See also: Bus
A bus (or drunk ), like a coach (or because ), is a Véhicule Automobile for the Public transport travellers. The word drunk and bus comes from Omnés Omnibus which was the slogan of the hatter Omnés with Nantes where the first joint grid system of the world stationed.
HistoryAppeared at the beginning of the 20th century, in the line of the Diligence S and other cars of public transport to animal haulage, this type of vehicle was initially reserved for the lines with weak Road traffic, because of its low capacity (a score to about thirty places).
Starting from the Years 1980, the bus is sometimes replaced by the Tramway, even the Métro, on the lines with strong traffic of certain big cities. These other means of transport have a raised capital cost, but a stronger flexible capacity, a weaker cost of exploitation and are less polluting, because of their electric traction.
Bus and coach: differences
BusThe term bus makes reference to an urban use or périurbain in which the speed of the vehicles is relatively low and frequent stops. One thus authorizes the station there upright, and these vehicles comprise several doors for the rise and the descent of the travellers. They are prohibited on highway way and the by-passs big cities cannot thus always borrow.
From now on, the buses are very often with automatic Gear box. The most recent buses are flattened to facilitate the rise and the descent of the passengers with reduced mobility (handicapped people, elderly, people with poussettes); they can be inclined towards the pavement and some are even provided with a retractable slope going to the ground.
CapacitiesThe most current buses can transport approximately 140 people, the Norwegian company of bus Oslo Public Transport, in a publicity, made a calculation which made it possible to determine that such a bus was equivalent to a stopper of cars from about 1 kilometer length, by calculating 1 meter between each car and an average length of 5 meters for the cars. The Covoiturage is not taken into account in this publicity.
For the urban lines with weak traffic or circulating in narrow streets (historical downtown area, etc…), minibuses are generally used. It is about reduced gauge bus. Their width is lower than 2,55 m and their length lies between 8 and 11 meters.
For the urban lines with strong traffic, one uses sometimes articulated buses of 18 m, which bring a profit of notable capacity (to 160 passengers).
CoachFor the interurban connections, one uses coaches , in which the travellers obligatorily sat. Besides the directive 2003/20/CE of the the European Parliament imposes the use of the safety belts in the coaches which are equipped with it (those which were put in circulation after October 1st 2001). The Highway code French was modified in this direction in July 2003.
The coaches are equipped with compartments in which the passengers can deposit their cumbersome luggage. These compartments are located under the cockpit and, consequently, the coaches are appreciably higher than the buses. For the long connections (often of night), certain coaches have of toilets and berths or tilting seats.
The buses are especially designed to carry out ways less long than their big brothers, the coaches.
Specific alternatives and equipmentSome of these vehicles are organized in two levels or bridges: one speaks in this case about imperial (drunk with imperial of London, touring buses to imperial). The interest is to lay out of more than place in a of the same vehicle length and having same maneuverability. However, the additional height induced by this organization presents security issues, serious accidents having occurred at the time of the passage under works of art too low. It imposes a pruning (trees) larger and the installation of the staircase makes lose part of the advantage of capacity. The sight often better, is released at least, for the passengers of the first stage.
The basic text of the passenger transport in France remains the Law of Orientation of the Inland Transports of December 30th, 1982, known as PARCELLED OUT, amended by various texts.
In FranceThe same driving license is necessary for the buses and the coaches: the license public transport (D in France), obligatory as soon as the number of potential passengers of the vehicle, driver included/understood, exceeds nine people. In lower part of this number, the applicable legal tendencies are those of the vehicles of tourism. This license is valid for all the vehicles compared to the passenger transport.
The drivers must also pass the FIMO (obligatory minimal initial training). A recall (FCOS or obligatory continuing education of safety) takes place every 5 years.
The drivers moreover are subject to many rules with regard to times of control, in particular:
pause 45 minutes every 4:30 of control, fractionnable in 15 minimum minutes pauses + 30 minimum minutes (by respecting order 15+30). (maximum 4h between 21:00 and 6:00)
- the period of maximum control is 9 a.m. but can be increased to 10 a.m. twice per week.
- the duration of the effective work maximum is 10 a.m. but can be carried to 2 times 12 hours under condition. It includes/understands times of control, work and provision other.
- the amplitude includes/understands the duration of the effective work and the pauses.
- In regular transport, the amplitude is 13:00 but can be carried with 14:00 subject to authorization of the factory inspector of transport. In occasional transport, it is fixed at 2 p.m.
- Prohibition to work more than 9 hours beyond 12 hours of amplitude
- Obligation to respect a pause of 11:00 minimum between two amplitudes which can be reduced until 9:00, 3 times per maximum week.
All the drivers of public transport are concerned with this European Social Legislation (over times of control, of rest…) including the buses.
The coaches are limited at a maximum speed of 90 km/h on roads (100 km/h on highways if they have the ABS).
A analogical Chronotachygraphe (or disc in the jargon of the trade) records uninterrupted the speed of the vehicle according to the hour, allowing the forces about checking at the same time times of control, the respect of the pauses and the respect authorized maximum speeds. It is presented in the form of a disc of paperboard, black in the beginning, covered with Paraffine, that the driver inserts under the speedometer into his taking of. It can withdraw some only at the end of its time of control. Only one disc is admitted by 24:00 except so while changing vehicle the disc is not compatible with the other chronotachygraphe.
It is not obligatory that the bus is equipped with a chronotachygraphe and thus, even if the vehicle is equipped with it, to place a disc inside if they are regular lines of less than 50 km. (case of the urban networks in particular)
Since May 1st, 2006, the numerical or electronic chronotachygraphe was set up. It is obligatory in all the new vehicles of more than 9 places (driver included/understood) of public transport people. A smart card replaces “the paper” disc. It is personal and belongs to the driver (and not with the employer). Its photograph of identity appears there. It has one period of validity limited to 5 years. The smart card store all ways, rest, excess speeds… the last 28 days. The apparatus, preserves these data to him during 1 year. There exist four types of smart cards: chart driver, chart cntreprise, chart workshops (mechanics), chart controllers (police force, DDE…).
For long interurban ways, two drivers (or more) can - or must in comparison with the regulation referred to above - take turns, carrying out a rotation every 4:30 for example to optimize the time during which the vehicle runs. Each one puts a disc in the tachograph or a smart card.
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