The Buganda is the kingdom of the 52 clans of the people Baganda , largest of the traditional kingdoms of the current Uganda. The three million Buganda (in the singular Muganda , often simply called by the root of the word or the adjective, Ganda ) is the most important ethnicity of Uganda even if it accounts for only approximately 16,7% of the total population. The name of Uganda, the word Swahili for Bouganda was adopted by the British authorities in 1894 when they created Ugandan protectorate, centered in Bouganda. The borders of Bouganda are marked by the Lake Victoria in the South, the the Nile Victoria in the east and the Lac Kyoga in north.
Hierarchical control is a major point of the culture of Bouganda. At the time pre-colonial, obedience with the king is a question of life or death. However, one second major characteristic of this culture is the importance attached to the personal realization, the future of an individual not being determined by its statute with its birth. The individuals determine their life by their implication in work but also by the careful choice their relations, combined or owners.
The traditional economy Ganda is based on the cultures with harvests. That contrasts with many economic systems of Eastern Africa, here the Bétail plays only one minor part. Much Baganda calls upon the labor of north as shepherds. the Banane is the principal food, providing an economic base to support a strong growth of the population. This type of culture does not require a system of fallow. It is however necessary to clear of undergrowth new zones to maintain the fertility of the ground. Consequently, the villages of Ganda are rather fixed. The women carry out the major part of the agricultural work, the men often practice the trade, fishing, hunting and the war for the pre-colonial period. The social organization of Buganda soulige importance of the male descent. Four or five generations of descendants of a man constitutes a patriarchal line. A group of lines relationships constitutes a clan. The chiefs of clan can call a council of the heads of line, and the decisions of council affect all the lines of the clan. Several of these decisions regulate the marriage, which often intervenes between two different lines, forming social and political alliances important between the men of the two lines. The line and the chiefs of clan also help to maintain practices effective of use of the ground, and they inspire the pride of the group through ceremonies and the worship of the ancestors.
The villages Ganda, sometimes made up of forty or fifty houses, are generally located at hillside, leaving the tops and the uninhabited marshy lowlands to be used like zones of culture or pasture. The first Ganda villages surround the house of the chief, who provides a meeting room for the members of the village. The chief collects a tribute near his subjects, which it gives to the kabaka , the chief of lined. This last redistribut resources maintaining the order thus and reinforcing the social solidarity by its capacities to make the decisions. At the end of the 19th century, the Ganda villages become more dispersed, the role of the chief decreases because of the political disturbances, of the migrations of the population and occasional popular revolts. Most of their capacities is collected by the " suprême" chief; , Kabaka of the Buganda
The family in Buganda is often described ace has microcosm off the kingdom. The father is revered and obeyed ace head off the family. His decisions are generally unquestioned. With man' S social status is determined by those with whom He establishes patronclient relationships, and one off the best means off securing this relationship is through one' S children. Baganda children, nap ace Young ace three years old, are feels to live in the homes off to their social superiors, both to cement ties off loyalty among parents and to provide which occurred for social mobility for to their children. Even in the 1980s, Baganda children were considered psychologically better prepared for adulthood yew they had spent several years living room away from to their parents At has old Young.
Baganda recognize At has very old Young that to their superiors, too, live in has world off rules. Social rules require has man to share his wealth by offering hospitality, and this rule applies more stringently to those off higher status. Superiors are also expected to behave with impassivity, dignity, coil-discipline, and coil-confidence, and adopting thesis mannerisms sometimes enhances has man' S opportunities for success.
Social Ganda culture tolerates diversity more easily than many other African societies. Even before the arrival off Europeans, many Ganda villages included resident from outside Buganda. Summon had arrived in the area Slavic aces , goal by the early twentieth century, many non-Baganda migrating workers stayed in Buganda to farm. Marriage with non-Baganda was fairly common, and many Baganda marriages ended in divorce. After independence, Ugandan officials estimated that one-third to one-half off all adults marry more than ounce during to their lives. -->
Clans of Buganda
They has there at least about fifty clans recognized in the kingdom of Buganda, and at least six which claim the statute of clan. With this group of clans exists four sub-groups distinct which reflect the history of the waves of immigration in Buganda.
Oldest of these clan claim line of Kings Tonda who are supposed to have to reign from 400 to 1200 or 1300 of our era. These six clans are called Nansangwa or the " indigènes".
migration of Kintu
The dynasty of Abalasangeye arrives at the capacity thanks to the conquests of Kabaka Kintu Kato, which one estimates passrt between 1200 and 1400. Kintu is to consider to be originating in north, of the empire of Kitara, beyond the Bunyoro.
