See also: Brazil (homonymy)
The Brésil is the vastest country and more populated Latin America. With a surface of: 8547877 of Square kilometers and 190 million inhabitants, it is at the same time the fifth country of the world by the surface and the number of inhabitants. Brazil covers half of the territory of the South America, and it gathers of them more moist inhabitants. It divides borders with all the countries of South America except for the Chile and the Ecuador.
Brazil has common characteristics with the majority of the other countries of South America: it is a country in majority Catholique, the average human density is rather low and the population is strongly urbanized. However, unlike the majority of its neighbors, Brazil was not a Spanish colony, but Portuguese and the national language is the Portuguese.
Federal republic and liberal, Brazil presents strong geographical and sociological contrasts. Whereas most of the territory is still covered by the practically empty Amazon forest men, the south-eastern coast shelters the mégapoles São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The economic inequalities are among highest of the world.
HistoryDetailed articles: History of Brazil, Chronology of Brazil, Discovered Brazil and History of the Latin America
See also Theories of the first settlement of America.
In 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral discovers the Brazilian coasts and announces to have discovered new territories returning to Portugal: according to the Treated of Tordesillas signed in 1494 under the aegis of the pope Alexandre VI, all the ground lately discovered located at more than 370 miles at the west of the Cap Verde went to Spain, and the others went to Portugal. What forms half today is Brazil, returned thus to Portugal.
Navigators return to Brazil and bring back the wood of Brazil , wood of color braises that they buy to the Indians against various objects and to which Brazil had its current name. However, the company of colonization strictly speaking however starts only in the years 1530, under the reign of Jean III. In 1532 the first village São Vicente is founded. In 1533, Brazil is divided into fifteen harbor offices, each one directed by a hereditary donatário . Only two harbor offices thrive: São Vicente and Pernambouc. It is in the latter that cane with sugar is initially introduced, commercial main wealth of Brazil until the beginning of the 18th century. In front of the relative failure of colonization, the king of Portugal places Brazil under his direct authority and names a General governor which chapeaute fifteen harbor offices. He is established with Bahia. Brazil starts to develop economically. The exploitation of the local Indian population is not sufficient any more for the sugar production and in 1550, the first slaves are imported of Africa.
At the end of the 17th century, one finds gold a little inside the grounds. The mining activity takes a considerable importance then and allows the rise of a vast area known under the name of Minas Gerais.
Independent BrazilIn 1807, Napoleon invades Portugal and the regent Jean VI embarks for Brazil and settles in Rio. When it leaves America, in 1821 only, it leaves his son Dom Pedro. The the Cortes however want to bring back Brazil to the row of simple colony and recall to Portugal Dom Pedro. This one, supported by the Brazilian population, refuses to return to Europe and proclaims the independence of Brazil. He is declared emperor in 1823. In 1825 Portugal recognizes Brazilian independence. In 1831, however, Pierre Ier, very disputed, must abdicate. He transmits the capacity to his son Pierre II, then six years age. Pierre II is declared major in 1840.
Under the reign of Pierre II, Brazil knows a beginning of modernization and industrialization. Slavery is abolished, but more tardily than in the other European countries, since it is entirely removed only in 1888. In 1889, the army reverses Pierre II and the Republic is proclaimed, but the country does not become a democracy for as much.
The October 4th 1930, Getúlio Vargas becomes president after a coup d'etat. It remains with the capacity jusqu´en 1945. In 1942, following attacks of German submarines, the country enters the Second world war. In 1945, Vargas must resign and Brazil knows a score of years of democracy.
Starting from 1964, Brazil knows, like other countries of Latin America, a violent military dictatorship of right-hand side. In the years 1970, the Brazilian government took part in the Opération Condor, vast plan of coordination between the Latin-American military dictatorships in order to fight against the opponents with the modes, in all the continent. One counts, in Brazil, a great number of revolutionary groups which, since 1964, organized resistance against the military capacity. The majority of them took form in the mediums of students. Among them one can quote MR-8, rather based with Rio de Janeiro, or the ALN (Action of national release), based with São Paulo.
In 1985, a civilian, Tancredo Firns, are elected with the presidency but die before his taking up the duties. It is then Jose Sarney which becomes president. The democracy settles in an economic context and difficult financier.
