The Bulgaria , officially Republic of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian: България , officially РепубликаБългария ; in Romance Transliteration ISO 9: Bălgariya , officially Republika Bălgariya ), is a country of the Europe Balkan, located in edge of the Black Sea, in the north of the Greece and Turkey and in the south of the Romania. In the west, it is bordered by the Serbia and the République of Macedonia.

January 1st 2007, Bulgaria adhered to the European Union, at the same time as the Romania. As of 2009, in theory, the Bulgarian ones will have adopted the Euro.

History

See also: History of Bulgaria

Of Iranian Indo-European language, the Thrace S were people highly civilized populating, during Antiquity, the territory of current Bulgaria. They are divided into various tribes until the king Térès joins together them around a State, towards 500 before our era. The kingdom of Thrace reaches its apogee under the reign of kings Sitalkès and Cotys (383-359 before J. - C.), of the dynasty of Odrysses; destroyed and invaded by Macedonia of Philippe, the father of Alexandre, he knows a revival under Seuthès III in -341. In 188 of our era, Thrace is definitively integrated in the Roman Empire which gradually romanize populations in the north of a named line Jirecek (of the name of the historian of the 19th century which identified it), while in the south of this line, Thraces were hellénisèrent (the researchers in history know these influences, but the militant official story admits neither romanisation, nor hellenisation at Thraces).

As from the 6th century arrive, generally peacefully, Slavons, of the Slaves which settle among the romanized or hellenized populations thraces. Slavons become gradually majority. As from the 7th century the Bulgares arrive. In the beginning, it is about people of riders of the steppes of the Gift, resulting from an ethnic synthesis between tribes of Central Asia. At the 6th century the Bulgarian ones of the Gift had separated into two: a half had gone up towards north and had founded Bulgaria of the Volga (later on converted with the Islam and comparable by Tatars), other half - carried out by Khan Asparoukh - had started a migration towards the west and had founded in 681 Bulgaria of the Danube, vast Khanat which extended on current Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Western Hungary, Romania and Moldavie. According to recent and quite founded theses such as that which the academician Bojidar Dimitrov emits, this first Bulgarian State is the direct continuation of the State de Koubrat the Large one, the father of Asparoukh, whose empire covered also the current Ukraine. In 717, the Bulgarian ones contribute to save Byzance Arab attacks. The khan Tervel is called by its contemporaries “the Saver of Europe”. Between 861 and 864, Bulgaria embraces the orthodoxe faith, adopts the Slavon like usual and official language, and reached its greater territorial extension under Siméon, first tsar. But at the 10th century, in 969, the Byzantine emperor Basile II (called Bulgaroctone , the “killer the Bulgarian ones”), combined with the Rus its of Kiev, attacks Bulgaria. In 971, it takes Preslav the capital, and in 1018, it puts an end to first Tzarat and reincorporates Bulgaria in the Roman Empire of the East. In 1180, the Valaques of Balkans are raised with the Deleanu dynasty and in 1186 create a Regnum Valachorum controlled by the Tsars Kaloyan and Asen, named “Bulgarian Valachie” or “Second Tzarat”, and soon replaced, at the end of one half-century, by three Tzarats Bulgarian (Vidin, Trnovo and Dobritch) which fall one after the other to the hands from the Othoman . Bulgaria is entirely conquered in 1396. In spite of an Othoman domination which ends later only one half-millenium, the attempts at Islamization of the country made a success of only very partially (Pomaques: Bulgarian Moslems); on the other hand, of the Turks settled in Bulgaria (in particular in the east of the country) and some even converted with Christianity (Gôk-Oguzes). The Othoman domination takes indeed fine only following the insurrection of April 1876, which involves the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 and the Traité of San Stefano of the March 3rd 1878, by which Bulgaria acquires a relative independence as a autonomous Principauté. It reaches independence the true only on September 22nd 1908, as a Monarchie.

The country is deeply implied in 1912 and 1913 in the Guerres of Balkans, series of conflicts with its neighbors. During the two world wars, it is found in the camp of the losers.

After the Second world war, Bulgaria enters the sphere of influence of the the USSR and becomes itself a “People's democracy” wanting to build socialism, in 1946. The Soviet domination is completed in 1990, when the first multi-party elections take place.

Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and belonged to the European Union since January 1st 2007. It signed its Treaty of Accession the April 25th 2005 with Luxembourg.

Policy

See also: Political of Bulgaria

Presidency

The president of Bulgaria east elected by the direct suffrage for a 5 years mandate, renewable once. The president is Head of the State and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He is also with the head of the Advisory counsel for the national security. He can be opposed in the first resort to the promulgation of a law. To circumvent this veto, it is enough at the Parliament to obtain a new majority vote.

It is assisted in its functions by a vice-president of the Republic elected on the same “ticket” as him. The current president is Gueorgui Parvanov, which succeeded in 2002 Petar Stoyanov.