Between 30 and 60 clans are supposed to have settled in Buganda with arrived of Kintu:
- Namung' oona
- Ng' nge
migration of Kimera
Around 1420 another vagueness of migration arrives at Buganda under the reign of Kabaka Kimero. These populations would also come they from the empire of Kitara. They train 11 clans. Some of them would have been thorough with exiles under the last King of the dynasty Tonda, Bemba Musota.
These eleven clans are:
the other clans
Since Kabaka Kimero twenty other clans have immigrant in Buganda or are create inside this one with the appuit of the King.
These clans are:
- Ng' aali
Pre-colonial and colonial BugandaIn the beginning a vassal state of Bunyoro, Buganda quickly took more to be able with and with to become the kingdom dominating in the area. Buganda forever be did not conquer by the armies colonials. On the contrary, the powerful king or Kabaka Mwenga gives his agreement to obtain the British statute of Protectorate. Mwenga is posed like the sovereign of all the territories until the Lac Albert. He regards Agreement with the British as an alliance between equal. The armies baganda help the establishment of colony in other areas and the baganda are useful like agents of the taxes in all Protectorate. The centers of trade in Buganda then become important cities in Protectorate and the baganda seize the advantages of getting by the European presence, the trade and education. With independence in 1962, Buganda reached more the high level of life and more the high level of elimination of illiteracy of all Uganda.
Kabaka of Buganda
The influence of the baganda in Uganda at the 20th century reflects the impact of its development at and the centuries. Kabaka progressively piled up much political power and soldier by killing their rivals for the throne, by abolishing the heredity of the stations and by requiring increasingly high taxes their subjects. The armies baganda also seize the territories belonging hitherto to Bunyoro, the kingdom close in the west to Buganda. The cultural standards ganda empéché the establishment of a royal clan by attaching the children of the King to the clan of their mother. In same time this practice authorizes the king with marrier in all the clans of the kingdom.
One of the advisers of most important Kabaka is Katikiko. It is in load of the administration and the justice of the kingdom. Katikiro and other powerful ministers form the circle of the closest conseilliers of Kabaka. Kabaka and these ministers can bring together chiefs moreover low levels and other guests at the meetings of discussion of the policy of the kingdom. These meetings have various names, Lukiko in Luganda and baraza in Swahili. At the end of the 19th century, Kabaka replaced most of the chiefs of clan by the official ones. It describes him even like the " chief of all clans". The capacity of Kabaka impresses the British representatives. The political directors of Bunyoto are not also receptive on arrival of britannques under the escort of Baganda. The kingdom of Buganda then becomes the center of the new protectorate, with various degree of control on the other kingdoms: Toro, Ankole, Busoga and Bunyoro. Much Baganda benefits from the opening from the European schools and the development from the trade in the area. Baganda, as a representative of protectorate help the British to manage the other kingdoms.
Political powers before the independence of Buganda
The prospect for the elections for the accession with independence is the cause of a sudden proliferation of new political parties. This development alarms the traditional chiefs of the Ugandan kingdoms. They realize that the new center of the capacity would not be placed any more on the level of the kingdoms but at the national level. In fact the reforms of the Governor Sir Andrew Cohen into 1953 start this vast opposition. At the time of a speech in London with the Secretary of State to the colonies, it is question of a Federation of three African territories: the Kenya, the Uganda and the Tanganyika, similar to that which exists in Africa Center. Much Ugandan is conscious that the Africa Center, which gathers the Rhodesia and the Nyasaland is dominated by the interests of the white colonists. The Federation of Africa Center increased Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. The Ugandans are afraid to see the Federation African is dominated by the white colonists installed in Kenya. Of southerly wind that those are confronted with the revolt of Mau Mau. The Ugandans already vigorously resisted a similar suggestion in 1930 of Hilton Young Commission. Consequently the Cohen Governor loses all the confidence from which it profited near the Ugandan chiefs. And this, at the moment when the Governor pressed Buganda to sacrifice his specific statute for the good again and greater State nation. Mutesa II, which was perceived by its subjects like a king noninterested by their wellbeing, now refuses to cooperate with the plan of Cohen to make disappear Buganda. He asks on the contrary the separation of Buganda of the remainder of Protectorate and are transfer under the jurisdiction of Foreign and the Commonwealth Office. The response of Cohen to this crisis is to off-set Kabaka exiles some in London. This forced departure makes of Kabaka a martyr to the eyes of Baganda. The latent feeling of separatism takes blow very the form of a storm of protest. The action of Cohen failed. It cannot find anybody any more among Baganda ready to support it in its project. After two years of frustration marked by the hostility of Baganda; Cohen is forced to reinstall Kabaka Mutesa II also named Kabaka Freddie.
