See also: Bosnia
It is an indivisible Republic, one and. It is made up of two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzégovine, and the Serb Republic of Bosnia. Its capital is Sarajevo. The other important cities are Banja Luka, Tuzla, Mostar (see Stari Most), Zenica, Bihać, Srebrenica, Goražde, Foča, Trebinje, Neum, Jajce, Sanski Most etc
Concerning the two entities of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzégovine, it is necessary to specify that their denomination can prove to be misleading. The Federation of Bosnia-Herzégovine is not a federation within the meaning of the public international law. It is about a simple territorial collectivity which gathers various under-communities of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzégovine. The Serb Republic of Bosnia, is a territory which was occupied by the force during the war of Yugoslavia. This territory car-was proclaimed as being a republic in 1992. But this car-proclamation was considered to be contrary with the constitution of old Yugoslavia, the constitution of Bosnia-Herzégovine and the requirements of the Badinter commission. This Republic in fact was rejected by the international community and to date forever recognized as such. The agreements of Dayton in 1995, recognized only the quality to him of a territorial collectivity as well as the entity of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzégovine.
NameAlthough in French one usually says Bosnia-Herzégovine , the literal translation of the bosnien Bosna I Hercegovina is “Bosnia - and Herzégovine” (which one finds in the majority of the other languages). The country links two historical areas thus and is not reducible in Bosnia to which one would join an adjective.
See also: History of Bosnia-Herzégovine
Bosnia-Herzégovine was successively Roman, Slavic, Hungarian, Othoman, Austrian and Yugoslav (see detailed article). Heritage of this long story, its populations, of Serbo-croatian language, are Christian orthodoxe, and Moslem catholics or sunnites. The catholics, who are defined as “Croatian” and are officially recognized like such as of the Austrian period, the orthodoxe ones which are defined as “Serbes” and profit from the same recognition, and finally the Bosnian (mainly Moslem, although one also finds there catholics and the orthodoxe ones) dominate in turn: the Ottoman Empire supported the Moslems, the Austro-Hungarian empire favoured the catholics and first Yugoslavia supported all the ethnicities.
During the Second world war, the population of Bosnia-Herzégovine is divided. In 1941 the territory of Bosnia-Herzégovine is yielded to the State independent of Croatia combined Third Reich. Certain Croats and Moslems join there (or subject themselves to it). Certain Serb take the weapons and join mainly the Tchetniks, a nationalist and royalist resistance. Another resistance movement, the In favor (Yugoslavia), multiethnic, is directed by Tito. A great number of Serb Bosnians, Croats and, but also of the Sloveniens, Macedonians, Montenegrins, or Albanians engage there. November 25th 1943 the Conseil antifascist of release of Yugoslavia meets in Jajce and decides that Bosnia-Herzégovine must be restored like republic within communist Yugoslavia. The end of the war and the victory of the Partisans involve the creation of the socialist Federal republic of Yugoslavia.
A new assembly is trained at the time of the parliamentary elections of 1990. She is dominated by three parties based on ethnic criteria which had formed a coalition with an aim of seizing the power with the Communists. The recent declarations of independence of the Croatia and the Slovenia and the wars which followed them place Bosnia-Herzégovine in a difficult situation. The population is divided: Bosnia-Herzégovine must it remain in a Yugoslav federation, like wants it the majority of Serb (32% of the population), or to seek to obtain its independence, which wishes the major part of the Bosnians and the Croats (64% of the population). The principal reason, of the Bosnians and the Croats of Bosnia, was that they did not want, under the flag of Yugoslavia, to make the war against Croatia.
The declaration of independence of October 1991 is followed Commission Report of Badinter. According to this report/ratio, Bosnia-Herzégovine will be recognized as independent State by the international community only if one national referendum claims this recognition. This referendum takes place on February 29th, 1992, in accordance with the Yugoslav constitution and with the requirements of the Badintere commission. It is boycotted by part of Serb of Bosnia. Among the Bosnian and Croatian population, the voters express themselves to 99,4% for independence.
