Brazzaville (approximately 990.000 inhabitants) is the capital of the République of Congo and is located on the river Congo. The city was initially a station, the Mfoa station, founded the October 3rd 1880 by an explorer French, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, whose city draws its name, in the territory Téké of Nkuna (Ncouna).
HistoryThe city taking of the importance, it is set up in commune in 1911; the first town hall is built in 1912. It will be replaced in 1962-63 by the current town hall (J. there. Norman arch.). Brazzaville receives its first coherent town-planning in 1929 pennies the Antonetti general governor.
Become capital of the free France in 1940, Brazzaville accommodated, in 1944, the Conférence of Brazzaville of the forces of the free France with at its head Charles de Gaulle and of the representatives of the French African colonies, with the opening of which the Discours of Brazzaville was marked. The purpose of this last was to redefine the relations between the African France and colonies after the Second world war. For the first time, the question of the emancipation was then mentioned. The speeches of the general de Gaulle (1944, 1958) prelude to the independence of the French Black Africa were made in Brazzaville.
In 1980, the commune of Brazzaville is separated from the Région of the Pool, and obtains a statute similar to that of the areas.
The airport serving the city is the Aéroport of Maya-Maya. Brazzaville is to 512 km of Point-Black, second Congolese city, by the road.
The mayor of the east city currently Hugues Ngouélondélé. Brazzaville currently experiences serious work of restoration and development! It starts to open with the rest of the world.
The Université Marien Ngouabi is the only university of the city.
DistrictsThe 7 districts of the city are Makélékélé (1), Bacongo (2), Poto-Poto (3), Moungali (4), Ouenzé (5), Talangaï (6) and Mfilou (7). The district of Ngamaba passed from the commune of Brazzaville to the Région of the Pool in 1984.
Opposite KinshasaOpposite, on left bank of the river, is located Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic republic of Congo. For differentiating the two countries well having “Congo” in their name, one calls sometimes the Republic of Congo “Congo-Brazzaville” or “Congo-French”, in opposition to “Congo-Kinshasa” or “Congo-Belgian”, the Democratic republic of Congo, called “Zaire” of 1971 with 1999, whose capital is Kinshasa.
The size of the two capitals is however quite different: Kinshasa has a population approximately three times more important than that of entire Congo-Brazzaville, and the only kinoise commune of Kimbanseke reaches practically the million inhabitants, that is to say the size of Brazzaville.
Means of transportThe principal means of transport remain the taxi. According to the distance, the cost of a race can vary from 700 to 1500 CFA (1 with 2€). It should be noted that certain drivers refuse to go in certain districts because of the roads (track) dilapidated. There exist also the buses and minibuses which carry out return tickets in the districts whose cost varies between 100 and 150 CFA.
The taxis and the buses, as well as the vehicles of goods transport, are easily recognizable. All these vehicles are of green color on bottom and white on the top. The taxis account for approximately 80% of the vehicles circulating on the roads of Brazzaville.
For any displacement in the private vehicle, there is strongly advised to use a vehicle 4x4 not to remain planted in the many holes of the roadway.
- Archdiocese of Brazzaville
- Cathedral of Brazzaville
Principal monuments and historic sites of Brazzaville
Since its foundation in 1880, Brazzaville accumulated an exceptional quantity of historical buildings of an architectural quality some, and, contrary to the majority of the African capitals, knew to preserve them, preserving by there the landscape of a true capital where little by little the phases of the Congolese history are laminated.
- Cathedral of Brazzaville (1892). District of the Eaglet.
- Port of the Fishermen of Yoro : site of the antique borough précolonial teke of Mpila. The Mbankwa chief was the official lord under the suzerainty of the Makoko de Mbé, of 1884 to 1916. He is buried with his predecessors according to the old rites close to the old shipyards Chacona, site forgotten of all. Formerly this borough was famous for the quality of its traditional potteries, work before very female and, still, fallen there into the lapse of memory. Yoro comes from Yero Thiam, a Senegalese owner of these grounds about 1950. Mpila district.
- Episcopal Palate : superb colonial house with verandas which evokes the the Antilles, it was raised by Mgr Augouard in 1893; it is one of the oldest houses of the city. District of the Eaglet.
- Fresco of Africa : realized in 1969-70 by a collective of local artists, often resulting from the School of the Painters of Mangrove swamp mud, it evokes the history of Congo of the origins at the years 1960. Masterpiece of local pictorial art since independence, posed on the pediment of an old market hall of 1950. District of the Plain.
- Mausoleum of Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza : realized in 2005-2006. The bodies of the explorer and his close relations contain. Neo-classic building without architectural character. District of the Plain.
- Palate of the People (1901, presidential palace). District of the Plate.
- Box Tréchot : the oldest private house of Brazzaville, built in 1888 and increased until 1905. Old residence of the Tréchot brothers, founders of the CFHBC (French Company Top and Low-Congo, concessionary company). Current Embassy of Russia. District of the Plain.
- Place of the Supreme Sacrifice : created in 1980 in the place of a whole of colonial style, it is decorated in its center with a statue of the president Ngouabi (Marien), assassinated in its residence of the staff, just opposite, on March 18th, 1977. Chad district.
