The Area of Calabria (in Italian: Regione Calabria ), more usually called the Calabria (in Italian: Calabria ), is a Région of Italy located at the extreme South-west of the peninsula (with the point of the “boot”).
Calabria is initially under domination Lucanie, then it is colonized by the Greek because of its strategic importance (control of the strait of Messine). Greek colonization is rather important and the area is gradually hellénisée. With the Sicily, it constitutes the “Grande Greece”. It is the ground of adoption of Pythagore. As from third century BC, the area passes little by little under the control of Rome which calls it Bruttium , of the name of the people of the Bruttiens, old allies of Hannibal, which occupy the area.
In the Antiquity, it was the point of the heel of the Italian boot, the part in the South of the Apulie which was called Calabria (in Latin Calabria ). The Calabria had as a principal city Brundisium (in Italian Brindisi ; in French Brindès or Brindisi ), an important port of the Adriatique and to which the “Via Appia” and “Via Trajana carried out”.
Á to leave the end of Antiquity, it does not escape the invasions Barbare S: it is plundered and ransacked by the Visigoths of the kings Alaric and Athaulf (410/411). Alaric dies under the walls of Cosenza and is buried with an important treasure in the bed of the Busento, which sprinkles the city. The “Treasury of Alaric”, which has always escaped with the plunderers and the treasure hunters, is required always as much. It is also plundered by the Vandales installed in Roman Africa, then partially passes under ostrogothic domination . At the time of the Gothic Wars opposing Ostrogoths to the Byzantine , it is devastated by the warriors of Totila before passing under Byzantine domination then by bands of Francs and Alamans come (in theory) to help the Goths new king Teias. The Lombards also penetrate them in Calabria little time after their invasion of Italy and the area regularly undergoes the attacks of the duchy lombard of Bénévent of Bénévent. The king lombard Liutprand is perhaps at the origin of the current Calabrian city of Longobardi, founded towards 735, which draws its name from the people lombard (the Langobards , become Lombards for the France; Longobardi in Italian). Á to leave the 9th century it starts to undergo the ceaseless raids of Pirates Sarrasins then at the 10th century, it is perhaps reached and plundered by Magyar bands which ventured in Italy until Bénévent. At the 11th century, it is conquered little by little by Normands. The famous Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard, arrived to Italy in 1047, installs his reference mark with San Marco Argentano (1048), on the heights of the Crati. From there, it sows terror in the area, plundering the monasteries, holding to ransom the population and badgering the Byzantine troops. The Normands expel little by little the Byzantines of Calabria and set up the area in duchy (1059), becoming Robert, in addition to duke of Apulie, duke of Calabria and Sicily. The catch of Reggio in 1061, completes the conquest Norman of Calabria. The latter is used for then basic to attack and conquer Moslem Sicily and sarrasine. Roger de Hauteville, called (it) “Bump” or “Bosso” for its robustness, and younger brother of “Guiscard” settles with Mileto about 1061. From there, it starts the long conquest of Sicily, completed in 1091 with the catch of Noto. In 1130, the Norman duchy of Calabria is attached to the Norman kingdom of Sicily of the king Roger II of Sicily. Under the period Norman, after one period of disorders and wars succeeds, as from the 12th century, one boom. Many religious buildings are built or rebuilt.
The fate of Calabria remains related to the sicilian kingdom then: passing very to turn Hauteville with the Hohenstaufen (starting from 1194 - 1197/1198), then with the French (Angevins) (second half of the 13th century), with the Spanish , the Habsbourg S (those of Spain and those of Austria), then with the Bourbons. Lastly, in 1860, it is integrated into the kingdom of Italy, reunified.
It is a primarily mountainous area, cash several solid masses: the Pollino, the Sierra of Pellegrino, the Sorino, the Sila and the Aspromonte. The valleys narrow and are gullied. The climate is marked by a long estival dryness and rainy semi-seasons. the winters are soft is rainy, the summers are very hot is dry.
Calabria is divided into 5 provinces:
At the time of the invasion Piedmont ease in 1860 (“ Risorgimento ”), Calabria is one of the richest area S and industrialized of all the Italy. The area is especially famous for its Sidérurgie S and its factories of Arme S. Of the industrial complexes such as those of Mongiana or Ferdinandea are, at the time, the floret of the industry of the Royaume of Deux-Siciles, industrialization initiated by the Bourbon-Siciles. The end of this industrial era of Calabria (as of all the S. of Italy) starts starting from 1860 when the royal house of Savoy moves the economic center and industrialist of the south to the NR. of Italy. It is at this same time that the Mafia in the south is established. These effects were so harmful that 140 years after the fall of the kingdom of Deux-Siciles, the area suffers from it still currently.
Today, Calabria is one of the poorest areas of Italy. Approximately a quarter of the Population is with the Chômage, the proportion borders half in the young people. Its main resource is the Agriculture: olive-tree S, Fruit trees (mainly Citrus fruits S), Wood (Chestnut and Fir tree). The breeding occupies an important place. The Tourisme is in growth, especially along the coast on the side of Tropea, Amantea, etc, on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Calabria is also, since the end of the 19th century, an important source of colonist S and labor for many countries of the whole world like mainly the Argentine and the Brésil in South America, the the United States, the Canada, the Australia, and the France, the Belgium, the Germany and the Suisse concerning the Europe. If this emigration were dried up in the the Seventies, of many Calabrians must still leave their area for the north of Italy, centers economic Péninsule, for work. But the situation was arranged thanks to with the moonlighting which de facto, even if it is not entered, contributes to the walk of the local economy. Calabria becomes itself today a place of immigration for many people originating in Europe of the East.
It also has a gangster tradition comparable with that of the neighbor Sicily. The Maffia local door the name of Ndrangheta and goes back to the XIXe century.
Official site of the '' Regione Calabria ''
- Site of the '' Calabria ''
- Web portal of the '' Calabria ''
|Random links:||KSK Beveren | Mike Gibbins | Beni Messous | Laurence Rees | Sulzano | Alpes_de_Lepontine|