The Burma (official designation and of use in France), the Union of Burma in long form or Myanmar and Union of Myanmar (denomination given by the junta, but which is not recognized), is a country of continental Southeast Asia having a common border with the India, the Bangladesh, the Laos, the China and the Thailand. It is bordered by the Mer of Andaman in the south and by the Bay of Bengal in south-west, with approximately 2000 kilometers of coasts on the whole.
DenominationThe democratic opposition prefers to employ, in French, the name of Burma , which refers to the old name of the country and the majority Ethnie, the Burmese S.
In 1989, the Junta, in order to mark the change, decided to modify the noun of the country in Union of Myanmar which refers to the former mythical inhabitants of the country and either only to one ethnicity (literally, Myanmar extremely means in Burmese “and rapid”, qualities of these famous mythical ancestors). More exactly, " Myan Ma" mean the marvellous country created by these " spirit-inhabitants mythiques" (Bya My). This name was used before colonization. With this denomination and the use of the word “Union”, the multi-ethnic character of the State is underlined.
The change of the name of the country in Burmese makes it possible to post a rupture with the old period and disturbs the action of the organizations favorable to the Démocratie by scrambling the communication. This is why the opponents with the military regime still refer to the old name, to mark their fight with the Junte. However, Myanmar name is most exact, the English having deformed this name in Bur My (Burma translates into French).
See also: History of Burma
At the Western end of the Southeast Asia, Burma does not have escaped with the animated fate of this part of the world. Several times during its history it was invaded: by the Mongolian S, in old times; by the British at the 19th century, who annexed it purely and simply to their empire of the Indies; by the Japanese Empire, during the Second world war. To that are added innumerable revolts and tribal wars between the various ethnos groups who compose his population. Today it one of the dictatorships of hardest in the world, is directed by generals, who carries out this country.
The country was directed of an iron hand by the general Win between 1962 and 1988. Vis-a-vis a popular protest movement in all the country and with advanced of the guerilla Karens, a group of generals, the majority disciples of Win, did not decide to restore the order. They reversed officially the dictator (he was never imprisoned) and seized the power in 1989 after one period of instability of several months.
In 1990, they organized free elections, gained with more than 80% by the National league for the democracy of the Nobel Prize Aung San Suu Kyi. But, the new junta never gave the capacity to the opposition. Since, the country is directed with firmness by a group of generals, officially plain, but in perpetual internal struggle for the capacity. Thus, tricéphale during 15 years, the capacity is divided today between the hands of Than Shwe, President, and of Maung Aye, Chef of the Armies, which have both made a success of with évincer their rival, Khin Nyunt, Chef of the Intelligence services of the Armies (SEMI).
- 1044 : Foundation of the first Burmese Empire (kingdom of Pagan) by Anawrahta.
- 1287 : Catch of Pagan by the Mongolian .
- 1531 : Foundation of the second Burmese Empire (kingdom of Toungou) by Tabinshwehti.
- 1581: Died of Bayinnaung which marks the beginning of the decline of the second Burmese Empire.
- 1752 -1760 : Reign of Alaungpaya, founder of the third Burmese Empire.
- 1824 - 1826: 1e war anglo-Burmese: the English annex the Arakan, the Assam, the Manipur and the Tenasserim.
- 1852 : 2nd war anglo-Burmese: the English annex the Low-Burma.
- 1885 : 3rd war anglo-Burmese: the English seize Mandalay and deposit king Thibaw.
- 1886: Burma is officially attached to the British India.
- 1937 : Burma is separated from India and becomes a distinct British colony.
- 1942 - 1945: Japanese occupation. Destruction of the royal palace of Mandalay.
- February 12th, 1947: Agreement of Panglong which recognizes the principle of the autonomy of the border regions as regards central administration.
- July 19th 1947: Assassination of the general Aung San, the father of independence.
- the January 4th 1948: The country becomes independent and free the the Commonwealth, the Prime Minister being U Naked which founds a parliamentary democracy (1948-1958 and 1960-1962).
- In 1962, the general Win does not make a military Coup d'etat and reigns during more twenty-six years, introducing socialist reforms with forced march. In spite of the socialist policy installation, Win does not keep its distances with the Soviet block and China. It places Burma in the camp of the non-aligned ones.
- In 1988, the army represses violently a protest movement against the economic situation and policy: the August 8th 1988, the soldiers opened fire on the crowd which protested; this day is commemorated like the 8.8.88 uprising . Nevertheless, the indirect effect of this movement was that it allowed the behavior of the elections.
- In 1990, of the free election S take place, with the victory of the NLD (National League for Democracy) directed by Aung San Suu Kyi but cancelled then by the military Dictature.
- the November 7th 2005, the capital is transferred from the day the shortly after Rangoon to Pyinmana to the center of the country. The city is famous Naypyidaw ( royal Ville or Demeure of the Kings ).
