See also: Bruges (homonymy)
It is member of the Organization of the cities of the world heritage, since the year 2000. It was also the European Capitale of the culture in 2002, at the same time as the Spanish city of Salamanque.
It is called “Venice North” because it has many channels which encircle or cross the city. One still finds remainders of fortress (as well as mills) beside the channels surrounding the center town.
Bruges still has a important port.
History of the city
The Middle AgesThe name of Bruges comes from old Norwegian " Bryggja" , meaning " quai" or " port".
Bruges appears with the Middle Ages as a strengthened place located along a river which was the Zwin. Baudouin, vassal of the Carolingian king Charles the Bald person, lived there with Judith, the girl of this one which it had removed. To mitigate new quarrels, the king had sent his vassal Baudouin to the Flemish country, where a population very few feared the invasions Normans.
Baudouin becomes the founder of the Comté of Flanders and extends his field of the coastal region juqu' to the the Scheldt and the Artois. We find the name of Bruges for the first time towards 875 on a coin; this name would probably come from the former Norwegian Bryggia , meaning " débarcadère" , and which was the denomination of the place at the time of the Viking S.
Bruges is at the 9th century only one rampart with castle and vault on the place where now Burg rises. To Burg are added a market, a court of justice and some roads who carry out to the coast or inside the country. Ships come to accost there. They penetrate in the mouth of Zwin between the sand banks and the Flemish coast. Thus Bruges also develops like shopping mall.
Bruges is mentioned in writing on document telling the transfer of a gold crucifix towards Bruges, can be by fear of the invasions Normans and thus letting think that Bruges is a sourer city, which leaves supposed fortifications and a garrison.
In years 900, Burg became a port. The retirement of the count is not attacked any more by the Norman ones, but she is visited by craftsmen and tradesmen. She obtains the statute of city in 1128. She builds at the time of the walls and the channels.
In the year 1134, a tidal wave opens a channel to bay of the Zwin, so that the city has from now on an direct access with the the North Sea. The city can thus take part in the international business which connects the England, producing of wool, the Gascogne, producing of wine, and the producers of textiles of Flanders. The arm of the sea passes close to the town of Damme, which will become a commercial outpost of Bruges.
In 1200, the city obtains the right to organize an annual market. The merchants of the Rhine come quickly to Bruges, then it is with the turn of the Hanseatic merchants, come from Lübeck and Hamburg. In 1253, the Hanse obtains privileges there and Bruges becomes one of the three Hanseatic counters at sea North, with London and Bergen.
As of the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, merchants of Genoa, Venice, Florence, of Castille, Portugal or of Scotland count among the regular visitors of the city. The arrival of the first merchant génois in 1277 allows not only the beginning of the trade of spices with Raising, but also an improvement of the banking and financial techniques in the city.
In 1302, at the time of famous the crossbred Brugean, the population of the city revolts against the French occupation, assassinates the garrison in May and is joined the counts de Flandre. Two months later, the city takes share with the Flemish victory of the Bataille of the gold spurs, against the King of France. In 1309, a purse is created and the city becomes the financial market more sophisticated of the Netherlands during XIVe century. The Venetian merchants arrive in the city in 1314. In XIVe and XVe centuries of the merchants of Lucques like Dino Rapondi or the Husbands Arnolfini settle there. The population of the city passes from 35.000 inhabitants in 1340 to nearly 100.000 in 1500.
The golden age of the city between the 12th century and the 15th century is thus due to a flourishing trade centered mainly on drapery. At that time, Bruges is a true turntable European commercial. The trade is established with London, the north of the Europe and the large wearing of Italy, Genoa and Venice.
In XVe century, the city is under the supervision of the dukes of Burgundy, who bring the city to an high degree of economic development, architectural and cultural. At the end of the the Middle Ages, Bruges is the richest city of Northern Europe.
Modern timeAt the end of XVe century, the bay of the Zwin ensable gradually and the direct connection between the city and the sea is broken. The Court of Burgundy leaves Bruges and the emperor Maximilien Ier restricts the rights of the city. Antwerp becomes the dominant city of Flandres. The city is impoverished and passes under Spanish domination.
