The breeding is the whole of the operations which ensure the multiplication the use of the human ones of often domestic animals, sometimes wild.
On also speaks about breeding of the wine.
GoalThe operations consist with
- to manage the reproduction of the adult animals to multiply them. (see animal Reproduction);
- to provide them lodging, food, care, for their use and/or of their production.
The livestock products are:
- animals themselves (young people for the increase in the herds, animals of repopulation of territory of hunting or fishing, pets);
- livestock products for the human consumption (or animal): Meat, Poisson, Shell S, Milk, egg S, honey;
- of the foodstuff non: Hair S, Wool, Leather, feather S, Sleeping bag, Fur, horn, Silk, etc;
- of under products: Manure, Liquid manure, animal Flours;
- work (, draft animal Dog S police officers, Pipe cleaner of hunting…).
The breeding generally applies to the species of pets, but not exclusively. One raises also wild animals, for example the Vison S.
The breeding calls upon a certain number of sciences and techniques:
Nowadays the breeding aims also to contribute:
- with the maintenance of the landscapes,
- with the safeguarding of the species and the threatened races,
- with the leisures: , pet and of contest Pigeon fancying.
According to the last census of FAO, the world counts 17 billion chickens, 1,8 billion sheep and goats, 1,4 billion bovines, a billion pigs and a billion ducks
OriginsThe first men lived of Cueillette and Chasse.
The passage towards agriculture and the breeding is generally presented like " naturel" , which is elegant way to avoid answering the question of why and of how. However, the two types of practices are completely opposed, the people which live one are rather generally in all-out war with those preferring the other, and one does not know the intermediate practices which could explain the slip of worms the other…
Moreover, if the business is examined, it should well be recognized that
- with the economic plan, hunting is a fast and relatively easy, very profitable practice since it requires only one simple tool and a little time. The breeding is, by comparison, an enormous investment in time, care, risks (bite or blows, disease and parasites of an animal not easy to control; loss of the livestock under the tooth of a predator or a hunter, etc), for a report/ratio which is finally that of a simple hunting. The breeding can become profitable only with chance, and after generations of efforts to select the animal lines most flexible and most adapted to a common life with the men, and the accumulation of a capital (livestock) very important; but during all this time -- possibly centuries--, far from being a profitable business, was a true wasting of resources
- on the social plan, the relations which the hunters can tie or the stockbreeders are very different. the hunter is an armed individual and to accustom to kill, who attracts the respect, it is easy for him to defend its territory of hunting… or to evacuate it vis-a-vis a stronger adversary. The hunters can, and sometimes must, to cooperate to attack preys too large, too aggressive, or too mobiles, but it is a fluid co-operation which can be tied and to untie itself without difficulty. The hunter can attack another group without taking too much risk: it does not have great a deal to lose, and can take the initiative of an aggression. The stockbreeder, is on all these plans, in a practically opposite position, and much less favorable.
Thus, there is well a mystery of the appearance of the breeding, whose explanation was perhaps found at the Aïnus with their ritual of the bear: the breeding could have been a product of a sacrificial ritual, an animal, have raised like a family member and in his center, being used for the sacrifice when a ritual requires it. The Domestication then giving (or not) a result according to the animal used: wolf leading to the appearance of the dog, bovine wild, or… bear at Aïnus, which does not lead to nothing useful but gives us an explanatory track.
The breedingThe first pet is, seems it, the wolf. The hunter legitimately admired the wolf, of which it often made its totem and, with the clean direction, a member of its family. Thus appeared the dog, companion of hunting of most effective, for the greatest benefit of the hunter and that, if one dares to say, of the dog.
The first traces of breedings of herbivores were discovered in Mésopotamie there is more than 8000 years. They are associated with a worship of tauromachic, with plays (dangerous) whose Corrida is remote downward.
During the Early middle ages in Europe, the consumption of meat were relatively important. Fernand Braudel wrote that " Centuries during, with the Middle Ages, she (Europe) knew overloaded meat tables and consumption in extreme cases of the possible" . The breeding provided other resources such as milk, leather, wool and grease. It allowed an age of the object the 13th century: leather was transformed into shoes; the Parchemin was treated skin. The wool fed industry clothier. The bowels and the horns used the manufacture of musical instruments.
The peasants used the force of the animals for the agricultural work: oxen and horses drew the Charrue or the harrow. They carried out the Corvée S of cartages (transport of wine, corn, wood, straw…). The horses hauled the ships on the rivers. They were the most invaluable good of the knight S. Some Moulin S used their labor force.
The breeding provided in an indirect way of the Fumure S to amend the grounds.
AnimalsThe medieval livestock primarily consisted of oxen, sheep and pigs. The proportion of each species depended on the areas: in the Mediterranean zone, ovicapridés carried it clearly of number. It also depended on the time: with the Great clearings, the proportion of the pigs tends to decrease. The end of the Middle Ages sees the rise of the speculative breeding.
- Bovidae: their breeding requires spaces herbagers (meadows, meadows, pastures). After the harvests, they graze the remainders of ears: it is the common grazing land. They are also taken along on the grounds left at rest (Friche) which they fatten of their manure. Their manure is recovered when they are in stalling to be épandu on the Ager. During the winter, they are nourished thanks to the hay. As of XIIe century in Flanders, the peasants give them a complement of Légumineuse S.
- ovi-caprinés are high for their wool, and, to a lesser extent for their meat and their milk. They are the subject of a Transhumance in mountain and their number tends to increase at the end of the Middle Ages.
- the rabbit.
Types of breeding
- the pastoral, ancestral and wandering breeding;
- the agricultural breeding, associated with the culture of the grounds, ensuring self-sufficiency;
- the modern breeding, intended for the marketing of the meat and the products (milk, eggs…) ;
- the industrial breeding, centered on profitability;
- the breeding bio, in reaction to the precedent.
- Bee-keeping, Poultry farming, Shellfish farming, Rabbit breeding, Héliciculture, Pénéiculture, Pisciculture, Sericiculture
- Breeding out-ground, Breeding out of battery, intensive Breeding, extensive Breeding, Pastoralisme
- animal Wellbeing
- Artificial insemination
- List of the livestock
- Ganadería: breeding of Toros of lidia
- Unit forragère
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