- September 2007 following a brutal increase in the price of the gasoline in August (200%), transport and products of first need a new crisis appears, of the monks express, then members of the opposition as well as many inhabitants of the big cities. The arrests and repression by the army intensify as of on September 26th, the official sources evoke ten deaths, and some casualties. The country is world cup, the phone lines are inaccessible (except satellite), Internet is blocked. According to local sources located at Mandalay, whole trucks of prisoners circulate. It would seem that the number of killed rises to several hundreds.
- October 2nd 2007 Burmese the Prime Minister, Soe Win, number 4 of the junta, dies of one leukemia at the 59 years age.
See also: Political of Burma
Burma is member of ASEAN (Association of the nations of the South-East Asia) and should have assumed the chairmanship in of it 2006 if the pressure of the international community had not succeeded in avoiding this embarrassing situation.
Authoritarian regime, the State of Myanmar is directed by a military Dictature since the Coup d'etat of September 1988. The forced labor is a current practice. The international organizations of the human rights classify Burma among the poor pupils as regards public freedoms: the Freedom of the press and the Human rights are not respected, the judicial power is not independent of the executive and the opposition parties are not tolerated.
Equipped with a budget accounting for approximately 50% of the GNP, the army, strong of 400.000 men, however does not have a declared external enemy, in spite of recurring tensions with the Thailand, which led to skirmishes at the border between the two countries. Consequently, in addition to external protection, its role is to control the population and it takes part in maintenance missions of the order and repression as well as the police force.
The opposition party carried out by Aung San Suu Kyi (the National league for the democracy or NLD) gained the legislative elections in May 1990 with more than 80% of voice in its favor, with surprised of the junta which hoped to legitimate her capacity thus. This one then invalidated the elections. The NLD fights for the return of the democracy in the country.
The junta has an ambiguous position towards adverse the Aung San Suu Kyi, which is very popular in the world following its Nobel Prize of peace in 1991. Its popularity and its statute of girl of the symbol and national hero Aung San, get a certain protection to him, whereas the junta would like to be able to get rid of this spine in the foot. Vis-a-vis this dilemma, the junta thus placed the adverse one under house arrest. Aung San Suu Kyi entered its 10th year of detention the October 24th 2004.
The policy installation by the generals causes massive migrations of certain minorities, like Karen for example, towards the Thailand.
The October 19th 2004, the Prime Minister, the general Khin Nyunt, was put at the variation and authorize to take its retirement for health reasons and assign with residence. It was replaced by Soe Win, “hard” held for person in charge of the ambush against the convoy of Aung San Suu Kyi in May 2003. Khin Nyunt has reached the post of Prime Minister in August 2003, it supervised the Burmese secret services for more than twenty years. It had signed the agreements of cease-fire with the ethnos groups of the north and the east which could in exchange continue to cultivate the Opium. It was at the origin of the bringing together with India from which it wanted to use the model to open the country with the democracy. He was the privileged interlocutor of the foreign companies. Its opponent within the junta, the general Maung Aye, famous very hard, who hitherto occupied the functions of vice-president of the Council of State for peace and the development, is also chief of staff. He is in competition to be able it with the general Than Shwe, president of the junta and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Khin Nyunt, 65 years, incarnated the way of the reforms. Khin Nyunt had known to maintain the contact with the rebellious groups representing the ethnic minorities (in particular the Karens) and to put a term at the armed conflicts opposing the mode and the rebels.
Economic sanctions taken against the Burmese military regime by the international community, whose the United States, China, the Malaysia and the countries of the European Union whose France, had only little effect, this being due mainly to the inventiveness of the collaborators of the Junta, as with the will of many Asian countries anxious to continue to promote the economic exchanges with Burma and in particular for the profits generated by the investments in the extraction of the natural resources of the country. One can however say that these sanctions caused to put at the Chômage more than 100.000 people, of the day at the following day, who worked before in the textile factories which started to emerge in the country. Many the young girls who worked in this sector went to enlarge the rows of the Prostituée S of the capital. The sanctions thus seem more to contribute to an impoverishment of the population that to a democratization of the country.
In same logic as the sanctions, many voices protested against the companies like Total investing in the country and against the travellers who make function the industry of the Tourisme. According to the democrats, the entry of foreign currencies, would help the current government and would contribute to the generalization of the forced labor.
Displacement of the capitalThe capital was moved of Rangoon, city located in the delta of Irrawaddy, with Pyinmana, (to 300 km inside the grounds) during the year 2005. The speculations abound as for the reasons of this abrupt removal of the government towards a city practically built from nothing in a completely isolated area.
