Buenos Aires is the federal Capitale of the Argentine, of which it is more the big city and the the most important port. With its 12 million inhabitants, it is even one of the most populated cities South America and world. It is sometimes called federal capital in order to avoid any ambiguity with the province of Buenos Aires.
It is located on western bank of the river Rio of Plata which separates Argentina from the Uruguay, at the level of the mouth with the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the town of Colonia LED Sacramento in Uruguay. Its exact position is 34°40 ′ S 58°24 ′ W.
All the streets of the city cross with right angle, with the New Yorkean manner. Everywhere, of the modern buildings the hurdy-gurdies houses on a floor of the colonial period replace.
See also the article: History of Argentina.
Foundation of the city (16th)The Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís was the first Européen has to reach the Río of Plata in 1516, but its forwarding was curtailed by an attack of Amerindian, probably of a tribe Charrúas or Guarani, during which he perishes.
Pedro de Mendoza, which was in the search of Or, founded the city the February 2nd 1536 with the mouth of Rio of Plata, city which he baptized: “ Nuestra Señora Santa Maria del Buen Ayre ”. The first foundations of the city were located in the current district of San Telmo, near to the current downtown area, slightly in the south.
Nevertheless, the repeated attacks of the populations autochtones forced Spanish to give up the city in 1541. Juan de Garay, which sailed since Asunción (Paraguay) on the Río Paraná, founded a new permanent colony in 1580.
Etymology“ Nuestra Señora Santa Maria del Buen Ayre ” means Notre-Dame Sainte-Marie of the Good Winds ( Buenos Aires means into old Spanish Bons Winds ). In fact, the name given by Juan de Garay was “ Santísima Trinidad there Puerto de Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre ” ( Holy Trinity and Wearing of Notre-Dame of the Good Winds ), and this name changed until becoming Buenos Aires today.
The name Notre-Dame of the Good Winds refers to the Vierge of Cagliari in Italy, protective of the navigators. This name comes from a pagan temple located on the Balearic Islands. When the Christianisme became the official religion of the Roman Empire, the pagan temples were converted or destroyed, and in the case of this temple a representation of the Vierge of Bonaria was deposited. Bonaria is a deformation of buen surface .
Fights for independence (17th-19th)Since its foundation, the success of Buenos Aires depended on the trade. The Spanish administration of insisted that all the commercial exchanges towards Europe forward by Lima with the Peru, which was then the capital of the Spanish colonial empire in South America, facilitating the taking away of the taxes. This policy caused not only the development of the smuggling, but also a growing mistrust of the porteños towards the Spanish authorities.
Conscious of instability growing in the city, Charles III of Spain gradually raised the commercial restrictions until creating in 1776 the Vice-royauté of Río of Plata whose Buenos Aires was the capital, thus placing it on the same level as Lima from an administrative point of view. Its territory extended on the Argentine, the Bolivia, the Paraguay and the current Uruguay. As from this moment, Buenos Aires knew an economic and cultural boom. In spite of these measurements, many porteños always aspired to a total independence with respect to Spain, carried inter alia by the ideals of the French revolution.
Twice during the years 1806 and 1807, at the time of the British Invasions, the troops of this country occupied Buenos Aires, but were finally crushed by the local militia and had to be solved with a humiliating capitulation. Then it is the May 25th 1810 which Buenos Aires acquired its independence, whereas Spain was in prey with the war (war of Spain of 1808-1813): after one week of demonstrations mainly peaceful, the criollos (Spanish born in South America) managed to drive out the Spanish viceroy and to install a provincial government. The Révolution of May is celebrated nowadays in Argentina, and on May 25th is bank holiday. At the end of the conflicts which shook all the country and led to its unification, Buenos Aires was also selected for the seat of the national government. Independence however was formally declared only in 1816.
Federalism (19th)During the 19th century, the city was paralyzed twice by maritime blockades. They were organized the first time by the French between 1838 and 1840, and the second time by a British alliance free between 1845 and 1848. However these foreign powers did not manage to subject the city or to impose their conditions.