The secession of the Spanish Netherlands, in 1584, leads to the final decline of the city. In 1600, Bruges is nothing any more but one provincial town. During the 17th century, various initiatives are taken to join again with the past, the harbor installations are modernized, but without much success.
Today Bruges has many museums, places tourist like the Beffroi, a new modern and important port (Zeebruges), but still two football clubs: FC Bruges and the Circle Bruges KSV evolving/moving in the Stage Jan Breydel.
The communeIn 1971, the commune of Bruges amalgamated with other communes to form a new entity. Here the sections ( deelgemeenten ) of the commune:
the Grand Places ( Grote Markt ) with the Beffroi.
the Burg with the Town hall, the buildings of the Frankly of Bruges and the Basilica of Saint-Blood.
- the Church Notre-Dame
- the Cathédral Saint-Saver (St - Salvator)
- the Old Hospital Midsummer's Day
- the Church of Jerusalem
- old doors of the city: Boeveriepoort, Smedenpoort, Ezelpoort, Dampoort, Kruispoort, Gentpoort and the Katelijnepoort.
- the Procession of Saint-Blood.
Culture and art
Theaters and concert halls
- Of Jump
- De Dijk
- The English Theater off Bruges
- Het Warehouse
- Jan Garemijnzaal
- De Werf
- Cinema Light
- Cinema Liberty
- Kinepolis Bruges
- Art schools of 15th with the 21e century:
- Museum Groeninge
- Hotel Arents
- Forum+ (platform of contemporary visual art in the tower of the building ( Lantaarntoren ), an initiative of the Concertgebouw and Musea Brugge (museums of Bruges), which envisages three exposures per annum.)
- the Bruggemuseum (generic structure which includes/understands all the historical museums of the city):
- Museum Gruuthuse
- Church of reception Notre-Dame
- Museum of Archeology
- Town hall
- Frankly of Bruges popular
- Museum of Arts and traditions
- Mill Sint-Janshuis
- Mill Koelewei
- Museum of Guido Gezelle
- Hospitaalmuseum (Museums of hospital):
- Old Hospital Midsummer's Day (Hans Memling)
- Notre-Dame of the Pottery
- House of béguine
- Hof Bladelin
- Basilica of Saint-Blood
- Choco-Story (museum of the chocolate)
- Brugean Museum of Diamond
- Lumina Domestica (museum of the lamp)
- English Convent
- Church of Jerusalem
- Center of Lace
- Guild of the principal rafters of Saint-Georges
- Cathédral Saint-Saver
- Guild of the principal rafters Saint-Sebastien
- Abbey Saint-Trudo
- Beisbroek Observatory and planetarium
- Abbey of For the third time Doest (in Lissewege)
TrainMain station of Bruges one has connections IC with all the other important cities of Belgium (Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp, Liege, Kortrijk, Ostend,…) and with Lille.
There are still several regional trains and buildings.
AirportThe airport more close to Bruges is the International airport from Ostend-Bruges in Ostend, 20 kilometers of Bruges.
Urban public transportBruges has a network of extensive bus, used by De Lijn. There are urban and regional lines and lines serving the suburbs.
Green areasThis city is very rich in green areas, in particular close to the channels encircling the city.
- Baron Ruzettepark
- Graaf Visartpark
- Koning Albertpark
- Koningin Astridpark
- Pastoor Verhaegheplantsoen
- Stadspark Sebrechts
Boudewijn Seapark (leisure and amusement park, Sint-Michiels)
PortThe wearing of Bruges east Zeebruges. It is one of the most important ports of Europe.
See also: Wearing of Bruges-Zeebruges
FootballBruges has two football teams in the first Belgian division (Jupiler League): FC Bruges and Circle Bruges KSV.
Both play Stade Jan Breydel (30.000 seats). However, FC Bruges has proposals for a new stage of approximately 40.000 seats.
CyclingThe starting point for the Tour of Flandres is located at Bruges.