Origin of the word “Brazil”
Brazil N. Mr. 12th century. Exotic wood which, dried and pulverized, gives a red dyestuff. With the the Middle Ages, the “ember wood” came from the the Indies via the Perse, imported in the first times in Europe by the Vénitiens. It is the profusion of trees “color of ember”: (Caesalpinia echinata Lam) as well as the important trade which will result from this, which will give its name to Brazil of the European conquerors at the 16th century: Pau Brasil, the ember wood ( brazed Portuguese ). This wood was actively exploited until the end of the 17th century.
detailed Article: Political of Brazil ~ List of the Presidents of Brazil ~ Presidency of Luís Inácio da Silva
Brazil is a federative République President ielle.
The right to vote is optional for the citizens who have between 16 and 18 years and for those which have more than 65 years, it is obligatory for the citizens who have between 18 and 65 years.
The legislature is exerted by the House of Commons and the Sénat. The House of Commons is made up of 513 seats and the Sénat account 81 members.
Brazil extends on an total surface area from 8.514.877 km ². The majority of the population lives close close to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, which, in the south, is bordered by the Serra C Mar. Vast the Plateau of Brazil occupies most of the South and Is country. In the North of the country, area of the Amazon forest, altitudes are less low. The population densities are overall low there.
The rainy season is spread out November at May in North, with very important rains over the rainy forests. The south knows to him hot summers and cold winters (in July - August). In a general way, the Climat is slightly more moderate in edge of sea, and altitude, and under canopée in forest.
In addition to the continental part of its territory and islands close to the coast, Brazil has some small groups of islands and small islands in the Atlantic: the Rocks of Saint Pierre and Saint Paul, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz as well as the coral small islands called Atoll of the Rocks.
One distinguishes, for practical reasons, five great Brazilian areas:
SouthStates: Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande C Sul Composed of medium mountainss in its northern part and of vast plains called pampas, in its southernmost part, this area, with the subtropical climate near to the European climates, is highly developed and marked in its daily culture by European immigration, in particular German and Italian. Indeed, its human habitat and its types (sometimes one would believe oneself in Bavaria), as well as the folklore gaucho (cowherd of the Rio Grande C Sul), are close to those of old Europe.
Porto Alegre (more known since the Worldwide social forum) and Curitiba (model of city planning) is both plus big cities of the Brazilian South. At the borders of Argentina and Paraguay are the falls of Iguaçu, one of the most beautiful wonders of nature. Lastly, to 20 km. from there, on the river Paraná is Itaipu, the second hydroelectric more dam of the world, after that of the Three-Throats, in China.
South-eastStates: Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo
Rio de Janeiro is the old federal capital, located in one of most beautiful bays of the world, dominated by the Sugar loaf and the statue of Cristo Redentor (Corcovado), perched to 700 Mr. of altitude. Its carnival and its schools of samba returned it celebrates, like its beaches, like Copacabana, Ipanema and Leblon. Cultural capital of the country, it is the most important city for the artistic event. Are located at Rio de Janeiro Academia Brasileira de Letras, the National library (largest of the country), Museu Nacional and the Municipal Theater (building inspired in Òpera of Paris). Maracanã, the 3rd largest stage of the world, is also in Rio.
Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro. There are also the splendid surrounding beaches (Angra back Reis, Cabo Frio and Búzios). In the south of etát Rio the small town of Paraty is, with its splendid frontages baroques reflecting of the colors blue, ocher or green in calm water of its roads. With C Mar Tightened, is located the town of Petrópolis, is rested by the imperor Dom Pedro II E where remains its de luxe hotel of ête, a very great tourist attraction.
Located at the crossroads of the roads of the State of Minas Gerais (" mines générales"), where had place with XVIIè. century one of the greatest gold rushes, Belo Horizonte extends on more than 20 km. São Paulo, rested by the Jesuits in 1554, is today the third larger megalopolis after Tokyo and Mexico City. One crosses there a population of European, Japanese origin or Arabic who made this city the world capital of the coffee and one of the greatest business districts of planet. São Paulo is also the richest city of Brazil.
States: Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande C Norte and Sergipe Including nine States of Brazil, the North-East (or “ Nordeste ”) knew its hour of glory at the 17th century, with the cane with sugar. The towns of El Salvador da Bahia (more “African” of Brazil), São Luís C Maranhão (founded by French in 1612), Recife (“Venice of Nordeste”) or Olinda (“the Dutchwoman”), by their invaluable heritage of colonial architecture and the beauty of their frontages decorated with azulejos, are the witnesses of this sumptuous past.