The negotiations which were to lead to the return of Kabaka take a turning similar to the negotiations of 1900 with Commissioning it Johnston. So seemingly they are satisfactory for the British, they resound like a victory for Baganda. Cohen makes sure that Kabaka will not be opposed to independence within the broader framework of the Uganda. Kabaka is not him not only to reinstall its station, for the first time since 1879, it can again name and relieve the chiefs of Buganda. These chiefs are the official Government of Buganda. Within this framework Kabaka to act little again not to appear more as a puppet while the latter lead the businesses of the government. The new capacities of Kabaka are hidden by the misleading denomination of constitutional monarch. Instead of being a simple symbol it becomes again an influential character on the form of government of Buganda and beyond the Uganda. New groups of Baganda which name them even the " King' S Friends" is formed to defend Kabaka. They are preserving and savagely loyals with the kingdom of Buganda. They wish to take part in the project of independence of the Uganda only if this one is directed by Kabaka. The Baganda politicians who do not share this vision are called the " King' S Enemies" , which means for them political and social ostracism.
Concurrently to these two camps, the Roman catholics form their own party, Democratic Party or PD, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka. Many catholics feel exclude from the leading class, dominated by the Protestants. This situation prevails according to them since 1892, when Frederick Lugard selected to support the party of the Protestants. Since then Kabaka must be Protestant. He is established by a ceremony close to that which exists for the British monarchs. It is held in the largest Protestant church of the capital Kampala. The DP is not made solely of catholics. Democratic Party is probably the force best organized parts in race for the elections. It has of printing machines and the support of a popular newspaper, Munno, published by the mission of St Mary' S Kisubi. Apart from Buganda, the emergence of Kabaka like political clout, causes a strong hostility. The political parties and the local lobbys are torn by divisions and the competitions but they share a common concern: to fight against the domination of Buganda in the country. In 1960 a politician originating in Lango, Milton Obote seized opportunity and forms a new party, Uganda People' S Congress or UPC. It is large a coalition of all those which apart from the catholics, are opposed to the hegemony of Buganda.
Stages that Cohen initiated to bring the Uganda to an independence in the pleasing union with a polarization of the political clouts between those which support and those which reject the domination of Buganda. The population of the kingdom attient 2 million in 1952, whereas the Uganda counts 6 million on the whole of them. Even without counting many the non-ganda which resides in the kingdom, there would be at least 1 million people who support Bakaka. With the conference of London in 1960, it is obvious that the autonomy of Buganda and a strong unit of Uganda is incompatible. No compromise which cannot be found, the choice of the shape of government is given to later. The British however announce elections to choose a " government responsable" for the month of March 1961. Gaining these elections is ensured to acquire an enough important experiment of government to be able to lead the country to independence.
In Buganda, " King' S Friends" ask the total boycott of the elections by what they represent an attack with the promise of autonomy made by the British. Consequently, when the voters present themselves in front of the ballot boxes to elect the members of the National Assembly, only the catholics of the DP vote. They obtain 20 deputies out of the 22 seats allocated in Buganda. The catholics dominate the Parliament then whereas they represent only 416.000 votes on a country scale against 495.000 for UPC. Benedicto Kiwanuka becomes despite everything new Chief Minister of the Uganda
Shocked by the results, Baganda separatists which formed a party called Kanaka Yekka or KY, regret the boycott of the elections. They quickly accommodate the recommendations of British Commission which proposes future forms federal government. According to these recommendations, Buganda should enjoy an internal autonomy if it takes part in the national government. For its part UPC wants to also leave its rival, the DP, of the government. Obote meets Kabaka Freddie. During this meeting they agree for federal relations and even a position for Kabaka which allows named of the representative the National Assembly, in exchange of an alliance for évincer the DP. Kabaka promises also a position important symbolic system with the head of the Uganda. This marriage of circumstance between UPC and Kabaka Yekka makes inevitable the defeat of the DP. At the end of April 1962, the final elections for independence see being formed a Parliament made up of 43 UPC deputies and 24 deputies KY. This new coalition leads the Uganda to independence in October 1962 with Obote for Prime Minister and Kabaka with the report heading.
Notes and references of the article
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