See also: Boulogne
Boulogne-Billancourt is a common French, the most populated city department of the Hauts-de-Seine. It is located in the area Île-de-France. It is also the second commune of the Agglomeration of Paris, but has a population and a density equivalent to a Parisian district which it approaches more and more.
Boulogne-Billancourt is a Ville in the south-west of Paris. It is limited to the south and the west by a loop of the the Seine, in the east by the 16th district of the town of Paris, in north by the Bois de Boulogne (which belongs to Paris).
In 1860, the town of Paris absorbed the territory of the old communes which were inside the fortifications of Thiers. The part of the old communes of Auteuil (Paris) and of Passy located outside the line of defense was then allotted to Boulogne-Billancourt.
The surface of the commune is of 6,16 km ².
Demography and population
After Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt is populated communes of the Paris region.
Its inhabitants is called them Boulonnais. Estimating that this name is unaware of the districts of Billancourt, some - in particular at the Greens - suggest that they are named Boulo-billancourtois .
BeginningsAbout 1100, a small mainly populated hamlet of loggers is formed close to one of the meanders of the the Seine in the south of the forest of Rouvray. Facing the village of Saint-Cloud, it is named Menu-the-Saint-Cloud.
In February 1319 the king Philippe V Length encourages the construction of a church with Menu-the-Saint-Cloud to be used as place of pilgrimage to the inhabitants of Paris and his surroundings, with the image of the Notre-Dame church of Boulogne-sur-Mer which will be used besides as model for the new building.
In 1330, the Notre-Dame church of Boulogne on the Seine is completed and the city changes name to become Boulogne the Small one. This church, which is set up in 1343 in detached parish of Auteuil, becomes the principal place of pilgrimage of Parisian and will see the arrival of Jeanne d' Arc, Of Guesclin and Sixte Quint.
The zone of Billancourt, an agricultural plain in the south of the city where some farms are, for its part remains attached to the parish of Auteuil.
Boulogne the small one is mainly an agricultural village until the 17th century when a second important activity, the laundry, appears. Then, during the next century, the city becomes even a vacation resort. Vast zones of hunting surround it, of which the wood, kept and enclosed, which is useful for the royal shooting parties.
With the French revolution, Boulogne takes the statute of commune. Billancourt, for its part, after having belonged to an abbey (Saint-Victor-of-Fields), is sold and changes several times of owners.
The first industrialization and union of the two citiesIn the middle of the 19th century, Boulogne starts to be industrialized with the mechanization of the laundries and the installation of a working population.
In 1859, Napoleon III wishes to extend the borders of Paris until the physical limits of the strengthened enclosure. The question of becoming arises zone of Billancourt which, contrary to Auteuil to which it is administratively attached, is located out of the fortifications.
It is the Baron Haussmann which chooses to attach Billancourt to Boulogne on the Seine, fastening which will be effective by the law of June 16th, 1859, and in 1924, the city changes name to become Boulogne-Billancourt .
Industrial and cultural riseThe year 1898 sign the beginning of the automobile adventure for the town of Boulogne-Billancourt with the arrival of Louis Renault on the island Seguin. The industrialist quickly develops his activity and before the First World War, one counts already 6.000 employees in the factories Renault of Billancourt.
This time sees also the arrival of many mechanical engineering industries, and in particular several companies pionnières of aviation, with the installation of Louis Blériot and of the Farman Brothers. Other branches of industry appear, as the cinema which sees the day in 1908 in Boulogne with the first studio the Éclipse, joined by others during the following years (1926 for the studio of Billancourt and 1942 for that of Boulogne).
The rise of the city in fact a center of attraction for arts and the Années 1930 are a “golden age” for the city. Boulogne-Billancourt is then the seat of an intense creative activity and a cultural boiling in many fields: painting (Marc Chagall, Georges Sabbagh…), sculpture (Paul Landowski, Bernard…), decorative art, architecture (Tony Garnier, Le Corbusier…).