However, in spite of the results of this referendum, the clandestine Serb militia (under command of Karadzic, chief of nationalist party Serb SDS) pose a blockade on the town of Sarajevo. Karadzic organizes a journalistic interview and declares: “an interethnic and religious war is inevitable”, whereas the president of Bosnia, Alija Izetbegovic, announces that: “there will be no war in Bosnia, neither imported intern nor”. March 30th, 1992, the Head of State major of the Yugoslav army (JNA), the general Blagoje Adžić, declares: “the army of Belgrade is ready to intervene in Bosnia to defend the Serb people threatened by an open aggression”.
Nevertheless, the European Community and the United States recognize the independence of Bosnia-Herzégovine, on April 6th, 1992. Its adhesion in the United Nations takes place on May 22nd, 1992, at the same time as those of Croatia and Slovenia.
In spite of this recognition by the international community, of the barricades are drawn up by the forces of the Yugoslav army all around Sarajevo, to mark the Serb cities and to insulate the Bosnian cities, at Moslem majority, and the Croatian cities, with catholic majority. April 6th, Slobodan Milosevic coordinates the first military operations in Bosnia. The scenario is the same one as in Croatia. Bijeljina, the first Bosnian city, is invaded by the Yugoslav army and the Serb militia under the orders of Arkan. “We had the order to kill the most possible Moslems”, confesses Goran Jelisic, a young recruited Serb mechanic with Bijeljina by Arkan to take part in the ethnic cleaning of Brcko in the North of Bosnia (Audience of the lawsuit of Goran Jelisic, Dossier IT-95-10, International penal court, $the Hague, accused of genocide on September 1st, 1997). Zvornik is the second city attacked by the Serb ones. Jose Maria Mendiluce, of Office of the High Commission of the United Nations for the refugees, person in charge for ex-Yugoslavia, manages to cross the bridge on Drina and to go along Zvornik before being stopped by a group of militiamans. When it had left its functions, it described the following scene: “In a turn, before being intercepted, my car patinated on blood, I crossed trucks filled with corpses”. Worst cruelties (public rapes, stickings, dismemberments, formation of concentration camps,…) are unanimously brought back in testimonys (Documents gathered by New the Observer and Reporters without borders, the Black Book of the ex Yugoslavia, Purification ethnic and war crimes, edict. arléa).
On the other side of Bosnia-Herzégovine, the general Mladic, Serb of Bosnia to the head of the army corps of Knin, drives out all the nonSerb populations of the territory. Mid-May 1992, the Serb forces undertake " nettoyer" occupied zones. “The women and of the children were violated, then gathered and transported in goods trucks (towards another camp)… the Serb capacity qualified it “camp of transit…. ”. In parallel, the chief of the democratic party Serb, Radislav Vukic, prohibited mixed marriages. The Croatian and Bosnian populations are subjected to a mode of apartheid institutionalized under the name of “specific statute for the nonSerb ones”, deprived of work, assistance, medical care (a decree prohibited to the nonSerb women to be confined at the hospital). They are assigned with residence after being expelled of their apartments and being rehoused in districts become ghettos. The Serb ones of Bosnia are also held, by the Serb ones, in camps to be themselves opposite with the war and to have defended the idea of multiethnic Bosnia. They undergo the same maltreatment there as the nonSerb ones….” (Florence Hartmann, Miosevic diagonal of insane, P.286, 287,288).
In 1993 the International penal court for ex-Yugoslavia is created by the resolutions, N° 808 and 827, of the Safety advice of the United Nations. Thus M.Boutros Boutros-Ghali declared: " it was inadmissible, indeed, that since so long unpunished time the acts remain of which we are, alas, so often the witnesses and who revolt the consciences humaines" (Newspaper the World, Thursday, November 18, 1993, To judge the war crimes, Point of view).
