Brooklyn is one of the five districts (Borough) of the town of New York to the the United States, with Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island. It coincides with the county of Kings ( Kings County ), administrative cutting of the State of New York. With a population of more than: 2508820 inhabitants in 2006, it is that which is populated the most; it would constitute with him only the fourth city of the United States.
The district of Brooklyn occupies the western end of Long Island and is close to the district of the Queens. Its northern coast is defined by the East River, which separates it from Manhattan. Brooklyn is connected there since 1883 by the Pont of Brooklyn, which is oldest Pont suspended of the United States. Other bridges were built later on, of which the bridge of Williamsburg and the Pont of Manhattan. The median coast of the borough touches Upper New York Bay. The Buttermilk Chanel separates the borough from Governors Island. In south-west Gowanus Bay and Gowanus Canal are. At its western end, Brooklyn is separated from Staten Island by the Narrows , where meet Upper and Lower New York Bay. The Bridge Verrazano, inaugurated in 1964, makes it possible to bind both boroughs. It was of 1964 to 1981 the longest suspended bridge of the world. In south-east are Coney Island, Brighton Beach, Manhattan Beach and the Jamaica Bay.
Surface of Brooklyn east of 251 km 2 , including 183 km 2 emerged grounds. Its highest point is at the neighborhoods of Prospect Park and Green-Wood Cemetery, with approximately 61 meters with the top of the sea level. The district of Brooklyn Heights in the downtown area is built on a height.
According to the census of 2000, Brooklyn counts: 2465326 inhabitants: 880727 households and: 583922 families. The population density is of 13480 hab/km ². The population is made up of 41% “white” inhabitants of European origin, of 36% of Afro-américain S, 7% the Asian ones, the remainder having other origins. 19,79% of the population are Hispanic. 33% of the population of the district have less than 18 years. Brooklyn accommodates one of the most important communities of Pakistan board in the United States with: 14221 people. Among the population of European origin, 9,41% are Italian descendants, Irishman 3,70%, German 1,81% and English 1,19%.
Brooklyn is varied at the linguistic level. 18% of the population speak Spanish at the house, 5,95% Russian, 4,19% French or a Creole based on French, 3,92% Chinese, 3.10% the Yiddish, 2.10% Italian, 1.42% Polish, 1.13% Hebrew and 1.09% Arabic.
According to the estimates of the Office of the census, the population of the borough was of: 2486235 people in 2005. The county of Kings is the county more populated State of New York, and the second county of the United States on the level of the population density, after Manhattan.
| valign=" top" | |}
The Netherlanders are the first Europeans to colonize the Western area of Long Island, which was hitherto inhabited by the Amerindian tribe Carnasie. They establish there in 1634 Midwout (Midwood). They buy with the Mohawks the territory which extends on the current districts from Gowanus, Red Hook, of Brooklyn Navy Yard and Bushwick. The Village of Breuckelen (of the name of the town of Breukelen to the Netherlands) is authorized by the Compagnie Dutchwoman of the Western Indies in 1646 and becomes thus the first municipality of the New-Country-Low.
The Netherlanders lose the village at the time of the British conquest of their colony in 1664. In 1683 the British reorganize the Province of New York in twelve counties themselves subdivided downtown; the name of that of Breuckelen evolves/moves: of Brockland, Brocklin, then Brookline, it ends up becoming Brooklyn. Brooklyn takes again the administrative cutting of the county of Kings. This name had been allotted in the honor of the king Charles II of England.
August 27th 1776 is held there the Bataille of Brooklyn (known as also battles Length Island ), at the time of the war of independence. The creation of underground lines contributes to the growth of Brooklyn, which annexes the other boroughs and villages of the County of Kings and ends up amalgamating with this one. The city becomes one of the five districts of New York in 1898.
This district of the Big Apple knows since the beginning of XXIe century a new dynamism which is noticed in particular by the rise of the districts of businesses of Greenpoint and Williamsburg. Several companies install offices on other side of the East River.
The official currency of Brooklyn east Een Draght Mackt Maght . Written in Dutch, it takes as a starting point the currency of the United Provinces and can be translated by " In the unit is the force". This currency appears on the official flag and the emblême of the borough, which also comprise an young woman, a traditional emblem of republicanism. The official colors of Brooklyn are blue and gold.