- Box de Gaulle : conceived in 1942 by Roger Erell and taking as a starting point the principles which had governed the construction of the palate of Chaillot to Paris, it is a remarkable mauve sandstone building drawn from the bed of the Congo river, decorated by local artists and cabinetmakers. It shelters the residence of the ambassador of France. District of Bacongo.
- Stage Felix-Swept : inaugurated in 1944 by Charles de Gaulle, it presents a superb monumental platform of 9 giant brick arcades filled with a cement lattice reproducing of the geometrical forms resulting from the circle and the square; the sculptor B. Konongo produced the waste-gas mains hones some decorating the ditches. In 1957 one posed in front of the statue of F. Swept by the sculptor Jonchère, Grand Prix of Rome. District of Mangrove swamp mud.
- College Savorgnan de Brazza : completed in 1951 within Roger Erell, this very beautiful building is an adaptation of the climatic current to the architecture of the movement " moderne". At side, the old Institute technical, become Faculty of Law, and built by the same architect at the same time, is an immense construction organized around cloisters and centered on a belfry. The whole is unfortunately dilapidated fault of maintenance and is denatured by abusive modifications. District Bacongo.
- Turn Nabemba : skyscraper of 30 levels inaugurated in 1990. Poor architectural interest but essential benchmark. Sit of Elf-Congo. District of the Plain.
- the town hall : inaugurated in 1963 with the site of the first town hall and the borough précolonial of Mfa or Mfoa, it is a climatic good example of architecture developing a false very studied asymmetry. District of the Plain.
- law courts : masterpiece of the Norman architect, inaugurated in 1955, it is a top of the climatic architecture adapted to the rains, the dominant winds, the light. District of Chad.
- the building " Air-France ": today very dilapidated, it is completed in 1952 by the Hébrard architect, who adapts the principles of Le Corbusier to the equatorial medium. This " Radieuse" city; Congolese, which offered 63 apartments, was surmounted by a hanging garden with trees and jets of water. The furniture created at the time by Jean Prouvé has been plundered and resold abroad for a few years. District of Chad.
- Ex-cinema Vog : built in the middle of the city in 1953 per Charles Cazaban-Mazerolles, it is characteristic of the Fifties with its daring hood with the pure lines and its interior decoration. It is the first Congolese cinema to have associated room of projection and coffee (ex-Interval). District of the Plain.
- Cemetery of the Dutchmen : located at Mpila, its some tombs are dispersed in the middle of a thicket of very old mango trees. There rest the agents died prematurely (fine of XIX°s) of Dutch company NAHV, at the time directed by Anton Gresshoff. Oldest tomb goes back to 1893, very old date here. District of Mpila.
- Notre-Dame Church of the Rosary : building due to Norman Jean-Yves (1963) with the original structure, with bell-tower in the shape of ngongui, bell which was formerly used to convene the villagers with the official palaver in country kongo. District of Bacongo.
- Central Post office : very beautiful construction of style Art déco (1931). District of the Plain.
- Palate of the staff : built in 1913, it sheltered during the Second world war work of De Gaulle and Leclerc preparing the reconquest. Beautiful colonial architecture too altered in 1982 to accommodate the Popular national assembly. District of Chad.
- Box of the River Transport : this very pretty colonial pile box, staircases with double revolution, shutters with shutters and galleries goes back to 1905. It sheltered the offices of the river Transport rested by Alphonse Fondère in 1900. It lodged the offices of the ATC thereafter. It could become the very beautiful framework of a hypothetical National museum worthy of this name… District of the Plain.
- Gone of the Plate : the Plate profits from a market since approximately 1900, and from a market hall, located towards current presidential Bureaux, in 1905. In 1938 it is moved under the current market, which occurred De Gaulle. Picturesque place, very animated and framed very old colonial buildings. District of the Plate.
- Convent Javouhey : the oldest female religious establishment of Brazzaville was founded since 1892 by the sisters of Cluny directed by the mother Marie Dédié, first white to come on banks from the Congo. In approximately 1895 are completed the beautiful buildings visible today with the bottom of a dead end hidden by the too massive college Lumumba. District of Chad.
With the surroundings:
- Official site of the town hall of Brazzaville
- IZF - Plan of Brazzaville
- G. BALANDIER, Sociology of Brazzavilles black , Fo. Main road of Political sciences, rééd. 1985;
- R. BAZANGUISSA-GANGA, Ways of the policy in Congo , ED. Karthala, 1997;
- H. BRISSET-GUIBERT, French colonial architecture with Brazzaville, 1880-1960 , Overseas n°2, 1991, Aix-en-Provence, p.3-12. ; Small Brazzaville guides historical, Paris 2006,62p.
- G. HOULET, blue Guide central Africa , ED. Hatchet, 1962;
- TOKEN ENTRY MARTIN, Leisures and company with Brazzaville during the colonial era , ED. Karthala, 2005,308 P.;
- Mr. PETRINGA, Brazza, has Life for Africa , ED. AuthorHouse, 2006, ISBN 9781-4259-11980;
- Mr. SORET, History of Congo-Brazzaville , ED. Shepherd-Levrault, 1978;
- B. TOULIER, Brazzaville Green the , Images of the Inheritance n°62, Paris, 1996,48 p.;
- R. FREY, Book of gold of the Centenary of Brazzaville , Brazzaville, 1980,354p.
Be-X-old: Бразавіль Simple: Brazzaville
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