According to the official explanations of the junta, the old capital of Rangoon had become too skimped; moreover, the new capital occupies a more central site, which would allow transport easier with the various places of the country. Certain observers made the bringing together with the old habit which had the new kings to build a new capital. Displacement would express a will of the junta to sit her legitimacy by this symbolic gesture, from where the name of the new capital, Nay Pyi Daw, which means: Sit of the Kings.
Others estimate that displacement reflects the will of the government to be protected at the same time from an invasion of outside and popular movements interior, which had shaken the capacity in 1988. In particular, an Indian journalist, after a visit of Nay Pyi Daw, described vasteté of the new capital like “the ultimate insurance against the regime change, a masterpiece of town planning drawn to counter any attempt at revolution coloured - not by the tanks and the water cannons, but by the geometry and the cartography. ” The government indeed seems to want to insulate itself, at the point to limit the means of communication.
Lastly, of the esoteric reasons seem to return in account. Since always, the Astrology and the capacity were dependant in Burma. The dissatisfaction with 1988 was in particular related to the fact that Win, listening to its astrologer, had decided to replace all the tickets by others whose values would be multiples of 9, its figure amulet. The removal towards Nay Pyi Daw being made at one specific time determined by the lunar Calendrier, it is probable that the decision to change capital was influenced by the astrologers of the junta.
Events of 2007
See also: political Events of 2007 in Burma
Since September 5th, 2007, where buddhist monks were struck by militiamans of the Burmese junta at the time of a demonstration with Pakokku, with 500 kilometers in the north of Rangoun, a protest movement of the bonzes developed through all Burma. This movement made following organized demonstrations since August 19th, 2007 with Rangoun to denounce the massive increase in the prices of the fuels and public transport. Members of the opposition of the National league for the Democracy, directed by Aung San Suu Kyi, under house arrest for ten years, as well as students and other people have joined the peaceful demonstrations of the monks who are held mainly in Yangon (Rangoon), Mandalay and probably of other cities. Starting from September 26th, 2007, of many arrests were operated and the assessment of died and wounded worsens day in day.
See also: Subdivisions of Burma
Burma is divided into seven " divisions" ( hunkhu or) and seven States ( chiu or). Each State or division is subdivided in communes, districts and villages. Main cities: Rangoon, Mandalay and Pagan is divided into communes.
DivisionsSeven divisions form what the Burmeses call the " Burma itself " (" Burma proper" in English), i.e. country of the Burmese . It is:
- Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy)
- Bago (Pégou)
- Magway (Magwe)
- Tanintharyi (Tenasserim)
- Yangon (Rangoun)
StatesThe seven States correspond each one to one of the other great ethnicities which populate Burma and are:
See also: Geography of Burma
Population: 50,5 million (in 2005). 0-14 years: 29,14%; 15-64 years: 66,08%; + 65 years: 4,78%
Surface: 678.500 km ²
Density: 61 hab./km²
Land borders: 5876 km (China 2185 km; Thailand 1800 km; India 1463 km; Laos 235 km; Bangladesh 193 km)
Littoral: 1930 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 5.881 m
Index of human development: 0,552 - Classified 127ème (2003)
Life expectancy of the men: 56 years (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the women: 63 years (in 2001)
Growth rate of the population: 0,6% (in 2001)
Birth rate: 20,13 ‰ (in 2001)
Death rate: 12,3 ‰ (in 2001)
infantile Death rate: 73,71 ‰ (in 2001)
Fertility rate: 2,3 children/woman (in 2001)
Rate of migration: - 1,84 ‰ (in 2001)
Telephone lines: 7 per 1.000 people (in 2003)
Cellphones: 50 (in 1997)
Radios: 50 million (in 1997)
Television stations: 320.000 (in 2000)
Users of Internet: 500 (in 2000: Internet only authorized for the State and the companies )
Nombre of Make: 1 (in 2000)
Roads: 28.200 km (including 3440 tarred km) (in 1996)
Railways: 3955 km
inland Waterways: 12.800 km
Many airports: 80 (including 9 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
Burma is the largest country of the Southeast Asia . The country is very stretched (on approximately 2000 km) but its broadest part does not exceed 960 km. Burma is mountainous: in the west, Arakan chains prolonged in north by Chin Hills, Naga Hills and Pakai Hills, culminating to 3827 m with the Mont Saramanti; in the North-West the mounts Patkai (4.000 to 5.000 m), in north the Kachin mounts which rise to the plate Tibetan to 6000 m; in the center the Shan plate crossed by Salouen, very boxed valley; in the south Tenasserim. Between the edge of the Shan plate and the first buttresses of Arakan is a central plain, drained by Chindwin, Sittang and Irrawaddy, long river 1992 km of which 1659 km are navigable.