Districts of Brooklyn
Brooklyn can be divided into many distinct districts, whose majority developed starting from villages and of cities dating from colonization Dutchwoman of the years 1600.
The districts located at the North-West between the bridge of Brooklyn and Prospect Park are Boerum Hill, Brooklyn Heights, Carroll Gardens, Cobble Hill, Clinton Hill, Vinegar Hill, DUMBO, Fort Greene, Gowanus, Park Slope, Prospect Heights and Red Hook. They are characterized by the specific architecture of the townhouses and brownstones dating from. The phenomenon of Gentrification the place among the richest districts of the district. Served well by the underground lines, they include/understand many cultural institutions and restaurants with the high prices.
More in North are Williamsburg and Greenpoint, traditionally inhabited by the working classes. New populations settled there since the end of the year 1990, of which artists. Constructions of residential buildings are in hand in this gravitational part of the city.
The central part and the south of the district include/understand other distinct districts on the levels architectural and cultural, of which several appeared at the end of and the beginning of. Borough Park is a district marked by the orthodoxe Judaïsme, Bedford-Stuyvesant is one of the districts of New York accommodates an important community of Afro-Americans, Bensonhurst is historically an Italian district. With East Flatbush and Strong Greene resident middle-classes. Brighton Beach gathers many Russians. Since 1990, districts as Sunset Park are the destination of the new immigrants and are thus the center of the Mexican communities and Chinese.
The Job market of Brooklyn east led by three principal factors: the performance of the economy of the city, floods of population, and the position of the district as a convenient back-office for the companies of New York. 44% of the active population of the borough, are: 410000 people, work in Brooklyn. More half of the credits work another borough, of which especially Manhattan, whose economic conditions are important for the applicants for work of Brooklyn. Strong international immigration generates employment in the services, the retail sale and the construction industry. The pharmaceutical company Pfizer has a factory in Brooklyn which employs 990 people. Initially established like machines naval construction, the Brooklyn Navy Yard employed until: 70000 people during the Second world war. It is today an important center for the firms of industrial Design, the processing undertakings of the food products, the craftsmen, without forgetting an increasing industry of production of film and television. Approximately 230 private companies employ on the whole: 4000 people in the Yard.
Construction and the services are currently the sectors with the fastest development. The majority of the employers of Brooklyn are small companies. In 2000, 91% of: 38704 companies established in Brooklyn had less than 20 employees.
Unemployment rate amounted to 5,9% in March 2006.
The Brooklyn Public Library is the system of Public library of Brooklyn. Fifth plus great system of the country, it is independent of the New Yorkean system. In addition to the Central Library , which deals with Grand Army Plaza and is currently in restoration and phase of enlarging, it counts 58 additional libraries distributed in the district.
The Brooklyn Academy off Music or BAM is a major arts center of the borough proposing one of best programs city in theater and Contemporary dance. The BAM is also the site of a prestigious cinema independent of art and test. Many inhabitants of Manhattan cross the river to attend the spectacles of the BAM.
Museum of Brooklyn
- Prospective customer Park
- Botanical garden of Brooklyn
- Bridge of Brooklyn
- Large Army Plaza
- the Aquarium of New York
- the park of Strong Greene
- the cemetery of Greenwood
Brooklyn has three local newspapers of information: the Brooklyn Daily Eagle , the Brooklyn Paper and Courier-Life Publications. Courier-Life Publications is the most important chain of newspapers of the borough, with a weekly assistantship of more than one million people. Bay Currents is a newspaper published twice per week in the south of Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Rail is a monthly magazine dedicated to arts and literary criticism. It gained Utne Independent Close Award in 2002 and 2003. Brooklyn is also served by the principal newspapers of New York, of which the NewYork Times, the New York Daily News and the New York Post. The town of New York has its official television channel, managed by the NYC Media Group, which proposes programs based in Brooklyn.
Popular cultureThe American series Everyone hate Chris (2005) follows the life of a young black in the years 1980, elder of three children, which lives in Brooklyn and studies in a college of a white district. Its family lives in a Brownstone characteristic of the district. The series mentions on the humorous tone the social problems and racism.