Parliament

The Parlement functions on a system Unicaméral (only one room of representatives). This National Assembly ( Narodno Sabranie ) consists of 240 deputies elected by the popular vote for one 4 years duration. One votes for a political party, or a list of coalition, in each of 28 administrative divisions of the country. A party or a coalition must at least obtain 4% of the votes to obtain representatives. The Parliament is responsible for the promulgation of the laws, the budget, the organization of the presidential elections, the nomination and the revocation of the Prime Minister and the government, of the declaration of war, the deployment of troops armed out of Bulgaria, of the ratification of the agreements and international treaties.

Elections

At the time of the legislative elections of the June 25th 2005, the Bulgarian Socialist party of Serguei Stanichev arrived at the head of the votes with 30% of the voices in front of the National movement Siméon II of the Prime Minister Siméon of Saxony-Cobourg-Gotha, the party of the Turkish minority (the Mouvement of the rights and freedoms) and the nationalist party Ataka (Attack).

The August 16th 2005, after a first fallen through attempt at formation of coalition, the new government proposed by Serguei Stanichev is accepted by the Parliament by 169 votes for and 67 against. It is a coalition government with the two parties arrived in second and third positions at the legislative elections two months, directed before respectively by Siméon of Saxony-Cobourg-Gotha and Ahmed Dogan.

Sunday May 20th 2007, the Bulgarian ones elected their 18 European appointed for the 1st time by the universal direct suffrage. The participation was very weak (28,6%), expressing the disinterest of Bulgarian for the European businesses. Moreover, discredited by many businesses of Corruption, the Bulgarian Socialist party is in Net retreat: the new party of center-right Gerb, directed by the mayor of Sofia, Boïko Borisov, arrives thus at the head with 21,69% of the voices, and obtains 5 seats. Also 5 seats obtained: the Bulgarian Socialist party (21,41%) and the Movement of the rights and freedoms of Turkish-speaking (20,26%). The nationalist party Ataka is seen allotting 2 seats (14,22% of the voices) while the last seat returns with the center NMS (6,26%), heir to the National movement Siméon II.

Geography

See also: Geography of Bulgaria

Land borders: : 1808 km (Romania 608 km; Greece 494 km; Serbia 318 km; Turkey 240 km; Republic of Macedonia 148 km)
Littoral: 378 km
Ends of altitude: 0 m > +: 2925 m

Subdivisions

See also: Subdivisions of Bulgaria

Cities

See also: Towns of Bulgaria

The principal cities are: Sofia (: 1300000 hab.), Plovdiv (: 350000 hab.), Varna (: 320000 hab.), Bourgas (: 200000 hab.), Roussé (: 180000 hab.).

Economy

See also: Economy of Bulgaria

Telephone lines: 3,255 million (in 2000)
Cellphones: : 5000000 (in 2006)
Radios: 4,51 million (in 1997)
Television stations: 4,31 million (in 2006)
Users of Internet: : 2200000 (in 2006)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 26 (in 2000)
Roads: : 36724 km (of which: 33786 km tarred) (in 1999)
Railways: : 4294 km (in 1998)
inland Waterways: 470 km (in 1987)
Many airports: 215 (including 128 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
Index of human development: 0.816 (in 2004) 54e place on 177 pays
GDP per capita in PPP: : 8078$ (in 2004) 66e place on 172 countries

The country underwent an economic serious attack in 1996-1997 and passed under the supervision of the Fonds international currency, which imposed severe many restrictions and Privatization S. to him.

During the decade 2000, the country knew a considerable economic growth with a view to its adhesion to the European Union. In 2004, the growth amounted to 5,6% and unemployment passed from 12 to 18%, concerning mainly of the discriminated categories as the gypsy S. direct foreign investments (IDE) reached a record with 2,1 billion euros, that is to say 10% of the Bulgarian GDP. Country satisfied the Criteria of Copenhagen with a national debt lower than 40% of the GDP, a budget in surplus, with only a Inflation gone up to 5,5%. The standard of living remaining weak and the strong inequalities, the government increased by 7% the retirements, of 5% the wages of the public sector and revalorized the minimal wages from 50 to 75 € per month, which was worth the lightnings of the IMF at once to him.

The country profits from establishments of companies interested by weak the Salaire S, but remains penalized by its weak Productivité, as well as the emigration of its graduates.

By its hard currency (fixed on the course of the euro) and by its economic policy, budgetary and financial strict, Bulgaria should be able to adopt the euro at the horizon of 2009.

