Boris Nikolaïevitch Eltsine or Ieltsine (in), born the 1931 with Boutka, in the Oblast de Sverdlovsk and dead the April 23rd 2007, with Moscow, was a Russian Politician . The May 29th 1990, Eltsine becomes the President of the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR. It was the first president of the Fédération of Russia, with two consecutive mandates (1991 - 1996 and 1996 - 1999) after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
It is the first of the three children of Klaudia Vassilievna and Nikolaï Ignatievitch Eltsine, a man who, in education, believed only in the strong manner. It has a difficult childhood in a family worried by survival. In 1935, the father of Boris Eltsine moves the family with Beriozniki, and he becomes workman at the building site of an industrial complex. The family knows discomfort and promiscuity, door frame with very the ground of the single part that it occupies in hutments out of wooden. Child, Boris Eltsine is animated of an energy which is worth to him to be elected class representative during all its studies. On the school level, he never has problems. During the war, it steals two grenades in a military deposit, the fact of exploding and loses two fingers of the left hand. Boris is brawler. He keeps his battles a nose of boxer left by a blow of stick.
In its autobiography, entitled Until the end! , he tells that, very young person, he had to fight against the silly thing and spite. During the handing-over of its diploma of end of studies, the festival beats full sound and Boris asks for the word. In front of the teachers, the parents and the pupils, he shows the principal teacher of the school of Sadisme. The direction of the school, scandalized, decides to withdraw its diploma, gesture to him which automatically closes to him the doors of all the schools of the Soviet Union. The young Boris disputes the decision so much and so that one opens an investigation into the work of the principal teacher and than his diploma is returned to him. The teacher, it, is returned. As of this time, the Eltsine young person impassions himself for several sports, but it is the Volley-ball which carries it. He will become champion at the regional level.
The Eltsine teenager is fascinated by the boats. He makes a request to enter the section construction of the polytechnic Institute of the the Ural, with Sverdlovsk. Parallel to its studies, it belongs to the team of the first division of volley ball of the city. This division was made up of the twelve best teams of the Soviet Union. It is of this time, tells Boris Eltsine, that the practice comes to him to sleep only four hours per night. It should furrow its country to take part in the competitions of volley ball, which obliges it to notch over its hours of sleep for its studies. Overworked, the teenager is embanked by a cardiac weakness. To obtain his diploma for the occupation of engineer, Boris Eltsine writes a report on the lathes of television. In 1955, it was a virgin subject, which obliged it, says it itself, to make all the plans and calculations.
Boris Eltsine presents in September 1955 to the factory of construction of heavy piping where one has it affected. He devotes one year to the practical training of 12 specialities of construction. This finished year, the young worker feels ready to become foreman. At once named, he undertakes to make the war with the flight, to which the workmen of the building are accustomed. Boris Eltsine was always presented in the form of a man of ground.
Whereas it directs a team of prisoners, the young foreman decides to pay wages with the merit rather to them than their usual wages. Its way of calculating makes so that the wages of the prisoners decrease of more than half. A prisoner presents himself to his office armed with an axe and the nap to restore the old order of pay. Boris Eltsine refuses. The prisoner threatens to cut down it, but the foreman shouts to him of foutre the camp what the other, completely désarçonné, does at once. From 1956 to 1963, Boris Eltsine occupies, after that of foreman, the posts of head of building site, chief engineer, then of chief of the direction of the construction of a complex of public works. Meanwhile, he becomes member of the Communist party, in 1961.
Member of the Communist party
It adheres in 1961 to the Communist party of the Soviet Union and becomes in 1969 civil servant of the party. Eltsine directs starting from 1977 the section of the party of the oblast of Sverdlovsk, it is for this reason that it will order the demolition of the Villa Ipatiev, where were massacred, in July 1918, the tsar Nicolas II and his family. Later, he will regret to have given this order. At once elected, it presents a court action plan based on the principle of the concern of people. He then undertakes to renew manpower with the more high level. Boris forever desired Eltsine to lose the contact with the people. Also decides it to once visit every two years the 63 agglomerations which account the area of Sverdlovsk and to organize meetings with the workers. It was the “Period of stagnation”, during which the country is left with the abandonment by Brejnev. Boris Eltsine benefits from it to carry out his boat as he hears it.