The international community also tried to force the Yugoslav federal Army (JNA) to leave the territories of Bosnia-Herzégovine, but in the facts, the Serb soldiers change only badge on their uniforms and their military apparatuses. They create thus the Armée with Republika Srpska. In addition they continue to profit from a broad human, logistic, and financial support on behalf of the Federal republic of Yugoslavia. The offensive of the Serb République of Bosnia of 1992 succeeds in placing the majority of the country under its control (70% of the country in 1993), all the more easily, that at the beginning of the war, the Croats also attacked Bosnia-Herzégovine in certain areas (Prosecutor v. Rajic, Case No IT-95-12 (Trial Chamber), Review off the Indictment pursuant to Rule 61 off the Rules off Procedure and Evidence, September 13,1996, para. 13,26,32).
In March 1994, an agreement with Washington proposed a croato-Moslem woman Federation, with the principle of a Federal state between this one and the Serb republic of Bosnia.
But the efforts of the international community to try to put an end to the conflict and to avoid the human losses among the population had few convincing effects, and this in spite of the sending of more than 38.000 soldiers under the flag of UNO. The massacres continued, of which the most known barrel certainly that of Srebrenica (where 8.000 Bosnians were assassinated in July 1995).
Thus the populations croato-Bosnians obtained a broad human, logistic, and financial support on behalf of the international community, which isolates the Federal republic from Yugoslavia by defining it officially as “attacker” (even if the Serb ones continued to say there that it was a question of a legitimate war to allow the maintenance in Yugoslavia of the populations wishing to remain).
The joint offensive in Croatia, in 1995, of the Croatian forces of Croatia and Bosnia, and of the Bosnian forces of Bosnia (see 5th Corpus of Hamza in Croatia), supported by the Forpronu made it possible to release all the occupied territories of Croatia. This offensive continued in Bosnia, and also allowed to release a third of the occupied territory in Bosnia. Forpronu lost 167 men and more than 700 wounded in this offensive, of which approximately the half were French Army .
November 21st 1995, whereas some believed that Bosnia would be also released, the belligerents were invited to sign in Dayton (the United States) a peace treaty in order to stop the engagements. The Accords of Dayton divided Bosnia-Herzégovine in two entities: The Federation of Bosnia and Herzégovine (51% of the territory and 70% of the population) and the Serb Republic of Bosnia (49% of the territory and 25% of the population). In 1995-1996, a international force of maintenance of peace (IFOR) directed by NATO, including/understanding 60.000 soldiers, was reached in Bosnia in order to set up and to supervise the military aspects of the agreement. The IFOR a force of stabilization (Sfor) more reduced succeeded (14 000 soldiers in 2003) whose mission was to prevent the resumption of the hostilities. This Sfor, succeeded in December 2004, the Eufor, a military force of the European Union of 7.000 men approximately.
The international police force of UNO in Bosnia-Herzégovine was replaced fine 2002 by the Mission of police force of European Union (MPUE), first example for the European Union of such a police force, having drive and surveillance missions.
In 2005, one still discovers in Bosnia-Herzégovine of the mass graves dating from the war. Most of the time, the soldiers of each belligerent were caught with the civil populations its adversaries of them, and avoided clashing between them. Little of them was worried, was less still continued. Croatia officially excused itself for its aggressions and its war crimes committed on the Bosnian people (but not on the Serbes). Serbia, which did not still present any regret, is continued by Bosnia-Herzégovine for aggression and genocide on the Bosnian population in front of the the International Court of Justice. The Bosnians, like the Croats, do not recognize officially any crime on the Serb ones. The principal leaders of the Serb army of Bosnia, made responsible for the events for Srebrenica, the general Ratko Mladić and Radovan Karadžić, former president of the Serb Republic of Bosnia, are always in escape.
The war because death of " 200.000 Bosnian civilians and of tens of thousands of Serb and Croates" (these figures being dubious, still to date); 1,8 million people was moved, all confused nationalities.