Buenos Aires was historically the cradle of the currents of liberal ideas in Argentina, while the other provinces of the country generally held of the industrial relations policies or economic more preserving, with a strong influence of the catholic values . Another antagonism with respect to the province held of the centralist vision defended in Buenos Aires as for the administration of the country, opposed to a federalistic vision defended in the remainder of the country, and in particular incarnated by the Governor of the province Carlos Tejedor. In 1880, a series of confrontations between these two camps is completed by the defeat of Buenos Aires and the federalisation of the city and the country, of which it takes the statute of federal capital.
In 1882 the national congress creates the post of intendant as well as the council of deliberation of the city. The intendant is not elected with the Vote for all, but indicated by the president of the nation, with the support of the senate. The first intendant was Torcuato de Alvear, indicated in 1883 by Julio Argentino Roca.
Industrial rise (19th-20th)The end of 19th, the construction of railroads makes it possible Buenos Aires to increase its industrial power, the raw materials running with flood in its factories. The city became a large multicultural metropolis competing with the large European capitals. Thus, the theater Colón became one of the operas most attended in the world. It is during this period that the broad avenues of the city were built, like at the beginning of the 20th highest century Gratte-ciel of South America, and its first Métro in 1913.
In the Years 1920, Buenos Aires belonged to the preferred destinations of the emigrants European or coming from the poor areas of the adjoining countries. This immigration involved the appearance of Bidonville S or very poor working districts ( villas miserias ) around the industrial parks of the city, having for consequence of serious social problems.
Military junta and revolutionary movements (20th)During the 20th century, the military junta was frequently involved in the political matters of the city and the country, and organized several coups d'etat. Buenos Aires was also the cradle of the peronism: it is on the Plaza of Mayo that was held the show of force of Juan Perón, the October 17th 1945. The Plaza of Mayo became the usual site of demonstrations and many political events.
The June 16th 1955, a military rising taken along by Eduardo Lonardi finishes, three months later, by forcing Perón with the exile. During this coup d'etat and single time of its history, the city will have been the target of air raids.
In the Years 1970, the city was the theater of confrontations between revolutionary movements (Montoneros, ERP and FAR ) and paramilitary groups of extreme right-hand side (Triple has). In 1976, a military coup d'etat does nothing but exacerbate these fights. This Guerre salts involved between 10.000 and 30.000 disappearances in the country. Silent walks of the mothers of missings (the Mothers of Plaza of Mayo ) will remain an outstanding image of ravaged Argentina.
Return to the democracy (20th)Elections were organized the October 30th 1983 in all the country to renew the president, the vice-president, the governors of provinces and local representatives, putting a term at the military dictatorships.
The March 17th 1992, a bomb exploded with the embassy of Israel, making 29 died and 242 wounded. Another explosion, the July 18th 1994, destroyed a building sheltering several Jewish associations or organizations (of which AMIA), making 85 dead and of many casualties.
Following the reform of the Argentinian Constitution of 1994, the city could obtain with its own constitution and a self government. The June 30th 1996 were held the elections of the Chief of the government of the city, as of the legislators who will establish the Constitution of the city. The candidate of UCR (started from center-left), Fernando of Rúa, gained the first elections and thus became the first Chief of the government of the city. And after two months of deliberation, on October 1st 1996, Buenos Aires voted its own Constitution.
Between 1998 and 2002, Buenos Aires like all Argentina undergoes a low register economic crisis. The city was shaken by intense demonstrations ( cacerolazos ), followed in particular by the popular classes touched hard by the Chômage, then by the middle-classes whose government had limited the access to the bank accounts. The crisis reached its paroxysm in December 2001, whereas plunderings multiply mainly in suburbs; the December 19th, after the Argentinian president Fernando of Rúa had issued the state of siege, its Minister for the Economy Domingo Cavallo gave her resignation. 19 and December 20th, several tens of demonstrators find the death, including at least five killed by the police force with the accesses of the Casa Rosada and the palate of the congress. Finally the 20 at the evening, it was with the turn of Fernando of Rúa to give its resignation, effective as of the following day. This caused to alleviate certain tensions but the economic crisis persisted until the beginning 2003, the economy remaining precarious. During the crisis, the financial district of Buenos Aires “was literally bunkerisé”, and the walls of the banks are covered still today with many Graffiti S.
GeographyThe limits of the town of Buenos Aires are defined by the Río of Plata, the Río Matanza and the avenue General Paz which separates the city from the province of Buenos Aires.