Paul Auster, " the Brooklyn folies"
- Alfred Kazin, Return to Brooklyn ;
- Paule Marshall, black Girl, stone sinks (1959).
Brooklyn includes/understands many stages, like KeySpan Park, and several parks, which allow the sporting exercise. The city saw being born from many celebrities of the world of the sport, of which Joe Paterno, Joe Pepitone, Joe Torre, Larry Brown, Mike Tyson, Vitas Gerulaitis, Paul Lo Duca, John Franco, Stephon Marbury, John Halama, Rico Petrocelli, Michael Jordan and Vince Lombardi.
The Democratic party is majority in Brooklyn: 69,7% of the recorded voters are democratic. No Républicain has received majority in Brooklyn during a presidential election for approximately 50 years. At the time of the election of 2004 John Kerry (D) received 74,9% of the voices, while George W. Bush (R) received 24,3% from them. The same applies as for the representation of the citizens to the Congrès. The 10th Congressional district of New York, which includes/understands Fort Greene, Bedford Stuyvesant, Brownsville, East New York and Canarsie, is represented by the democrat Edolphus Towns. Yvette Clarke represents the 11th Congressional District , composed of Park Slope, Crown Heights, Flatbush, East Flatbush and Prospect Heights. In 1968 this district elected Shirley Chisholm, member-founder of the organization Congressional Black Caucus , the first woman Afro-américain E to obtain a seat with the congress. The population of the district rises with: 654361 people, including 57% of blacks, 24% of white and 12% the Hispanic ones. The 12th District (Bushwick, Williamsburg, Red Hook and Sunset Park, as well as the Lower East Side of Manhattan and of the parts of the west of the Queens) is represented by Nydia Velazquez
The public schools of the borough are directed by the New York City Department off Education, more the public school great system of the United States.
Among the establishments of higher education, one can quote Brooklyn College, a senior college of the Université of the Town of New York, Kingsborough Community College, a junior college of this same university, Brooklyn Law School, State University off New York Health Science Center At Brooklyn (SUNY Downstate Medical Center) and Length Island University (private).
See also: Transport in New York
Brooklyn is served by 18 lines of the Métro of New York. 92,8% of the inhabitants having to go to Manhattan use the subway. The principal stations are Atlantic Street Avenue-Pacific, Broadway Junction, DeKalb Avenue, Jay Street-Borough Hall and Coney Island-Stillwell Avenue. The network of lines of bus covers the entirety of the borough. The famous yellow taxis of New York, although they are fewer than in Manhattan, also serve Brooklyn. Several services of suburban train have stations in the district, of which Atlantic Terminal, the station-terminus of the Atlantique line of the Long Island Railroad, and stations of East New York and Nostrand Avenue. Atlantic Terminal is an intermodal hub of important transport connected to the underground lines.
Among the highways and the cupboard fast tracks which cross the city one can quote the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, the Interstate 287, Gowanus Expressway, which belongs to the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, the Prospective customer Expressway, the New York State Route 27, Belt Parkway and Jackie Robinson Parkway. The main streets are Atlantic Avenue, 4th Avenue, 86th Street, Kings Highway, Ocean Parkway, Eastern Parkway, Linden Boulevard, McGuiness Boulevard, Flatbush Avenue, Pennsylvania Avenue and Bedford Avenue.
Formerly Brooklyn had an important harbor role, especially on the level of Brooklyn Army Terminal of Sunset Park. The majority of the exchanges of goods are carried out now in the Port of New York and the New Jersey, however the city recently made build a terminal of cruising with Red Hook. The Queen Mary 2 passes there regularly during its crossings of the Atlantic since Southampton.
Personalities associated with Brooklyn
- the writer Paul Auster lives since many years in Brooklyn and made of this district the place of many novels but also of films.
- the scenario writer Spike Lee frequently depicts the life and the population of Brooklyn and used it for framework of many films.
|Random links:||Trémuson | Security Service | Marian Harkin | Pomarède | The Changing | Louis_XIII_de_la_France|