Cahors (in Occitan Caurs ˈkɔws, ˈkɔw ) is a common French, located in the department of the Lot, of which it is the Préfecture, and the area the Midday-Pyrenees.
Its inhabitants is called the Cadurciens (formerly Cahorsins ).
The city is known for its Vignoble (see Vignoble of Cahors)
The currency of the east city: “Sèm de Caurs, avèm not paur”, namely “We are of Cahors, we are not afraid”, the pronunciation Occitan E of Cahors rimant with “paur”.
Blasonnement in is: “ Of Mouths to built the sand money bridge posed on money waves also charged with five towers covered with same built and openwork of sand, summoned of five flowers of lily of gold lines as a chief. ”
GeographyThe commune is located at 115 km in the north of Toulouse, on the axis RN 20/has 20 connecting the pink city to Paris. The density of the population is there relatively high (309 inhabitants with the km). Confronted with several natural obstacles, the city, limited in its geographical expansion has densified its territory. The growth of the urbanization of the city must indeed take account of the very tormented topography of the valley of the Lot. The bar of relief consisted the isthmus of the loop of the Batch, is connected in fact to an additional bridge: Cahors is a peninsula. It is the first specificity. The extremely accentuated relief is the major data of the site of Cahors. The built site of Cahors took possession of the natural site and its original urban form gave him.
Indeed, he plays a determining role in the organization of the space of the city. The development of Cahors, blocked by the constraints of the site, remained a long time contained within the limits of the peninsula. The city is isolated doubly on the one hand by the belt from water which constitutes shingles it of the Batch contained around its walls, on the other hand, by the abrupt walls that the circus of the Cevennes constitutes which determine the loop of all shares. The the Cevennes are slopes stiff, arid, now deserted by the Vignoble with the profit from a thin vegetation from maquis, which are as many natural limits to the Urbanisation of the city.
The site does not appear favorable to the development of large a Agglomération. The valley does not widen that in the east with the terraces of Cabessut and Red Ground, in the west with the terrace of Labéraudie: there, the expansion possible well that is limited by the risks of flood and the persistence of market-gardening activities. Against the south, one runs up against the slopes precipice of the Holy Mount Cyr and Pech d' Angely. Three advantages however made the value of the site: an easy defense, the river navigable, often dangerous but surer than the ways in the Antiquity, the situation of crossroads, junction of Bartassec, convenient milestone along the way Toulouse Rodez. The urban development was done primarily on a NORTH-SOUTH axis.
An opulent Gallo-Roman cityThe Quercy, whose department of the Lot is one of the components, was inhabited 40.000 years ago, as the caves of the Valley of That show it (Pech Merle for example with Cabrerets). Then were installed on the heights, the oppida strengthened, of the Cadurques, Gaulois tributary of the Arvernes. Their place-strong was Uxellodunum which one officially locates from now on at the Puy d' Issolud, after secular hesitations around Capdenac, Luzech, Murcens… The name Uxellodunum means " high-citadelle" and was into 51 before J. - C. one of the last bastions resisting César.
See also: Divona
Plunderings and arguments
But the city was burnt in 571 by Théodebert Ier, king of Austrasie and grandson of Clovis. Raised of its ruins by the bishop Holy Didier, said also Holy Géry, which made there build the first cathedral in 650), the city was again plundered by the Sarrasins in 732, then by the Viking S and the Hungarian.
The town of Cahors a long time was disputed, and besieged more often than in its turn: of the Romain Jules César or Frank Théodebert Ier with the king of Navarre Henri IV while passing by the English claims of Richard Lion-hearted, later of the Prince Noir. With the center even of the city the conflict lasts for ever between bishops, Consul S then seneshals to assume the capacity.
The September 2nd 1272, the bishop of Cahors, Barthelemy, and the consuls of the city intend themselves to name “referees and friendly type-setters” charged to settle the disagreements which have occurred between them about the old habits and of the new habits. The July 23rd 1304, in a statement made publicly in the church cathedral of Cahors, Raymond, bishop of the city, recognizes that it holds the consuls and inhabitants of this city for goods and true catholic, chaplains (generous in their alms ), priors and excessively pious people.
Jean XXII, a pope cadurcian
In does XIVe Cahors century profit from generosities of the pope Jean XXII, born Jacques Duèze (or D' Euze?), in 1245, in Cahors in a family established well in the city and been dependant on the notable ones. Died in Avignon in 1334, Jean XXII had been concerned much about his birthplace, his family and his fellow-citizens. He built a palate, of which there remain still some elements and a tower, named " of the pope Jean XXII". It is him which founds in 1331 the Université of Cahors, which was one of the first created in France (this university will attract large law professors in particular like Cujas and will be around 1450 one of the most prestigious universities of France and cash the most students. This university is amalgamated with that of Toulouse in 1751 on decision of the chancellor of the king, the Stub).