The mayor of the time, Andre Morizet, elected during more than 20 years to the head of the municipality, benefits from his long mandate to conclude several projects in the field of town planning and the social actions. It should be said that the city offers a contrasted face. Quasi-slums rather in the south of the city to the elegant private mansions of northern Boulogne. The population quickly believes (from 68.000 to 97.000 inhabitants of 1921 to 1936) and the infrastructures should be adapted. The road accesses towards Paris and the remainder of the Paris region are improved. In February 1934, Boulogne-Billancourt is the first city external to Paris to receive the subway, with the prolongation of the line 9. Many hospitals, schools and administrative buildings are built to accommodate the new inhabitants. New the Town hall conceived by the architect Tony Garnier, left ground in 1934 and today historic building, is the symbol of this architectural heritage bolted.
In parallel of this strong artistic activity and cultural, Boulogne-Billancourt is also an important working city, shaken in between two wars of great social struggles punctuated by strikes of which some remained famous: 1913,1917,1934,1936.
It seems that it is of at the time of this first strike of 1913 qu ' appeared the political expression which will make flora in the newspapers " One should not despair Billancourt " , meaning for the governments not to take too unfavourable measures with the working classes or judged like such by these last.
The Second world warThe city sudden in 1942 and 1943 violent ones Anglo-American Bombardement S, who aimed at the factories Renault. The first bombardment takes place on March 3rd, 1942 towards 21:00, by RAF. 220 apparatuses release 475 tons of bombs. The number of victims within the factory Renault (7 killed and 6 wounded) is weak, but the population around, which had not inevitably considered to be necessary to gain the shelters, is touched hard (approximately 600 died and 1500 wounded). In June 1942, the production of the Renault factories took again its course and the population suspects that new bombardments will occur. On Sunday, April 4, 1943, they are the Americans who launch a raid of 88 apparatuses, releasing 250 tons of bombs. The assessment is approximately 350 died and 500 wounded. A new raid is launched on September 15th, 1943 by 81 apparatuses releasing 250 tons of bombs. The shooting is vague and largely touches the districts and the neighbouring communes. The assessment of 280 died and 470 wounded. These fatal bombardments will be used by propaganda collaborationnist to try to draw up the population against the Allies.
The contemporary periodAfter the Second world war, and especially as from the years 1980, heavy industry leaves the place to the tertiary sector, in particular with the arrival of data-processing companies, the companies of the audio-visual sector, and the advertizing agencies.
BlasonnementCut mouths and of azure to the boat with the money antique sailing on waves of same stitching on the partition, accompanied as a chief with dextral by a fish posed out of stake and with sinistral by a flower by lily, the money whole.
EconomyBoulogne-Billancourt is one of the principal economic poles of the Paris region. After its past strongly marked by several industrial adventures, Boulogne-Billancourt turned resolutely to the tertiary sector, and in particular the services with the companies. In 2005, the city accommodated almost 12.000 companies, that is to say the second larger park francilien, after Paris. Among his companies, one counts many head offices or principal establishments of great groups:
- Bouygues Telecom
- Real Bouygues
- Neuf Cegetel
- the Frenchwoman of the plays
- Pierre Fabre
and to attract the innovating companies of the IT sector like Mindscape France.
In June 2005, unemployment was of 8%, that is to say nearly two points of less than in the remainder of the France.
The population boulonnaise is, on average, one of easiest of the Paris region. In 2003, the averages of the incomes by household for tax purposes were:
In the years to come, the saving in Boulogne-Billancourt should benefit from the refitting of the island Seguin.
List mayorsMayors of Boulogne-Billancourt:
- 1919-1942 : Andre Morizet
- 1942-1944: Robert Colmar
- 1944-1965: Alphonse Gallo (SFIO), former deputy of the Seine (1962-65)
- 1965-1971: Albert Agogue
- 1971-1991: Georges Gorse
- 1991-1995: Paul Graziani
- 1995-2007: Jean-Pierre Fourcade
- Since March 17th, 2007: Pierre-Mathieu Duhamel
Administrative statusThe city is divided into 3 cantons:
- the Canton of Boulogne-Billancourt-North-Is account 26.824 inhabitants;
- the Canton of Boulogne-Billancourt-North-West account 35.520 inhabitants;
- the Canton of Boulogne-Billancourt-South account 44.023 inhabitants.
ElectionsFor the electoral deadlines of 2007 Boulogne-Billancourt belongs to the 82 communes of more than 3500 inhabitants having used the machines to vote.