Almost the whole of the city was built on the Pampa, made exceptions of some zones such as the ecological Réserve of Buenos Aires, the sports complex of the Club Atletico Boca Juniors or of Puerto Madero, which developed on artificially arranged spaces of the coasts of Río of Plata.
The area was initially traversed by various brooks and lagoons, which were filled, drained or channeled. It was in particular the case in 1908, following damage caused with the infrastructures of the city by the rise of water. The channels were then with open sky, crossed by various bridges to guarantee circulation. In 1919 it was decided to bury the channels, and work started in 1927 to be completed between 1938 for certain channels, until in 1954 for the Maldonado . Among the principal channels appear los Terceros (of the south, the center and north), Maldonado , Vega , Medrano , Cildañez and White .
ClimateThe climate of the city moderate east oceanic, the annual average of the temperatures being of 16,6º C. the winter, the temperatures oscillates between 7º and 15º C, being able to go down until 0º C. Exceptionally the city knew three snowfalls in 1918 (of night), in 1969 and on July 9th 2007 (of day). In summer, the temperatures reach 25º C; although not very high in comparison with the climates north country, they causes a significant inconvenience because of ambient moisture.
The annual average of precipitations is of 1.146 Misters the most frequent rains take place during the autumn, spring and the summer. For the hot and moderate periods short downpours and of low intensity, or of the drizzle occur, which do not block the usual course of the human activities.
Buenos Aires is subjected to two types of winds: the Pampero and the Sudestada . The first is a wind of the south-west, which generally begin with a transitory storm, followed dry and cold air flow. It can occur at any period of the year, being generally appreciated the summer for have fresh that it brings. The sudestada , less frequent than the precedent, occurs mainly in autumn and in spring. It is about a wind powerful, coming from south-east, cold and very wet, which generally lasts several days and is accompanied by weak and continuous precipitations. When it lasts, the wind can cause the rise of water of Río of Plata, producing Inondation S.
The snowfalls are extremely rare in Buenos Aires. The two last go with the July 27th 1928 and back to July 9th, 2007. The warming continuous of the temperature during the whole of the 20th century and which continues today, due mainly to widening and the increase in the urban activities in Buenos Aires, all the more moves away the prospect for new snowfalls.
AdministrationBuenos Aires has its own government, like all the federal districts of Argentine. The Executive power of the east city made up of the chief of the government, elected by the inhabitants of the city for a four years mandate. Head of government is the official title corresponding to mayor. Resulting from one of the most fortunate families of Argentina, Mauricio Macri is also the president of the large football club of the capital, Boca Juniors.Il can be replaced by the vice-chief of the government in the event of unavailability, this last also providing the president's functions of the legislature of the Town of Buenos Aires. In March 2006, the chief of the government Aníbal Ibarra is relieved following the scandal of the República Cromañón, a Discothèque which took fire the December 30th 2004 by killing 194 people and by wounding 714 others. Jorge Telerman, then vice-chief of the government, succeeded to him. Its mandate must finish the December 10th 2007.
The second turn of the election of the June 24th 2007 saw the victory of the business man, but also president of the large football club of the capital Boca Juniors and appointed of right-hand side since 2005 Mauricio Macri. He becomes the first head of government of the autonomous city of Buenos Aires to being originating in a right-wing policy current. In 2003, it had failed vis-a-vis Anibal Ibarra.
The Legislative power is represented by the Legislature, which is composed of sixty deputies. Those are elected for four years and the Legislature is renewed per half every two years via noncumulative direct elections according to the Méthode D' Hondt.
Under the terms of the law known as Cafiero , the jurisdiction specific to the city is limited to the fields of the dispute of vicinity, the infringments, the administrative dispute and the local tax system. The judicial Power is formed of the Course higher of Justice, of the Council of the Magistrature, the Public ministry and the various courts of the city.
From a legal point of view, the administrative autonomy of Buenos Aires is lower than that of the other provinces which compose the Republic of Argentina. In term of common right the city remains governed by the national jurisdiction, and controls it of the Federal police of Argentina on the territory of the city belongs to the national executive power.
See also: Districts of Buenos Aires
48 districts, known as barrios , compose the city. Among the most known, let us quote the harbor districts of Boca and Puerto Madero, the districts tourist and animated San Telmo and Monserrat, and in north the elegant districts, calmer and residential, of Palermo and Recoleta.