At the time medieval, it is a money market, where the bankers lombards flow.
During the War One hundred Year old, the city is a time under English domination. The January 8th 1362, it must go to the lieutenant of the king of England, Chandos, in the presence of the marshal French Boucicaut. The February 5th 1369, the consuls of Cahors swear to carry help to the King de France Charles V informant that, “ even under the English domination, they had never ceased having the French heart ”.
With the Rebirth, Cahors remains an artisanal and industrial city active. Its wines, known since the Romans and appreciated in the world of the time, which ensure him of the incomes, are competed with by those of Bordeaux, supported by the English. In 1562, the catholics kill eight Protestants, in a confrontation of street.
In May 1580, during the Seventh war of religion, Henri de Navarre makes the seat of it. The captain Jean de Vezins refuses rendering. The attackers make jump the door, then take the city after three days and three nights of street battles, Barricade by barricade. This catch contributes enormously to the prestige of the future Henri IV: it is always in the middle of the engagements, involves his comrades in arms, rejoins them unceasingly, day before to avoid plundering, prevents the massacre.
The Pilgrimage of CompostelleThe city is crossed by one of the ways of the Pèlerinage of Saint-Jacques-to-Compostelle It Via Podiensis.
On the Via Podiensis of the Pilgrimage of Saint-Jacques-to-Compostelle .
The jacquets arrived of Saint-Cirq-Lapopie for those which had borrowed the valley of the That, or of Varaire for those which had borrowed the valley of the Lot.
The exit of the city and the crossing of the Batch which was done at the first centuries of the Christian era like nowadays opposite the Saint-Georges district, it was also done as from the 14th century by the Valentré bridge.
The pilgrims went up then by a rather stiff way to the Cross of Magne and from there, after a last glance on the panorama of the old city of Cadurques, took again their way in the direction that always the Milky Way to them indicated. On this course, the next commune is Labastide-Marnhac.
Cahors had several hospitals of which that of Saint-Jacob which was initially close to the current Galdémar place. In 1683, it was transferred to the locality the Cross from the Capuchins. A vault dedicated to the apostle of Spain was called at the 16th Saint-Jacob century of Penitent as from the moment when it was the seat of a brotherhood the Penitent Blue ones, a very interesting retable was preserved there.
Since the XVIIe centuryDuring centuries, the city loses of its gloss and its prestige. The university is closed at the XVIIe century. It preserved nevertheless an excellent establishment of secondary education, inherited the school the Jesuits, royal or imperial college, which will become the Lycée Gambetta which formed during the centuries of many future celebrities: lawyers, poets, marshals of Empire, medical celebrities, politicians, journalists…
The department of the Batch, of which it is the chief town, is amputee, in 1808, of its southern part to the profit of the Tarn-et-Garonne and of Montauban. At the XXe century, Cahors has in particular as a mayor and deputy Anatole de Monzie many times minister under IIIe republic and Maurice Faure, Minister for IVe republic, one of the signatories of the Treaty of Rome creating the European Community.
From Cahors Mundi in Cahors Rugby
In 1949, on the initiative of Robert Sarrazac and with that associated with Emile Baynac, teacher, founder of the " Francs and frank camarades" , Cahors, chief town of the French department of the Batch, had declared citizen city of the world: " Cahors Mundi ". The following year, June 24th and 25th 1950, Cahors will celebrate in large pump this first birthday in the presence of the Nobel Prize of Peace 1949, the Scot Lord Boyd Orr, founder of FAO with UNO. André Breton, the pope of Surrealism takes part in the festivities organized close to the medieval monument, the Valentré bridge. This demonstration marked the beginning of a movement which implied a thousand of territories in 13 country. See http://www.recim.org/dem/lot.htm. Cahors was also pointed out for its performances in the Rugby . The Cadurcien Stage, become Cahors_Rugby obtained nice successes: Champion of France of the Second Division: 1955; Finalist Championship of France the Second Division: 1993; Winner Cuts Hope: 1959; Finalist Cuts Hope: 1960; Quarter of finalist Championship of France (Béziers) 0 to 3: 1962; Quarter of finalist Championship of France (Doors) 0 to 3: 1963; Champion of France from Federal 2: 2003.