Bruges in the fiction
- If Bruges became one of the tourist cities of Europe, it is a little to the Belgian poet Symbolist Georges Rodenbach (1855 - 1898) that it must, even if the writer, become famous of the day at the following day thanks to Bruges-the-Dead (1892), masterpiece of the symbolism, lived forever in the city of which it ensured the literary fame. At one time when the idea of protection and promotion of the inheritance was spread still little, Georges Rodenbach put all his talent of writer to preach the development of the Brugean inheritance: “There is atavism in works and heredity, here also, explains my love for this admirable Bruges, which I would be happy to have ensured of a little glory near the artists spirits of France”.
the character of fiction, Dr. Evil, in Austin Powers is also supposed being of Bruges, even if he forgot that he should be able to speaking Dutch, since Brugeois.
Another character of fiction, Yoko Tsuno , passes one of its adventures in the city of Bruges in the past of the 15th century and the present (Album: the Astrologer of Bruges).
In Bruges , a film of Martin McDonagh, with Colin Farrell, Brendan Gleeson, Clemence Poésy, Jérémie To disavow, Jordan Prentice and Ralph Fiennes.
Winder , of the thriller-detectives of Pieter Winder.
Tales and legendsBruges is a city full with tales and legends:
The MinnewaterIt is celebrates it lake of in love in Bruges. The legend tells that a faithful lover buried its promised and poured water to form a lake above its tomb.
The mounting of Holy UrsuleIt is a painting of Hans Memling in the shape of church. She tells the history of Holy Ursule which promised to marry with a man in exchange of his evangelization. She then decided to make a pilgrimage in Rome accompanied by 10.000 young girls whom she made with her husband.
However it was taken in ambush on its return and was killed like her husband, of an arrow; That explains the reason for which on the first painting of hunting one sees it as a bride holding an arrow with the hand…
GruuthuseOf old Flemish gruuthuse who means “house of grasses” and comes from the trade of his inhabitant, an aromatic merchant of herb, the gruit, intended for the manufacture of beer and it held the commercial monopoly.
It was also the residence of the lords of Gruuthuse, of which Louis Gruuthuse who was in particular Chambellan of King de France. With the top of the gate of entry the currency of the " family is; Plus is in you… ". With the top of the principal main door of the house, the statuette of a knight is, who points out the first statute of Louis Gruuthuse.
Taxes and sale of gruitAt the origin, only the Gruuthuse family sold gruit. In front of the number of other tradesmen wanting to sell this grass they changed strategy and made it possible to the other merchants to sell some but by taking a tax on its sale, which was economically much more interesting.
This house is today a museum devoted to the life of the Middle Ages, where furniture of time is exposed. It is beside the Notre-Dame Church, where the Gruuthuse family had a particular cabin to which they had an access deprived from their house, which was for the time completely exceptional.
Famous BrugeansBorn in Bruges
- Jan Breydel and Pieter de Coninck, resistant of the 14th century against the capacity French
- Philippe Ier de Castille, founder of the dynasty Habsbourg in Spain and King de Castille and of León
- Eugene Charles Catalan, mathematician who worked primarily in Théorie of the numbers
- Hugo Claus, poet, author
- Paul Devaux, politicking Belgian
- Henri Milne Edwards, French zoologist
- Guido Gezelle, Priest-poet
- Pierre Huyssens, brother Jesuit, architect, Master of the religious baroque
- Tony Parker, player of basketball evolving/moving in NBA
- Gregoire of Saint-Vincent (1584-1667), Jesuit, geometrician of the Quadrature of the circle
- Jean Schramme, colonel
- the Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin (1548-1620) was born in Bruges
Died or having lived in Bruges
- Binche-native Gilles, type-setter
- Jan van Eyck, painter Flemish
- Gilles Joye, theologist
- Hans Memling, Flemish painter
- Guy Thys, trainer of Belgian football
- Juan Luís Sharp, philosopher, theologist and grammairien
- François-Marie Salembier, the chief of the Chauffeurs of North was guillotine in Bruges in 1798.
- Burgos (Spain), 2007
Gallery and panoramas
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