais
Monuments of the Rescuers
was installed in 1899, boulevard des Alliés then transferred in 1960 to Courgain. It is about a bronze of the sculptor Edouard Lormier.
Classification historic buildings
Labor market and its market hall (cad. Al 675): inscription by decree of June 28th, 2000
Citadelle Carries City or Hermitage, known as also carries Royale or carries Neptune: inscription by decree of February 15th, 1939; Carry from Boulogne, known as also Porte of help: inscription by decree of February 15th, 1939; Citadel with its curtains and ditches, and the half-moon defending the entry towards the city, beyond the channel of the citadel (cad. Data base 7,8,13,16,17,20): inscription by decree of April 27th, 1990.
Column Louis XVIII
Column commemorative of the unloading of Louis XVIII in Calais: classification by decree of April 11th, 1933
underground Crypt under belfry
underground Crypt under the site of the belfry: inscription by decree of May 23rd, 1951
Strong Risban (cad. Data base 6 to 8): inscription by decree of April 27th, 1990
" If one loses oneself in conjectures about his origins, perhaps related to the project of conquest of the England worked out by the emperor Caligula about year 40 before our era, the first attested mention of its existence goes back to 1346: the troops of Edouard III of England discover impregnable fortifications of Calais and decide to raise here a fort intended to prevent any supply by sea, in the intention reducing the city by the famine. Located on a sand language, it was insulated with high tide: this position was worth to him its of Riskbank (perilous height) transformed into Risban. Under the English occupation, the wood tower leaves room to a stone building, the New Tower , renamed Lancaster Tower after 1400. Several times altered, this maritime fort, downgraded in 1908 service at the time of the Second War mondiale" began again;.
- strong Risban was altered by Vauban at the 17th century after its visit in 1677 with the king.
- 1799 strong Risban was victim of an explosion of its powder deposit.
- Town hall: for the external parts: the whole of the frontages and roofs on street and the belfry; for the interior parts: the hall of honor and its canopy, the main staircase (including the slope and the canopy), the corridor of service road of the first stage, rooms of pageantry of the first stage (including their decoration): the room of the marriages, the living room of honor, the living room of the municipal council and the cabinet of pageantry (cad. AB 33): inscription by decree of June 26th, 2003
Real Real 74 Boulevard Jacquard
- (old office annexes Car Club of the North of France) 74 boulevard Jacquard: The frontage (cad. AB 415): inscription by decree of July 28th, 2000
Northern Calais photographs
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