The population cadurcian is statistically growing old. The center town is depopulated with the profit of the surrounding villages which constitute as many dormitories for people who work downtown. Many new constructions without seal nor traditional reference in common the surrounding testify to this displacement of population. In the same way the trade of the center town lost of its dynamism to the profit of the supermarkets established with the periphery (Leclerc, Carrefour, Lidl etc) and which drain with their comfortable carparks the consumers. Moreover Cahors which appeared among the cities of the South of less than the 20.000 youngest inhabitants of France in the years 1990 cannot offer to its youth work stations being able to retain it of number. Vis-a-vis the lack of work suggested, a majority of young people leave the city to join Toulouse or Paris. This ageing of the population is all the more marked that the city becomes a choice place for the French pensioners as well as foreign.
The agglomeration cadurcian was often presented like a peripheral small town of Toulouse, in the middle of an “empty” territory. It is a city which draws its raison d'être from its directing role of prefecture on a space lotois devitalized. The Lot, which remained a long time in margin of the large communication and trade flows, is a department strongly marked by its rurality and a soil without true tradition industrial and deprived of structuring urban reinforcement. Currently, agriculture, the vine and the Tourisme are its main resources, but the department shelters also cultural festivals of quality: Gindou (cinemas of the south), Cajarc (Africajarc), Assier (musics), Belaye (violoncello) etc Its extra-secondary road influence is reduced; it is subjugated with the regional and national economic order.
In spite of that, thanks to its role of prefecture of the Batch, the city could remain in a declining rural region where it took an increasingly important place. Cahors is also one of these towns of the Midday-Pyrenees which, behind a frontage of administrative city of Province, hide an industrial activity of a rather high technological level. The urban characteristics, the level of the services can together support the establishment of new companies and more precisely of SME and SME which trouveent here an urban company and an environment on their scale. Moreover, Cahors has a river port on the Batch managed by the Chamber of commerce and of industry of the Batch.
In 1997, the magazine the Company had classified Cahors as being, among the towns of 20.000 inhabitants, most powerful in industrialists job creation. Vis-a-vis the crisis of the big cities, Cahors gradually adapts the image of a remained urban center with human size and as well as possible preserving a certain quality of life. Cahors finally found its place as an urban pole relay of the regional capital which is Toulouse.
Cahors is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of the Batch. It manages in addition to the port of the city, the consular Center of formation, the Interview technique wintering and Base with boats of Saint-Gery, the port of Douelle, the port of Luzech, the port of Bouzies. It manages also Hotels of companies and the ZI Southern Cahors.
The city, which counts already a Music school equipped with a concert hall, obtained in 2003 a media library and organized the reopening of the Theater. The Museum Henri Martin, renovated by Laurent Guillot, offers interesting artistic exposures (Hartung, Olivier Debré…), just as of other sites downtown like Chantrerie with exposures of contemporary art (the FLAC, Sanfourche, Patrick Moya, Didier Chamizo and Bernard Pras in 2007) or the Attic of the Chapter. Caviole Space makes it possible to organize concerts in the open air. Cahors Blues Festival has existed for 25 years and present in the middle of the summer the largest artists of the blues. Since 2003, the installation at the beginning of the autumn of a new French-speaking festival makes it possible to pay homage to the culture of a foreign country where the French-speaking culture plays a big role.
The Docks are a place dedicated to youth where côtoient a side of climbing, musical workshops and workshops of new technologies.
The market close to the cathedral remains a meeting place animated for Cadurciens.
In spite of these new infrastructures and these efforts, the cultural activity(AP) of Cahors saw these last years the geographical shift of prestigious festivals like the Printemps of the Photograph (located today at Toulouse) or the Missing link , which attracted many tourists and artists. Little by little, the tourist multitude stagnates whereas it counted for much in the economic dynamism of the city.
Personalities born in Cahors or there having lived
- Jean XXII
- Clement Marot
- Olivier de Magny
- Guillaume Lacoste
- Leon Gambetta
- Francis Maratuech
- Jean-Jacques Chapou
- Philippe Gaubert
- Jean Bouzerand
- Andre Girard
- Anatole de Monzie appointed, minister, mayor of Cahors
- Raymond Coly
- Georges Héreil
- Andre Nouyrit
- Didier Chamizo
- Alfred Roques
- Charles Dumont
- Denis Charvet
- Philoxène Boyer
- Pierre Laville
- Abdelatif Benazzi
- Marc Petit
- Jean-Pierre Ramel elder the is a general of Empire, born in 1768 and died in 1815.