Ethnic analysis of the population on the territory of Republika Srpska, according to the census of the population of the year 1991 in comparison with after war in the year 1997 (source: IMG, on the basis of census of the population of the year 1991 and the estimates of the UNHCR for the year 1997):
1991 : Serb 54,30%; Bosnians 28,77%; Croats 9,39%; Others 7,53%
- 1997: Serb 96,79%; Bosnians 2,19%; Croats 1,02%; Others 0,0%
Constitutional decisions specifying the statute of Bosnia-Herzégovine and its two entities
May 1998: " Contrary to the assertions of the representatives of the Popular Assembly of Rrépublique Srpska, the Constitution of BH does not plan to preserve the sovereignty of the Entities, nor does not consider a right to the car-organization based on the idea of territorial separation. Same manner, according to article III/3 (A) of the Constitution of BH, the “governmental functions” are allotted to the institutions of BH or the Entities, so that competences of the Entities are not in any manner the expression of their quality of State, but result from this allowance of competences envisaged by the Constitution of BH….all the provisions of the Preamble to the Constitution of the RS referring to sovereignty, with the independence of the State, the creation of a State and the complete and narrow meeting of Republika Srpska with other States, constitute a violation of the I/1 article, taking into consideration article I/3, III/2 (A) and 5 of the Constitution of BH, which guarantee sovereignty, the territorial integrity, political independence and the international personality of Bosnia-Herzégovine" (Constitutional court of Bosnia and Herzégovine Business U 5/98).
January 2007: The Constitutional court of Bosnia-Herzégovine specifies that no sign, flag or anthem, other that of the State of Bosnia-Herzégovine could not be allowed publicly on the territory of Bosnia-Herzégovine. This decision being returned following the request of the Croato-Bosnian Federation and the Serb Republic of Bosnia, in seen to carry distinguishing marks distingant them of the State of Bosnia-Herzagovine to which they belong. The decision falls under a constant jurisprudence of the Court and international community. According to this jurisprudence, the two entities do not have any quality of State, because they are only entities of the State of Bosnia-Herzégovine (http://www.ustavnisud.ba/eng/press/index.php?pid=1381&sta=3&pkat=507).
See also: Geography of Bosnia-Herzégovine
The country consists of two entities ( entitet ):
- Federacija Bosne I Hercegovine (Federation of Bosnia and Herzégovine, capital Sarajevo),
- Serb РепубликаСрпска /Republic of Bosnia (Serb, capital Republic БањаЛука/Banja Luka). The denomination Republika Srpska is de facto used in French.
See also: Political of Bosnia-Herzégovine
General elections took place on October 1st 2006. The voters of Bosnia-Herzégovine elected the presidency and the Parliament of Bosnia-Herzégovine. The voters of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzégovine elected a new Parliament for the entity and the voters of the Serb République of Bosnia chose a president, a vice-president and a Parliament. The Prime Minister, Nikola Špirić, was confirmed by the Parliament on February 9th, 2007.
See also: Demography of Bosnia-Herzégovine
PopulationAt the time of the Yugoslavia, the Bosnian were mainly called “Moslems”, three nationalities composing the country being the Moslems, who had the relative majority, the Croats and the Serb ones.
These Gentilé S was changed in order to avoid any confusion between the Musulman people and the Islamic religion and to answer the will of recognition of the Bosnians as a nation. Thus the inhabitants of the country from now on are officially called “Bosniens”, three nationalities majority being the Bosnian, the Croatian and the Serbes.
However, in particular media language running designates the inhabitants of the country by the term of Bosnians, and its components as being the Bosnians (or Moslems of Bosnia), the Croats of Bosnia and the Serb ones of Bosnia (or theSerb ones). In particular, the distinction between the members of the Bosnian people (ex-Moslem) and the citizens of the country are operated little in the language running (what of course has strong implications on the representation of the place of the various people).
The composition of the population varied and especially changed geographical distribution following the various operations of ethnic cleaning.
- Bosnian: 43,5/45,2
- Serb: 31,2/40,7
- Croatian: 17,4/13,6
- Yugoslav : 7,9/0,4
Yugoslav nationality corresponds to the population continuing to declare Yugoslav , and not of the one of nationalities Bosnian, Croatian or Serb: they are in majority Jews or mixed couples.