DemographyWith the last national census carried out in November 2001 by INDEC, the city counts 2 995 805 inhabitants, including 54,3% women. The population density is there of 14 762,0 habitants/km. In June 2006, an estimate gives 3 025 772 inhabitants for the city. 40% of the porteños would have been born neither in the town of Buenos Aires nor in the Gran Buenos Aires, but would come from the immigration either since of other Argentinas provinces, or since the foreigner. This important value is charged to the weak birthrate of the layers of middle-class of the native porteños and to the strong emigration towards the foreigner in certain classes of population for which were substituted poorer classes coming from other Argentinas provinces, lasting the crisis of 2001 and its continuations. The census of 2001 counts 316 739 porteños abroad born.
The rate of criminality in the city is of 6 925,34 annual offenses for 100 000 inhabitants. Nearly the three quarters of these offenses are crimes against properties. The annual rate of homicides is of 4,57 for 100 000 inhabitants.
EconomyBuenos Aires is the heart financial, industrial, commercial and cultural of Argentina. Its port is one of most active in the world: being to the mouth of the Río of Plata on the Atlantic Ocean, the navigable waterways connect the city to the Argentinian North-East, with the Brésil, the Uruguay and the Paraguay. In the west of Buenos Aires is the Pampa Húmeda , the agricultural area most productive of the country.
The average monthly salary in Buenos Aires east of 1974 pesos (624$).
The main thing economic sector of the city is the tertiary sector, which accounts for 73% of its GDP, whereas in whole Argentina it accounts for 66%. The most important activities are the real, commercial services and of hiring, which generate 17,195 million pesos. In second place the finance departments come, which generate 12,622 million pesos. Buenos Aires only generates with it 67% of the value added in the financial activities at the national level, concentrating 53% of the deposits and 68% of the loans.
Industries account for 20% of the GDP, generating 20,308 million pesos. The development of the production particularly seems to have benefitted from the abandonment from the parity peso/dollar, with a growth of 21% in 2004 compared with 19% for the services, in particular thanks to the rise of exports. The GDP increased by 8,5% in 2004, the sectors knowing the biggest rises being construction (50%), the gas and water (25,7%) and transport (18,7%). The finance departments, as for them, drop by 8%, showing a fall of almost 44% since 2001.
These last Buenos Aires years also affirms like a tourist pole , the foreign tourists being attracted by the fall of the cost of living since the crisis of 2001. Between 2002 and 2004, the number of hotel establishments increased by 10,7%, while the number of inhabited residences knew an important rise of 42,9%.
In the first quarter 2006, the rate of Chômage in the town of Buenos Aires was of 9,5%, whereas it goes up up to 12,5% for the whole of the province of Buenos Aires, the highest rate of the country. In comparison, certain areas had at the same period a rate lower than 8%, like the Noreste (7,1%) or the Cuyo, area of Mendoza and San Juan (7,4%). The rate continuously lowered since the end of the economic crisis until the last quarters 2004 loser nearly 10% in two years, then oscillates between 7% and 11% since 2005, thus remaining rather volatile.
Tourism in the middle of the nation
The tourist places most important are in the historical center of the city, sector practically formed by the districts of Monserrat and San Telmo. The city started to be built around Plaza Mayor (today Plaza of Mayo), and the administrative institutions of the colony were installed in this sector. In the east of the Place, one can see the Casa Rosada, current seat of the Executive power of the country (i.e. work place of the president of the Argentinian republic), in a place where before one could admire the strong old man. Towards the north of Plaza of Mayo the metropolitan cathedral is, which occupies the same place since the time of the colony, and the building of the Banque of the Argentinian Nation. Another important colonial institution was Cabildo of Buenos Aires, located towards the west, which did not preserve its original form because part of its structure was demolished for the opening of the Avenida of Mayo and the diagonal Julio Argentino Roca. Towards the south one can see the building of the old Congress of the Nation, where currently the national Academy of History functions. Lastly, towards the North-West one can observe the building of the Government of the city, while advancing towards Avenida of Mayo.