In 1978, Mikhaïl Gorbatchev is elected secretary at the central committee in charge of agriculture. Boris Eltsine knew the new secretary whereas he was first secretary of the committee of Stavropol. At that time, the two men helped each other, Eltsine providing of construction materials to Gorbatchev, while this last gave food to Boris Nikolaïevitch. After the election of Gorbatchev, their relations remain with the good shape during a certain time. In 1981, Boris Eltsine is elected member of the central committee. In 1984, he becomes member of the Présidium of the Supreme Soviet, then chief of the Department of construction at the central committee of the Communist party of the Soviet Union (PCUS), before being elected secretary of the committee.
A few months after this election, the December 22nd 1985, the Politburo entrusts to the Eltsine comrade the direction of the party of Moscow. It replaces the Apparatchik S at the office of the committee of city and 23 of the first 33 secretaries of committee of district who, according to him, slow down the Perestroïka, or reorganization of the economy, of the machine of the party and the bureaucracy. For Boris Eltsine, these apparatchiks only seek to ensure their wellbeing.
The first secretary attacks then the problems of Moscow: overpopulation, tails interminable, crammed transport, dirtiness, drug, prostitution and corruption. Eltsine dismembers the organizations which perceive bribes in the stores of State. It is pointed out not only by its overflowing activity, but also by its outspokenness. It organizes meetings with the people and takes the bus and the subway with workmen to note by itself the situation in public transport, and to listen to them to criticize the political leaders. Boris Eltsine gives a also opinion in favor of the perestroika. For him, this one requires that one withdraw their privileges with the apparatchiks and it cannot include/understand the hesitations of Gorbatchev. Its declarations irritate Politburo, which sees a mark of demagogy there. However, in February 1986, it is elected temporary member of the political office.
The beginning of the end, according to the expression even of Boris Eltsine, starts with a meeting of the central committee, the October 21st 1987. The day order of the meeting relates primarily to the report/ratio that Gorbatchev must present the November 2nd, at the time of the celebrations of the 70e birthday of the Révolution of October. Boris Eltsine asks for the word to denounce slownesses of the apparatus of the central committee and the secretariat, which ruin all its attempts to cleanse the situation in the capital. He shows also the national secretariat, and by name Egor Ligatchev, the number two of the party, to intervene in the choice of the persons in charge of the city and the districts. It clamp: “Corrupted, rotted are here even, among us, and know it perfectly to you! ”. Its intervention causes an outcry. Ligatchev adopts the tone of that which was wrongfully marked. Follows a generalized offensive. One shows Boris Eltsine of all the crimes. Those which do not take the microphone shout their hostility of their place to him. The Eltsine comrade is forced to make his self-criticism and leaves this meeting completely demoralized. Several sources attest that it had an mild heart attack following this meeting and that it had to be hospitalized.
The November 11th, the sanction falls. During a meeting of the Muscovite committee of the party, Boris Eltsine is dislocated of his functions. Since the arrival of Gorbatchev to the head of the central committee, many members of the party were returned, but it is the first time that a man named by the general secretary - and who is, moreover, one burning defender of the perestroika - is dismissed. The ousting of Boris Eltsine represents a victory for the conservatives, who resist the change. The November 18th, disgraced is named vice-president of the committee for construction, which corresponds to a ministerial position. Boris Eltsine remains temporary member of Politburo. The February 18th 1988, it “is released” from this station.
The purgatory of Eltsine does not last a long time. May 1st, 1988, one finds it on the platforms of the procession of the Red Place. One month later, it grants an interview to the American television channel CBS, and another with BBC of London. He claims the resignation of Egor Ligatchev, which he shows to be the “person in charge” of the delay of the perestroika and to be opposed to the reduction privileges for the members of the apparatus.
The January 14th 1989, an important step is crossed for its political comeback. A crowd is delirious about it in a district of Moscow chooses Boris Eltsine like her candidate for the elections with the “congress of the deputies of the people”, or Supreme Soviet. Shortly after its election like parliamentary candidate, it decides in favor of the multi-party system, that Mikhaïl Gorbatchev denounced one month earlier. Its declarations are worth popularity more and more to him. Boris Eltsine attracts itself soon the sympathy of the intellectuals.