Area of interior, which is ordered around the basin of Mandalay where Irrawaddy and Chindwin converge and from which Sittang leaves, is known under the name of High Burma, heart historical of the country. The coastal region (alluvial zone of the delta of Irrawaddy and plain of Sittang), bordered of many islands, is known under the name of Basse Burma. In the outlying areas, mountainous, the forest dominates.
The major part of the population lives in the central plain.
See also: Economy of Burma
The country is industrialized very little, the population is primarily rural. The International organization of work (ILO), in his report/ratio of July 1998, described the systematic use by the soldiers of the forced labor of the civil population.
The production of opium abundant and is supported by the mode.
Burma has a small oil production with ground. It is an old oil country. Burmah Oil Company was created in 1896 for oil exploration and the production in British India. Principal shareholder of the British Petroleum, which did not have an activity in the Indies, Burmah limited his activities to this territory. At sea, Total exploits the field Gaz ier of Yadana, whose production feeds a powerplant in Rangoon but especially, goes to Thailand.
In spite of the persistence of violations repeated of the human rights by the Junta to the capacity, Burma remain an appreciated tourist destination. The annual number tourists however never exceeds 200.000 travellers, as a majority of the Chinese and the Japanese. The opposition disapproves the Tourisme (and the humanitarian Aid) under the pretext which it represents a very important financial support of the dictatorship (what is debatable as that is explained higher). The great structures this sector, just like the banking environment, are held by the junta and her sympathizers. But there remains always possible for the visitors to travel in an ethical way and to make so that their money arrives at the local population (small taxis, guesthouses, restaurants local, small stores, local guides, ways in the car, etc).
Myanmar is also a Flag of convenience.
See also: Demography of Burma
See also: Culture of Burma
The Burmese literature starts to develop at the 12th century, in contact with the cultures Pāli, My and Thai, then Western after the fastening of the country to the British Empire.
It should be noted in term of literature referring in Burma that a chapter of the Miscellanées of Ben Schott refers to the strange deaths of the Burmese kings.
See also: Burmese Literature
Ethnic groups and cultures
Burma gathers, in addition to Burmese majority of stock, more than 130 ethnic minorities with their own languages and their cultures. Seven " races nationales" are recognized by the government: Shan, Mons, Karen, Karenni, Chin, Kachin (Jingpo), Rakhine (Arakan). The heterogeneity of this population is at the origin of the many intercommunity problems which the country knew.
The majority of the universities closed and/or moved in suburbs in December 1996 for safety reasons reopened their doors. But the quality of teaching remains poor, in particular because of endemic Corruption. According to UNICEF, only 28% of the children of the primary education finish their schooling.
The Buddhism in Burma east in a way prevalent of the tradition Theravada mixed with the local convictions. According to the military government, it is practiced by 89% of the population, especially among Bamar, Rakhine, Shan, My, and Chinese.
The Christianisme is practiced by 4% of the population, mainly among Kachin, Menton and Kayin, and Eurasians because of the work of the Missionnaire S in their respective sectors. Approximately four-fifth of the Christians of the country are Protestant S, in particular the followers of the Église Baptist of Convention Baptist of Myanmar; the Roman catholics form the remainder.
The Islam, mainly Sunnite, is practiced by 4% of the population according to the census of the government. However, according to the report/ratio of the international religious liberties of 2006 of the Secretariat of state of the United States, the populations not-Buddhists in the census were underestimated. The Moslem leaders estimate that 20% of the population can be Moslem. The Moslems are divided into Indians, Indo-Burmeses, Persans, Arab, Panthays and Rohingyas.
The Hindouisme is mainly practiced by the Burmese Indians.
The Muslim populations and Christian women face religious persecution. The military government revoked the citizenship of the Moslems Rohingya de Rakhine Septentrional and of the Christian populations of ethnic minority were attacked. Such persecutions targeting of the civilians is particularly notable in Burma of the east, where more than 3.000 villages these ten last years were destroyed.
Since the September 5th 2007, where buddhist monks were struck by militiamans of the Burmese junta at the time of a demonstration with Pakokku, with 500 kilometers in the north of Rangoun, a protest movement of the Bonze S developed through all Burma. This movement made following organized demonstrations since August 19th, 2007 with Rangoun to protest against the massive increase in the prices of the fuels and public transport. Launched by members of the opposition of the National league for the Democracy, it has been directed by Aung San Suu Kyi, under house arrest for 10 years.
CodesMyanmar has as codes:
- BM (e.g. Burma), according to the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-2,
- MM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country) code alpha-2,
- .mm, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- MR., according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- MR., according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- MYA, according to , country the Code list of the CIO
- MYA, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- VY, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- XZ, XY, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
OthersThe press in Myanmar:
- In English:
- The New Light off Myanmar , Official journal of the military, daily junta
- The Myanmar Times , weekly Newspaper (500 kyat)
Burma in data base:
- of Guy Delisle, Burmese chronicles ED delcourt 10/2007
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