The Avenida of Mayo is regarded as the Civic Axe , because it links the Casa Rosada with the Palais of the Congress of the Argentinian Nation, seats respectively of the executive power and the legislative power. Throughout this avenue, one can observe certain buildings of great cultural, architectural and historical interest: the House of the Culture, the Palacio Barolo and the Coffee Tortoni, inter alia. At the end of the large artery, one can observe a superb whole of two places, decorated with various monuments and sculptures, among which is a signed copy of the Penseur of Rodin. Around these places the Palate of the Congress of the Argentinian Nation is.
To know the town of Buenos Aires in a really different way, one should make a free turn with " Cicerones of Buenos Aires " www.cicerones.org.ar.
Buenos Aires is certainly the richest town of the Argentina culturally, of the fact in particular of the great diversity of its population and her history. She is often regarded as more European of the towns of South America. The Architecture of the city was influenced by several European countries. In the oldest districts, one finds a modern mixture of style and colonial style which goes up with the Spanish domination.
LanguagesOne speaks mainly the Spanish there (Castilian), with some differences in particular in pronunciation compared to that spoken in Spain: for example, the Digraph “ L ” or “there” is marked “ CH ” by the Argentinian alive ones in Buenos Aires. This modified Spanish is usually called Spanish rioplatense .
The porteños also speak the Lunfardo, a popular slang derived from Spanish and other languages imported by immigration: the Italian , the French, and the Portuguese. Other words come from the Gaúcho S of the Pampa. It was mainly developed at the end of the 19th century and with the beginning of 20th in the poorest zones of Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo. The lunfardo was immortalisé in many words of popular songs, in particular in Tango S.
Operas, theaters and cinemasBuenos Aires holds the greatest concentration of theaters and operas of Latin America. It shelters one of the most famous operas in the world, the Teatro Colón. Built on avenue 9 of Julio, one broadest in the world, its construction lasted 20 years and was completed in 1908. It can accommodate more than 3.000 people. Many other theaters or operas are located along the Corrientes avenue or its surroundings, like the Teatro Maipo or the Teatro General San Martín, this last also sheltering artistic and cinematographic exposures.
The Argentinian Cinéma, which was very active before the military dictatorship, knows a renewal of activity since the end of the Années 1990, the new wave of the Argentinian cinema . It is most productive of Latin America, in particular thanks to the Instituto Nacional de Cine there Artes Audiovisuales (INCAA) which makes the Argentinian film promotion abroad. Among this new wave, many Argentinian films were rewarded by various prices (and sometimes nominated with the Oscars), quote inter alia Nueve reinas of Fabián Bielinsky, El Hijo of the novia of Juan Jose Campanella, or of course Carnets of voyage of Walter Salles. Since 1999 is held each year in the city the international festival of cinema independent of Buenos Aires , organized by the Ministry for the culture of the town of Buenos Aires.
MuseumsThe city counts more than 140 Musée S public (often depending on the secretariat to the culture of the town of Buenos Aires or the central government) or private, among which the Musée of Latin-American art of Buenos Aires , the Musée of the Cinéma Pablo Ducrós Hicken , the Musée of art Spanish-American Isaac Fernández Blanco , the national Musée of history or the National museum of the Art schools . This last, inaugurated the July 16th 1895, has more than 12.000 Peinture S, Sculpture S, Tapisserie S and other types of works. One finds there paintings of Francisco Goya, Auguste Renoir, Edouard Manet (of which the surprised Nymph ), Vincent van Gogh, Claude Monet (of which the Bridge of Argenteuil ), Pablo Picasso, etc
The tangoIt is most probably in Buenos Aires or Montevideo that was born the Tango, at the end of the 19th century. The tango today always is very practiced in the city, where many establishments, coffees or restaurants propose the every day of the spectacles of dances. The same streets of the district San Telmo live at the rate/rhythm of the music and frequently accommodate dancers, amateurs or professionals. The Corrientes avenue, one of most famous of the city and which accommodated large specialists like Carlos Gardel, pay homage to the tango thanks to 40 commemorative plaques laid out in its length.
GastronomyThe kitchen porteña was strongly influenced by Italian immigration, the pizza pies and ices being very widespread in the city. Beef is also a great classic, and the Maté is drunk at any hour in the streets of Buenos Aires.
See also the article Argentinian Kitchen.