The March 26th, 89,44% of the Muscovite electorate votes for Boris Eltsine during the first free elections since the advent of the Communist regime. This poll is also marked by a push of the reforming candidates and the defeat of many conservatives. In the middle of the month of July, the Soviet Union is paralyzed by the strikes and threats of strike action. Boris Eltsine and Andrei Sakharov, elected also, form to him, with the 269 deputies of the Supreme Soviet who support an acceleration of the reforms, a parliamentary group called interregional Groupe, to make hear their voices. It is a first in the USSR since the beginning of the years 1920. In April 1990, Boris Eltsine publishes Until the end!. Two months before the exit of its memories, newspapers and magazines publish extracts of them, making their lambsquarters of its contentions with Mikhaïl Gorbatchev.
Presidency of Russia
In February and March 1990 take place in all the republics of the legislative elections, except in Georgia, where they will be held only in October. In Russia, the poll is fixed at the March 4th. The democratic Block, to which belonged Eltsine, the wind in the veils has. In Moscow, a demonstration in favor of the democracy attracts: 100000 people. March 4th, the democratic Block gains all the seats in Moscow and Leningrad, in Siberia and in the Far North. Boris Eltsine is elected appointed of Sverdlovsk by 80% of the voices.
During this time, Mikhaïl Gorbatchev makes amend the constitution to create the position of president of the USSR and made there elect, the March 14th, by the Soviet deputies and not by the people. The first meeting of the 1062 deputies of the congress of Russia takes place the May 16th. They must elect the president of the federation and the few 400 deputies of the Russian Supreme Soviet. Three candidates are in string: Boris Eltsine, the Prime Minister Vlassov of Russia (favorite of Gorbatchev) and a ultraconservator.
With the first ballot, Eltsine misses the absolute majority by 23 vote. Gorbatchev puts all works about it to prevent his election. Reassured after several ballots, it leaves in official visit to the Canada and the the United States. May 29th, Eltsine demolishes Vlassov. Any door to believe that the men of Gorbatchev negotiated, in its absence, the terms of a cohabitation with Eltsine.
Moscow is henceforth the host of two opposite capacities: that of the Soviet Union, represented by Gorbatchev, and that of Russia, incarnated by Eltsine. However, the federation of Russia occupies 76% of the territory of the USSR and account 52% of its population. The country is at the edge of moral and political collapse. The 59 year old man to white hair seems to be the only one to still incarnate the hope of the people.
The shortly after his election, Boris Eltsine proposes to return the Fédération of Russia “autonomous in all” in the 100 days, while wishing to maintain the dialog with Gorbatchev. Then engage a war of the laws and competences with the communist central capacity. The congress of Russia adopts, the June 8th, a text proclaiming the superiority of the Russian laws on the Soviet laws, four days before adopting a declaration of independence. The June 12th takes place the first meeting between the presidents of the republics, with in the chair Gorbatchev. Boris Eltsine brings the very fresh declaration of independence there, placing side of the republics which proclaim their independence. It is during this meeting that the idea of a reform of the Soviet Union is launched according to the principle of the “variable geometry”, which included/understood “elements of federation, confederation and community”, according to the terms of a spokesperson of Gorbatchev. Less than one month later is held the 28e congress of the PCUS, which takes back the general secretary in his functions. Boris Eltsine leaves the congress of the PCUS after having returned his chart of member of the party.
The July 23rd, a commission Russo-Soviet is setting-up to write a common economic program. It completes its work later five weeks. The presidents Russian and Soviet appear on August 30th together on television to reveal the joint economic plan which must make it possible the communist economy to pass to an market economy in 500 days. The first 100 days will be devoted to set up the conditions of the change, and the 100 days following with strategic privatizations. Then, one will take 100 days to stabilize the currency before starting again the request in the 100 days which will follow, for finally devoting 100 days to the starting of the growth.
The Russian president is victim of an car accident the September 21st. Two days later, Gorbatchev benefits from it to ask at his Parliament to grant exceptional capacities to him. The temporary withdrawal of Eltsine of the public life supports the conservatives.
During all October a palace revolution to the the Kremlin occurs. The advisers of Gorbatchev who are in favor of the cohabitation with Eltsine are pared outside.
The Soviet Union is disaggregating and the Soviet mode attacks the rise of nationalisms on all fronts. In November, Eltsine signs with the Ukraine and the Kazakhstan of the treaties in which the republics recognize their respective sovereignty. The November 17th, Mikhaïl Gorbatchev presents a project which aims at ensuring to him an automatic majority against Russia and the large republics at the meetings of the council of the federation. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopts this plan with enthusiasm. The Soviet Parliament reinforces the capacities of the president of the USSR.