Transport

See also: Transport in Bulgaria

Demography

See also: Demography of Bulgaria

According to a study published by UNO at the summer 2007, Bulgaria is classified in the 4th world place by the growth rate of the elderly, in the 7th place by the share of the 60 year old elderly population or more (22,9% against 11% on average in the world) and in the 9th place by the Middle Age of its inhabitants (44,4 years against 28 on average in the world). This underlines the demographic crisis which the country undergoes since the middle of the years 1980 and which accelerated after the fall of the Communist regime in 1989. This situation is explained by several factors:

  • the weakness of the standard of living and the socio-economic insecurity do not encourage to make children;
  • the wish to devote the maximum of means to the education of the children so that they can make long studies and of elevated level;
  • the arrival at the retirement age of the generation of the Baby-boom;
  • the departure towards the Western Europe, the North America and the Australia of many young people, especially among those which made higher learning;
  • one of the highest rates of abortion in the world (750 per 1000 births) in spite of the use very largely widespread of modern means of contraception.

The ageing of the population has, right now, of the consequence negative on the economic situation and social and they will nothing but do increase: raise retirement pensions, raises medical expenditure, lowers consumption, saving and investment, lowers receipts of the mode of social security and, consequently, increasing deficits of the social protection system which the economic growth in retreat will not be able to cure. According to the experts, this tendency will be able to be reversed, in Bulgaria (as in the other European countries), neither with short, nor in the medium term.

Population: : 7707495 inhabitants (in 2001). 0-14 years: 15,11%; 15-64 years: 68,17%; + 65 years: 16,72%
Density: 69,5 hab. /km ² (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the men: 68 years (in 2001)
Life expectancy of the women: 75 years (in 2001)
Growth rate of the population: - 1,14% (in 2001)
Birth rate: 8,06 ‰ (in 2001)
Death rate: 14,53 ‰ (in 2001)
infantile Death rate: 14,65 ‰ (in 2001)
Fertility rate: 1,2 children/woman (in 2004)
Rate of migration: - 2,5 ‰ (in 2004)
Rate of urbanization: 66% (in 1990)

Culture

See also: Culture of Bulgaria

Bulgarian personalities or of Bulgarian origin

  • Khan Asparoukh, founder of the Bulgarian State in 681.

  • Boris Ier of Bulgaria, founder of Christianity 864.
  • Tsar Simeon, the king of Bulgarian and the Greeks of 897 until 927; Golden age of the Bulgarian culture.
  • Kaloyan, the victorious king against the knights carried out by Baudouin IX of Flanders in 1204.
  • Vasil Ivanov Kunchev-Levski, organizer of the committees and organizations in the territory of Bulgaria for the revolt of April 1876 against the Turks.
  • Hristo Botev, patriot, poet, journalist and revolutionist (1849 - 1876)
  • John Atanasov, inventor and creator of the first entirely electronic digital computer - ABC.
  • Alexis Weissenberg, French pianist born in Bulgaria in 1929
  • Sylvie Vartan, French singer born in Bulgaria in 1944
  • Julia Kristeva, philosopher, psychoanalyst and French writer of Bulgarian origin.
  • Tzvetan Todorov, a semiologist, a linguist and a French philosopher of Bulgarian origin.
  • Nikola Georgiev, professor, theorist of the literature
  • Christo Javacheff, American artist of Bulgarian origin.
  • Hristo Stoichkov, football player, born in 1966 with Plovdiv.
  • Georgi Ivanov, Bulgarian first Spationaut on April 10th 1979, hero of the Socialism of Bulgaria.
  • Veselin Topalov, champion of world of failures 2005 FIDE.

Tourism

Since 1995, balneal tourism strongly developed along the Black Sea, in particular with Sunny Beach (Slanchevbriag), first seaside resort of the country, located close to Bourgas or, more in north, Albena or the Sables of Gold (Zlatni Pyasatsi), close to Varna. Formerly reserved for the communist Nomenklatura , Sunny Beach and the other seaside resorts are from now on the vacation resort of many Western tourists.

In the oblast of Blagoevgrad, one can visit the Parc of the Dancing Bears with Belitsa, one of the greatest reception facilities for the bears in Europe, founded in 2004 thanks to Austrian association Vier Pfoten. Certain historic sites are also of interest: one will quote in particular Veliko Tarnovo, whose citadel is sometimes the object of a spectacle its and light recalling the Histoire of Bulgaria through the centuries. In winter, certain ski stations like Pamporovo located in the mounts Rhodopes, not far from the border with the Greece, attract they also their batch of foreign tourists and nationals.

Bulgaria is known for its monasteries, its thermal and curative mineral water, its wines and its famous Yaourt. It has many cultural treasures and tourist tours start to be organized.

Sofia, the capital, has two faces. On the one hand, it does not miss charms with its houses which date from the end from the 19th century and certain still paved streets. In addition, Stalin and his influence marked the city. Plovdiv, the second city of the country has a historical heart preserved good and many archaeological vestiges testify to the passage of the Romans in the area.

Strange: with a few kilometers in the south of Gabrovo, not far from the memorial of Chipka, a building is which seems straight left Soup to the cabbages . This “UFO” is not other than an old room of Soviet congress today abandoned close to Bouzloudja. The walls and ceilings dilapidated and dangerous are not enough to push back the visitor. The site offers the strange feeling to discover a phantom city, a vestige of the Communisme fixed in the past.

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