Today, the area counts 50 million inhabitants. She suffers from important socio-economic difficulties in spite of the presence of important natural resources, among which oil layers. The social inequalities are partculièrment strong. The cyclic drynesses which strike the Sertão, semi-arid zone of the interior of the Nordeste , ground of legendary the cangaceiros (sometimes hero, sometimes gangsters), do not facilitate the life of thousands of peasants without ground, obliged to emigrate towards the large metropolises of the South.
Mid-westStates: Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso C Sul, Goias and Brasilia.
This area remains little populated. In the extreme west of the area, one finds Brasilia, capital of Brazil since 1960. More in the west, the State of the Mato Grosso occupies the essence of the area; the agricultural activity is expanding and causes an important deforestation.
NorthStates: Acre, Amapa Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins .
The North of Brazil east mainly covered by the Amazon forest. The human density is still very low, a little more than 4 hab/km ² in the State of Pará, in the west, twice in that of Amazonas. The two main cities, Belem in Pará and Manaus in Amazonas, are along the Amazon.
Amazonia constitutes the greatest biological reserve of the world, with approximately a third of the world alive species . During years 1970-80, the various development projects and interior migrations involved an alarming deforestation and conflicts between the posseiros (ground owners, often illegal) and the Indians. Currently, the protection of the forest, as well as the respect of the Indian grounds, become priorities of the Brazilian government.
detailed Article: States of Brazil
Brazil east made up of 26 States and a federal district, whose capital is Brasilia.
Here the list of the States:
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Land bordersThe land borders of Brazil measure 14 691 km on the whole.
- 3400 km with the Bolivia
- 2200 km with the Venezuela
- 1643 km with the Colombia
- 1560 km with the Peru
- 1290 km with the Paraguay
- 1224 km with the Argentinian
- 1119 km with the Guyana
- 985 km with the Uruguay
- 673 km with the France, (French Guiana)
- 597 km with the Suriname
Only two countries in South America do not have a border with Brazil: the Chile and the Ecuador. The borders of Brazil are the result of an active conquest of the west, initiated as of the 17th century by the Bandeirante S but not finished.
Brazilian armed forces
The Brazilian armed forces are composed of the Army ( Exército ) the Brazilian navy ( Marinha ) of which the infantry and aviation as well as the Brazilian air force ( Força Aired Brasileira , FAB ).
After the years of military dictatorship, there exists a certain mistrust of the population and policies towards the armed forces. This is why the military power is rather low, if the population and the dimension of Brazil are considered.
Since the American States are mutually allied (Pacte of Bogota, inter-American Traité of mutual assistance), Brazil is vis-a-vis no true threatens external and a great military capacity is consequently useless.
The armed forces are composed of 337.800 active soldiers.
The air forces have more than 700 planes of which Mirage 2000, the famous Embraer Tucano and Super Tucano, Lockheed C-130 Hercules, International AMX AMX. The transport of the President of Brazil is also ensured by the air forces. In 2001, the ministry for the defense of the French Republic sells its Foch carry-plane with the Brazilian ones. It is renamed at the time of the transaction " São Paulo"
There exists a military obligation for men as from 18 years, the basic military service lasts nine to twelve months. The Budget of defense in 2005 rose to 9,94 billion American dollars is approximately 1,3 percent of the gross domestic product, a value rather lower than the world mean (Germany approximately 1,6%).
The soldiers are also used in times of peace to protection against the catastrophes and the service of rescue, as for scientific services (on the basis the Antarctic Ordering Ferraz). Brazil ensures the command of the mission of Peace Minustah in Haiti of 6000 men including 1200 Brazilian, since the 1st June 2004.
The Military Police is not to confuse with the Brazilian armed forces under the responsibility of the Union (federal capacity), since each federal state in with the responsibility.
Economydetailed Article: Economy of Brazil ~ List of Brazilian companies
Brazil has the most important total GDP of Latin America. The GDP per capita on the other hand is lower than that of Argentina, with that of Chile or to that of Mexico. Though having of a powerful commercial agriculture and diversified an enough industrial sector, Brazil is largely tertiarisé: in 2006, the service sector représentatit 64% of the GDP
The economic disparities are strong and constitute an important policy issue. In 2002, 22 enter to 55 million people (according to whether one takes the figures of the government or the National conference of the Bishops) suffered from the Faim.