Even if the linguists use the Serbo-croatian term of to define the spoken language in Croatia, in Bosnia-Herzégovine, in Serbia and with the Montenegro, officially the Serbo-croatian does not exist any more, each country naming its Croatian”, “Bosnian” language “, “Serbe” or “Montenegrin”. There is no Isoglosse between these languages (the speakers include themselves/understand spontaneously, without translator): their definition is thus historical and political. On the other hand, there are differences partial of lexicon (certain words, certain conjugations or variations vary) and especially a difference in alphabet: it is Latin in Croatia and in the croato-Moslem woman Federation of Bosnia-Herzégovine, and so Cyrillic in Serbia, in Montenegro and in the Serb République of Bosnia.
See also: Culture of Bosnia-Herzégovine
Before the Yugoslavia does not burst, all these clubs played under the same federation, the Yugoslav Fédération of football, Yugoslav Fédération of basketball or the Yugoslav Fédération of handball.
The Borac club of handball of the town of Banja Luka became champion of Europe of handball in 1976. The Bosna club of basketball of the town of Sarajevo gained the cut of Europe of basketball in 1979, and the club Jedinstov-Helped of the town of Tuzla became champion of Europe in 1989. The football clubs like FK Sarajevo, FK Zeljeznicar and FK Velez are among the most known clubs of this part of Europe. Here some names of sportsmen of Bosnia-Herzégovine, like Abas Arslanagic, Asim Ferhatovic, Ivica Osim, Mirza Delibašić, Safet Sušić, Vahid Halilhodžić, Duško Bajević, Sergej Barbarez, Hassan Salihamidžić, Nenad Marković, Svetlana Kitić and Ražija Mujanović.
Population: 4.229.205 inhabitants (in 2006). 0-15 years: 20,13%; 15-64 years: 70,78%; + 65 years: 9,09%
- Land borders: 1.459 km - Croatia 932 km, Serbia 312 km, Montenegro 215 km
- Littoral: 28 km
- Ends of altitude: 0 m > + 2.386 m
- Life expectancy of the men: 72 years (in 2006)
- Life expectancy of the women: 78 years (in 2006)
- Growth rate of the population: 1,47% (in 2006)
- Birth rate: 12,86 ‰ (in 2001)
- Death rate: 7,99 ‰ (in 2001)
- infantile Death rate: 21,35 ‰ (in 2006)
- Fertility rate: 1,71 children/woman (in 2001)
- Rate of migration: 6,91 ‰ (in 2006)
- Independence: March 1st 1992 (ex-Yugoslavia)
- Telephone lines: 938.000 (in 2003)
- Cellphones: 1,05 million (in 2003)
- Radios: 940.000 (in 1997)
- Television stations: n.c
- Users of Internet: 3.500 (in 2000)
- Many suppliers of access Internet: 3 (in 2000)
- Roads: 21.846 km (including 14.020 tarred km) (in 2001)
- Railways: 1.021 km (in 2000)
- inland Waterways: n.c
- Many airports: 28 (including 9 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
CodesBosnia-Herzégovine has as codes:
- BA, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- BIH, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country),
- BIH, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- BIH, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- BIH, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- BK, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- LQ, according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- T9, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft,
Federation of Bosnia and Serb Herzégovine
- Republic of Bosnia
- Site of the government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzégovine
- Parliament bosno-herzégovinien
- Peace operations in Bosnia-Herzégovine
Beats-smg: Bosnėjė ėr Hercuogovėna Be-X-old: БосьніяіГерцагавіна Fiu-vro: Bosnia ja Hertsegoviina Roa-rup: Bosna shi Hertsegovina Simple: Bosnia and Herzegovina Zh-min-nan: Bosna kap Hercegovina
|Random links:||Inhibidor del AS | OSI model | Flute (container) | Leonard Dillon | Flon (river) | Arch of Peace|