Former students (or professors) of the Gambetta College
- Hugues Salel (1504-1533), poet of the Rebirth
- François Roaldès (1519-1589) professor at the university of Cahors
- Jacques Cujas (1522-1590) lawyer, professor at the University of Cahors
- Olivier de Magny (1529-1561) poet of the Rebirth
- Pierre Cartwright (1541-1603) writer, moralist
- Jean of Lacoste (1576-1637) jurisconsult
- Fénelon 1651-1715) François de Salignac de Lamothe-Fénelon was Cambric archbishop, tutor of the Princes de France
- Joachim Murat (1767-1815) Marshal of France, prince d' Empire and king de Naples
- Jean-Baptiste Bessières (1768-1813) Marshal of France, duke of Istrie
- Jean-Pierre Ramel (1768-1815) Marshal of France
- Jean-Louis Galdemar (1769-1837), general of Empire
- Jean-Michel Agar (1771-1844) count de Mosbourg, Minister for Finance of the king de Naples
- Pierre Bonhomme (1803-1861) Founder of the congregation of the Sisters of Notre-Dame of the Martyrdom with Gramat
- Charles de Freycinet (1828-1923) Charles-Louis Saulces de Freycinet was senator, minister, president of the council
- Leon Gambetta (1838-1882) Lawyer, deputy, minister, president of council
- Gustave Larroumet (1852-1903) directing of the Art schools
- François Roussel (1864-19??) to advise state
- Leon Lafage (1874-1953) poet, occitanist
Henri Redon (1899-1974) doctor cancer specialist
- Eugene Pujol (1899-1986) painter
- Leon Bouzerand (1907-1972) photographer
- Jean-Jacques Chapou (1909-1944) resistant
- Andre Girard (1909-1993) resistant
- Roger Couderc (1918-1984) sports correspondent
- Rene Andrieu (1920-1998) journalist, editor association of the Humanity .
- Georges Héreil (1907-1980) industrial, father of the Caravel
- Martin Malvy journalist, deputy, minister, president of the Area the Midday-Pyrenees
- Pierre Laville lawyer, playwright
- Jean Le Garrec, deputy, minister,
- Jacques Bouzerand journalist, leader of television, art critic
- Eric Neuhoff journalist, writer
- Edmond Jouve lawyer
- Bernard Pagès artist
- Andre Nouyrit artist
- Denis Charvet rugby player, producing
- Paul Pavlovitch writer
- Henri de Laborde of Monpezat, S.A.R. prince Henrik of Denmark
Tourist monuments and placesthe monuments whose name is followed mention MH are classified with the Inventory of the historic buildings
the Bridge Valentré (MH), emblem of the city which is reproduced on its armorial bearings;
- Weephole (MH), the Weephole protected the door from the Bar;
- Turn of hung (MH).
- Church St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (MH), 14th century (the church was called Saint-Etienne de Soubiroux ( Sancti Stephani de Superioribus ) until the 13th century, in opposition to the cathedral which was in the low district).
- Palate Duèze (MH);
- Turn of the pope Jean XXII. The tower is the only vestige of the palate of Pierre Duèze, brother of the pope Jean XXII.
- Pélegry College, turn of staircase crenelated (MH), end 15th century (the Pélegry college was founded in 1368 and was, until the 18th century, one of the most important establishments of the city);
- District of Sea-bream: one finds there:
- the house Hérétié (14th century-16th century);
- the house Dolive (17th century);
- the house of the Torturer (XIIIe);
- Cathedral Saint-Etienne (MH);
- Cloister (MH);
- Archidiaconé (MH);
- House Henri IV or Hotel of Roaldès (15th century) (MH);
- the Gambetta boulevard, built today on the site of the ditch of the ramparts;
- Town hall, architect Malo (1837 - 1847);
- the House of Tourism, places François-Mitterrand (the building also shelters the funds old and Quercy funds of the public library);
- the Arc of Diane, vestige of the Gallo-Roman thermal baths;
- Statue of Leon Gambetta, place François-Mitterrand;
- Fountain and monumental Horloge with balls by Michel Zachariou.
Parks and green areasThe commune is a flowered city having obtained four flowers with distrinction Grand Prix with the Concours of the cities and flowered villages and Gold medal with the contest European 2004.
- Two places deserves the turning:
- the Tassart park;
- the circuit of the secret Gardens of Cahors.
- Devil of the Bridge Valentré , Joel Polomski, adapted Legendary of Quercy of Robert Martinot,
- Common of the Batch
- Official site of the town hall
- Tourist bureau
- Public library
- trade of Cahors
- wines of ancient Cahors
- Way Diolindum with Divona
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