An economic crisis bursts in 1998
The the IMF then decides to grant a loan of 41,5 billion American dollars in November 1998, because Brazil adopted the imposed reforms (privatization) and reduced its budgetary expenditure, in particular in education. Today, the economy tends to be stabilized, but remains fragile.
AgricultureAgriculture réprsente only approximately 5% of the GDP. However, Brazil is an agricultural great power of export. Certain commercial cultures such as soya are in full rise. However, the land and buildings are very unequally distributed and rural poverty remains important. Progress of agriculture is related to strong a Déforestation. Indeed, each year, the pastures are in a advanced state of degradation, the farmers seek new grounds because the outputs are increasingly weak what involves the Déforestation.
Regional co-operationSince 1991, Brazil belongs to the Mercosur (in Portuguese “Mercosul”), Common Market of the “southern cone” of the Latin America including the Argentine, the Paraguay the Uruguay and since 2005 the Venezuela. It is a Common Market, just like the European Union or ALENA. Brazil, by its economic weight, occupies there de facto a dominant position.
The 2006, the Argentinian and Brazil sign, after almost three years of negotiations, an agreement which must make it possible to protect the manufacturing sectors which could be too hard affected by the competition of the adjoining country. The Adaptation mechanism competitive (MAC) makes it possible to once fix customs duties on the “too competitive” product of the adjoining country for three years, renewable.
detailed Article: Demography of Brazil
Population: 175.009.350 inhabitants (estim. September 2002), 184 million estimated in 2005 (source: Brazilian Institute of geography and statistics - IBGE).
Density: 20 hab. /km ²
Age distribution: 0-14 years: 28,57%; 15-64 years: 65,98%; + 65 years: 5,45%
ethnic Distribution: White S 53%; Mulatto S 38%; Black S 6%; Asian 1%; mongrel 1%; Indians 1%
Distribution by religion: catholic 73%; Protestants 15%: various others a 10% of which hundred sectes
Life expectancy of the men: 67,74 years (in 2005)
Life expectancy of the women: 75,85 years (in 2005)
Growth rate of the population: 1,06% (2005 - 2002)
Birth rate: 16,83 per thousand (in 2005)
Death rate: 6,15 per thousand (in 2005)
infantile Death rate: 30,5 per thousand (in 2006)
Fertility rate: 1,91 children/woman (in 2006)
Rate of migration: + 0,07 per thousand (in 2006)
Insecurity, assassinations: 20.000 (2006).
Brazil accommodates large Diaspora S:
- According to the estimates of the embassy, between 5 and 8 million Brazilian is of origin Lebanon ease, living mainly with São Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro.
- the strongest community of origin Japan ease of the world (except Japan) is also present at São Paulo, with more than 1 million people.
- 25 million Brazilian is of origin Italy, roughly 20% of the Brazilian population.
- Nearly 130.000 people is of Jewish confession, thus making Brazil the eighth Jewish Diaspora hearth (after the United States, France, Russia, Ukraine, Canada, the United Kingdom and Argentina).
- One also finds in the south of the places of emigration of populations Germanophone S (ex: the town of Blumenau).
See also :
- Native-born people of Brazil
- Treats Blacks
- Portuguese Immigration with Brazil
- Italian Immigration in Brazil
- German Immigration in Brazil
- Japanese Immigration in Arab Brazil
- Immigration in Brazil
- Jewish Immigration in Brazil
According to the newspaper '' Le Monde '' of the February 22nd 2005, 50.000 Homicide S on average, including 36.000 per firearm, are made in Brazil each year, which places it at the third world rank behind the Colombia and the Russia. 17 million firearms circulates in the country. Sunday October 23rd 2005, a Référendum proposes with Brazilian to prohibit the sale of weapons, but it is rejected by the citizens with a great majority.