OthersBuenos Aires shelters also many Bibliothèque S and varied religious organizations. One counts 26 public libraries, to which one can add the Casa of Poesía . The Biblioteca Nacional , larger library of the country, holds in others an edition of the Divine comedy of Dante going back to 1484, or a page of the first impression of the Bible of Gutenberg. The Biblioteca del Congreso of Nación , with its bibliographical inheritance of more than 2 million specimens, appears among the most complete libraries of the world.
Buenos Aires is the town of origin or of residence of famous Argentinian writers such as Leopoldo Lugones, Jorge Luis Borges, Manuel Mujica Laínez, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Ernesto Sábato, Leopoldo Marechal, Victoria Ocampo, and Julio Cortázar (which lived with Paris). Certain international personalities also chose to live in Buenos Aires, it is the case of Rene Goscinny, Marcel Duchamp, Witold Gombrowicz, Jerry Masucci, Romola Nijinska, Rosa Chacel, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and Eugene O' Neill, just as the ship-owner Aristote Onassis.
During the Spanish Civil war and its direct continuations, Buenos Aires accommodated many Spanish refugees , like the philosopher Jose Ortega there Gasset and the type-setter Manuel of Falla, which settled thereafter with Córdoba (Argentina).
Buenos Aires counts many other sites of cultural interest or approval, in particular in the district of Palermo where one finds the zoo, the botanical gardens of the city, the Bosques de Palermo and the Planétarium Galileo Galilei, which offer alone more than 50 hectares of greenery to the city.
The protective saint of the city east Holy Martin de Tours. The legend says that when Juan de Garay melted the city, it had to choose a protective saint, all the officers proposed the names of saints whom they knew. To leave the choice in " the hand of Dieu" , Juan de Garay chooses to carry out a drawing lot. The first time the name of St Martin de Tours left, but, being Spanish, he wanted a saint Spanish for this city and nonFrench, especially that at that time, French and Spaniards were in war. The second pulling was made, and St Martin arose, then a third and always the same result. Juan says whereas God had really chosen Saint Martin for Buenos Aires.
The sport more practiced, as well in Buenos Aires as in all Argentina, is the Football. Most of the most famous clubs of the Championship of Argentina of football resident in the city, it is the case of the two most famous clubs in Argentina, the Club Atlético Boca Juniors and Club Atlético River Punt, whose meeting gives place each year to the famous clásicos . Less known abroad but adulated its supporters as much, the Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro holds its districts in the barrio of Boedo. The city accommodates also the clubs of Velez Sarsfield and Argentinos Juniors, among many others. Consequently, the infrastructures devoted to football are very developed, the city has for example several stages of more than 50.000 places, like the Estadio Monumental (stage To rivet Punt) or Bombonera (Boca Juniors). Many infrastructures was built or developed for the Football world cup of 1978 in Argentina. It is as in poor districts of Buenos Aires as Diego Maradona grew, and there always remained very attached to its city.
Apart from football, one finds the clubs To rivet Punt and Boca Juniors in the Liga Nacional has Basket-ball.
The Tennis also is very appreciated, after being popularized by Guillermo Vilas in the Années 1970. Among the players originating in Buenos Aires, also let us quote Argentina Gabriela Sabatini. The Tournoi ATP of Buenos Aires is the only competition ATP of Argentina.
Buenos Aires was the place of various international sporting events. In addition to the world one of football referred to above, it accommodated the Pan-American Jeux of 1951, two world masculines of basketball (in 1950 and 1990) and of many automobile races for the automobile Grand Prix of Argentina, on the circuit Oscar Alfredo Gálvez.
Buenos Aires was unfortunate candidate of the Olympic Games of summer on three occasions: in 1956 (OJ of Melbourne), in 1968 (OJ of Mexico City) and in 2004 (OJ of Athens). Argentina is the only founding member of CIO not to have accommodated the Plays yet.
Universities and sciences
Five Nobel Prize left the university of Buenos Aires, one of the best universities of South America, which provide free lesson to students coming from the four corners of the sphere.
Buenos Aires is a major center for the Psychanalyse, particularly the school lacanienne.
Transport and economy
- Urban transport of large Buenos Aires
- International airport of Ezeiza
- Aeroparque Jorge Newbery
- Of azure with two sailing ships sailing on waves, of which is issuant bandages of it an anchor, the money whole surmounted by an eagle stealing and radiating the same one.
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