- the district Renault-Billancourt is in south-western edge of the city. This district is into full becoming with the programmed installation of the island Seguin. One finds there also largest city HLM of Boulogne: the Bridge of Sevres. The remainder of the district is still not arranged because they are the old grounds of the Renault factories.
the district the Point-of-Day, in south-east, near the Door of Saint-Cloud, accommodates many seats of company. He draws his name from the quay bordering it. On the quay of the Point-of-Day are inter alia, the seat of Bouygues and the Tour TF1. The largest cemetery of Boulogne is there thus that second city HLM of Boulogne (Public garden of Moulineaux and Avre).
the district Silly-Gallieni , with the west of the city, combines suburban zones and great units.
the district Valiant-Marcel Sembat is located around the place Marcel-Sembat, one of the principal crossroads of the city. He accommodates the Town hall and the municipal swimming pool-skating rink. The boulevard Jean Jaurès is as for him axis trading the principal of Boulogne.
the district Jean-Jaurès - Queen , with the crossing of the Jean-Jaurès boulevard and the Road of the Queen. In the south of this district is space Landowski, arts center of the town of Boulogne-Billancourt: museum of the years 1930, cinema art and test, media library; is held also many festivals there (delivers, band-drawn,…). This district saw the birth with beginning of the year 2000 of a new shopping mall: " Passages" coupled of a cinema of 7 rooms (Pathé).
the district menus - Jean Baptist Clement , in western north, old historical heart of the city, shelters several listed monuments and the museum garden Albert-Kahn. He shelters two places of worship: the church of Boulogne (founder of the city) and the synagog.
the district Castle - the Princes Marmottant , in the North-East of Boulogne-Billancourt in edge of the Bois de Boulogne is famous for its residential zones. It shelters the most important private schools of Boulogne and offers a unspoilable view on Roland Garros.
Monuments and curiosities
- the Library Marmottan
- the center Paul Landowski and the Museum of the Thirties * The course of the years 1930 (architecture of Auguste Perret, Le Corbusier, Pingusson,…).
- Gardens and departmental museum Albert Kahn with nearly 72.000 photographic documents Autochrome S (the largest world collection)
- Town hall of Tony Garnier (registered since 1975 with the inventory of the historic buildings)
Celebrities related to the commune
- Louis Renault, industrialist
- Sylvain Eugene Raynal
- Paul Landowski
- Albert Kahn, banker
- Jean Brunhes, Geographer (1869-1930)
- Jean-Baptiste Clement
- Ophélie Winter, singer
- Paul-Loup Sulitzer, writer
- Florence Arthaud
- Ronnie Bird
- Booba (ex- Lunatic), rappor
- Wise Poets of the Street, group of rap composed of Zoxea, Dany daN & Melopheelo
- groups of rap Less of the 9, Mo' vez Lang & Nysay
- Thierry Lhermitte, actor
- Lim, rappor
- Mickaël Obadia, realizer
- Guillaume Durand, journalist
- Salif, Rappeur
- Robert Namias, journalist - director of the information of TF1
- Gaspard Ulliel
- Guillaume Canet, actor and realizer
- André Glucksmann, philosopher
- Veronique Sanson, singer, author and type-setter of songs
- the baron Edmond de Rothschild (1845 - 1934), philanthropist
- Marc Levy, writer
- Ségolène Royal and François Holland, woman and politician
- Raphael, Singer born in Boulogne
- Pascal Clément, Minister of Justice within the Government Dominique de Villepin born in Boulogne
- Jean-Pierre Fourcade, former minister for Finances, Senator-Mayor of Boulogne-Billancourt of 1995 to 2007
- Gerard Merigaud, ex vice-president of I-TV
- Pierre-Christophe Baguet, elected of Boulogne-Billancourt since 1983 and appointed of Boulogne-Billancourt since 1997
- Yves Calvi, TV host
- Stephan Guillon, humorist
- Zazie, singer
- Bear, singer (wire of Alain Souchon)
- Caroline Diament, TV host
- Christophe de Margerie, chairman of Total
- Jacques Veyrat, chairman from Neuf Cegetel
- , district Berlin ois more populated, with 350.000 inhabitants
- , 100.000 inhabitants
- , 30.000 inhabitants
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