A series of attacks made 170 died (including 38 members of the police force) between the night of the May 12th and the May 16th 2006 with São Paulo and in its area. These attacks aimed at the police force of the state as well as fire stations. They were allotted to the Organized crime, in particular with the " First commando of the capital " (PCC). They would constitute reprisals with the transfer of several Prison niers towards penal establishments of high security. They were accompanied besides by several Mutinerie S. Between the 11 and on July 15th, 2006, 106 attacks were perpetrated against of the courts, the supermarkets, the banks, the buses and the police stations: these acts of violence are again allotted to the PCC.
Rural Brazil became in a quarter century a strongly urbanized State: buildings and smart skyscraper, ghettos and sumptuous residences are opposed to the immense tide shantytowns, the Favela S. In these too vast metropolises, secured and misfits côtoient themselves dangerously.
See also: Religions in Brazil
According to the census of the year 2000, the country is very mainly Christian:
Culturedetailed Article: Culture of Brazil
- 293 daily newspapers . The most sold are has Folha of Sao Paulo , Jornal C Brasil and O Globo .
- 19 public channels, 218 private channels.
- 1 public radio, 2000 radios independent.
CompanyBrazil belongs to the emergent countries. The economic inequalities are among highest in the world. The social and racial segregation exists de facto between the poor of the shantytowns and the families richest, which cut off themselves in quasi bunker to protect itself from the delinquency, in particular of the abductions in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Legacy of the past, richest which directs the policy and l economy are the descendants of the largest growers and poorest, the descendants d´esclaves and d´immigrés. However l antiracism and the interbreeding belongs to Brazilian nationalism. Many racial prejudices remain. Brazil counts the black or mongrel population most important in the world after Nigeria, but only 11% of the population known as black or mongrel according to the surveys because this is still attached to a lower social status. Statistically, more the social class is high, more the skin is clear. Discrimination appears when the Blacks or the Indians reach higher social statuses. Many white feel indeed the Afro-brésilien S like only white threat with l´hégémonie. In this country which inherited a heavy colonial past, the ethnic minorities occupy like yesterday the bottom of l´échelle social.
Elected in 2002 on a programme of reduction of the social inequalities, the president Lula launched on January 30th, 2003 a program “Hunger zero” in order to eliminate the hunger in Brazil. In this program the bolsa familia fits, which binds the payment of an amount of money to the poor families with the schooling of their children. This program entered gradually into force and touches in 2006 nearly 30% of the population. It would have contributed significantly to a recent fall of poverty in Brazil according to a report/ratio of the the World Bank.
Many facts of companies point out the the United States of America: possession of firearms, federalism, hip-hop, music of the minorities, positive discrimination for the ethnic minorities in the universities.
LanguageThe Portuguese is the official language of the Brésil since the Constitution of 1988 (article 13). It is the spoken language by the near total of the population. But there exist 170 languages autochtones and about thirty exits the Immigration.
The Portuguese language, brought by the colonists of the Portugal, is close to that spoken in Portugal. It remotely by words, expressions and accents in particular related on the cultural interbreeding and the South American characteristics (climate, vegetation, food) of this country. Following several reforms, the orthography was different, in particular with the removal of nonsound consonants: e.g. electricidade (Portugal) --> eletricidade (Brazil). But the differences between European Portuguese and American Portuguese are appreciably the same ones as between those separating from other European languages (French, Spanish, English) their corresponding American.
SportsBrazil is known for its Football: the national team gained with five recoveries the Football world cup (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002). The player emblématique of this country is Pelé today, most known are Ronaldo, Ronaldinho. It is the most popular sport.
The Brazilian ones were illustrated in other sports with the international level: Gustavo “Guga” Kuerten for the Tennis, Ayrton Senna, Emerson Fittipaldi, Nelson Stake and Felipe Massed in Formule 1, like Torben Grael and Robert Scheidt for the veil.
The practice of the Martial arts especially the Judo and the Brazilian Jiu-jitsu with the Gracie jiu-jitsu currently is very developed in Brazil.
A special mention for the Capoeira, typically Brazilian sport, halfway between the dance and the sport of combat.
With different the Olympic Games, Brazil gained 343 medals (55 gold, 117 money and 171 bronze). Torben Grael is Brazilian more the medal-holder with the OJ with 5 medals (2 out of gold, 1 out of money and 2 out of bronze).
CodesBrazil has as codes:
- Br, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- Br, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- .br, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- Br, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- BRA, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- BRA, according to the Code list country of CIO,
- BRA, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- PP, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
- SB, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
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