Bucharest (in Rumanian Bucureşti - or Municipiul Bucureşti in long version) is the Capitale of the Romania. It is built on a loop of the Dâmboviţa in the south of the country.
The city, founded in 1459 was then the capital of the Valachie. In 2003, population of the east city of 2 082 000 inhabitants, with an urban surface of almost 2 500 000 inhabitants.
Between the two wars, the city had the nickname of " Small Paris". Some buildings were built by French architects (the Athenaeum, Palate CEC " Palatul Casei de Economii if Consemnatiunii ")
According to the legend, the name of the city comes from Bucur , a shepherd who was established the first on the current site. Like, in Rumanian, bucur means joy , of many Rumanian writers call Bucharest the city of the joy .
BlasonnementOf mouths to the Démétrius saint of complexion equipped with gold and mouths, cover of a coat of azure, holding out of stake on the right a spade of money fixed of gold and on the left a Latin gold cross.
The history of Bucharest is older than its designation like capital, which dates only from the middle of the 19th century. According to the legend, it was rested by a shepherd of the name of Bucur (which means joy in Rumanian), even if historically the city were set up at the 14th century by Mircea Old the ( Mircea concealment Batrân ), after its victory over the Turks.
Bucharest is called initially " the fortress of Bucarest" , in 1459, when it is the residence of the prince of Valachie Vlad III Empaleur ( Vlad Ţepeş ). At this point in time the old royal court, Curtea Veche , is built and, during the reign of Radu II Elegant the ( Radu concealment Frumos ), Bucharest becomes the residence of summer of the court.
Set fire to by the Othomans in 1595, Bucharest is rebuilt and continuous to grow in the face and prosperity. Its center is around the street " Uliţa mare" who, as from 1589, is called Lipscani according to the name of the inhabitants of the town of Leipzig, who exert many trade there. At the 17th century, Bucharest becomes the most important shopping mall of Valachie and, in 1698, Constantin Brâncoveanu chooses it like capital of the principality.
At the 19th century, Rumanian possession of Bucharest east frequently called into question by the Othoman , the Austrian and the Russian . It is occupied twice by the latter, in 1828 and 1853 - 1854, which is replaced by an Austrian garrison in 1854. This one remains in the until March 1857 city. March 23rd, 1847, 2.000 buildings of Bucharest are the prey of the flames, which destroy a third of the city.
In 1861, during the union of the Valachie and the Moldavie, Bucharest becomes the capital of the new principality of Romania. Thanks to the new statute of Bucharest, the population of the city increases considerably in the second part of the 19th century and a new era of urban development starts. Extravagant architecture and the cosmopolitan culture of this period are worth in Bucharest its nickname of Eastern Paris or Petit Paris , Micul Paris , with the avenue of the Victoire ( Calea Victorei ) like Fields-Élysées. But social division between rich person and the poor, described in this time by Ferdinand Lassalle, makes city a nest with social strains.
Between on December 6th, 1916 and November 1918, the city is occupied by the Germans and the capital is transferred to Iassy. After the First World War, Bucharest becomes the capital of the kingdom of the Grande Romania, which includes, inter alia, the return of the Transylvania. During the Second world war, Bucharest suffers much from the Anglo-American bombardments (Romania of the general Antonescu is then the allied one of the Nazi Germany).
During the presidency of Nicolae Ceausescu (1965 - 1989) with the report heading, the majority of the historical zone of the city are destroyed and replaced by buildings of Soviet style, whose best example is the Civic Center , which includes the Palais of the People, where whole historical quarters were shaven to accommodate megalomaniac constructions of the Rumanian dictator.
In 1977, an earthquake of intensity 7,4 on the scale of Richter makes 1.500 victims and destroys also many old buildings. Despite everything, certain historical quarters remain still upright today.
Bucharest is the witness of the revolution of December 1989, initiated with Timisoara, then in 1990, of the demonstrations coeds ( Golaniade S ) and of their wild repression ( Minériade S ) by the minors of the valley of the Jiu.
After the year 2000, benefitting from the beginning of the economic boom in Romania, the city is modernized. It is currently during a time of urban revival. Several residential and commercial developments are in hand, especially in the districts north, whereas the historical center of Bucharest undergoes an important restoration.
Treaties signed in Bucharest
- Treated of May 28th, 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812. Moldavie loses the Bessarabia.
- Treated of March 3rd, 1886, at the end of the serbo-Bulgarian War.
- Treated of August 10th, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan war.
- Treated 14 August 27th, 1916, the treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente (France, England, Russia and Italy).
- Treated of May 7th, 1918, the treaty enters the central Romania and powers, which ratified forever.
- Church of the Saint-Apostles
- Church Mihai Voda
- Monastery of Russian Antim
- Church Stravopoleos
- Church Slobozia
- Monastery of Radu Vodă
- Church Buna Vestire
- Church of Bucur
- Church Cretulescu
- Church Coltea
Other places of worship
- Temple Coral
- Temple of the Tailors
- Curtea Veche
- Hanul Manuc
- Villa Monteoru or House of the writers
- Palate Lens Vernescu
- Palate Cantacuzène
- Palate Sutu
- Palate Cretulescu
- Palate of Mogoşaia
Modern monuments and buildings
- Triumphal arch
- Rumanian Athenaeum
- National theater
- stores on the boulevard Magheru
- Memorial of the rebirth
- the Palate of the Parliament or Palate of the People : this gigantic construction was built between 1984 and 1989. The preliminary draft aimed at gathering all the services of the state as well as the residence of Nicolae Ceauşescu.
- the project in some figures:
- destruction of 520 ha of the town of Bucharest (1/5 of the total surface area, the equivalent of 3 Parisian districts);
- the work of 20.000 workmen day and night during his construction;
- eviction and the rehousing of 40.000 people in sometimes unhealthy buildings (neither water, neither gas, nor electricity);
- the demolition or the displacement of about thirty churches;
- the project cost 40% of the GDP each year of its construction.
- the Palate of the People today:
- 2nd larger administrative building in the world after the Pentagon (the USA);
- 45.000 m ² of surface on the ground;
- 400.000 m ² livable;
- 100 m in height;
- 20 height m rooms (largest with the size of a football field).
- Images of the old Palate of the People (current Palate of the Parliament):
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