If the Soviet Union disaggregates, the Communist regime is exhausted despite everything its carried out to keep the statute quo. The December 25th, Gorbatchev makes adopt by the congress of the Soviet deputies the project of a new treaty of union without to have consulted the republics. Under the terms of this text, the sovereignty of the State is reserved at the central level. The day before, it announced the behavior of a referendum on the Union on all the territory of the Soviet State.
The year 1991 will mark the confrontation open between Eltsine and Gorbatchev. In the night of the 12 with the January 13rd, the Soviet army takes by storm the tower of television of Vilnius, in Lithuania. The army shoots at the demonstrators, making 14 died and more than 150 wounded. Gorbatchev hesitates to further go and the Lithuanian mode leaves reinforced this takeover by force missed.
January 13rd, Boris Eltsine condemns the attack and recognizes the sovereignty of the Baltic States, Lithuania, the Estonia and the Latvia. The January 20th, one expresses in Moscow to denounce the takeover by force. In March 1991, it is the referendum on the Union which holds the attention. The March 9th, the project of Union is published and the Russian president invites his partisans to make the war with the central capacity. The March 10th, some 300.000 Muscovites express to ask for the resignation of Gorbatchev and to incite the population to say “not” to its referendum, planned for the March 17th. Boris Eltsine is absent from demonstration, but its partisans make play a recording in which he declares that to believe in Gorbatchev “was an error and a waste of time”.
In Russia, one will hold in fact two referendums the same day. The first door on the conservation of the Union. The second, more important for Boris Eltsine, relates to the election of the president of the federation of Russia by the universal direct suffrage. The proposal will be ratified with more than 70% by the people. The first presidential election by the vote for all is fixed at the June 12th.
From the 17 with the April 21st, the Russian president makes a round in France, where it is accommodated rather coldly. This stay shows that France does not appear well to include/understand Boris Eltsine nor what occurs to Russia. Of return to Moscow, it accepts the principle of a new text of the treaty of Union the April 24th.
Saturdays May 18th mark official launch of the electoral campaign for the presidential election. Eltsine the reformer will have as principal adversaries the former Soviet Prime Minister, Nikolaï Ryjkov, a conservative, and the former minister for the Interior of the USSR, Vadim Bakatine.
The electoral campaign is marked by the usual attempts at misinformation. That will not prevent the Russian electorate, on June 12th, 1991, to make of Boris Eltsine, at 60 years, the president of the federation of Russia, made up of 18 autonomous republics and autonomous regions. Eltsine is the large winner, not only because it gained, but also because its election obliges Gorbatchev to join with his positions.
The Russian president undertakes a round in the United States. On its arrival with Washington, he admits in Gorbatchev the merit to have started the perestroika which led to the election of the first Russian president by the universal direct suffrage. During this time, Mikhaïl Gorbatchev undergoes criticisms of some of the most influential members of the Communist party. The July 10th, Boris Eltsine is established in large pumps in the presence of the representatives of all the republics and with the blessing of the patriarch of all Russies.
In August 1991, the conservatives make an coup attempt of State during the holidays of Mikhaïl Gorbatchev.
Entreated want to prevent the signature of the treaty of Union planned for the August 20th, which announces the end of the USSR. Moreover, Boris Eltsine wants to make name Russian the Prime Minister with the head of a central government reduced to coordinate the relations between the republics. Lastly, the conservatives suspect Gorbatchev of wanting to liquidate the Communist party. The threat of this coup d'etat has weighed for one year. August 19th, the putschists pronounce the incapacity of the Soviet president, while the tanks and armored vehicles invade the capital. However, the Russian president has friends and partisans within the Soviet security forces, which enables him to escape its arrest and to arrive without encumbers to the Russian Parliament, in spite of the tanks which surround it. Eltsine harangue crowd, assembled on an armoured tank, and calls the Russians with civil disobedience and the general strike.
The evening of the August 20th, three men are killed in a dispute between the soldiers and crowd. The following day, the number of dead rises with ten. To the eyes of the Muscovites, the persons in charge of the coup d'etat led the army to shoot at the people. The evening of the August 21st, the putschists who did not commit suicide are sent in prison.
The Russian president would like to benefit from the adventure while placing his men with the control sticks of the Federal state. Gorbatchev knows it and hastens to replace the putschists. The August 23rd, the Soviet president faces the Russian Parliament. In front of the television cameras, it tries to clear its ministers, but Eltsine forces the president of the USSR to read a document proving that all its ministers, except one, supported the coup d'etat. All the Soviet Cabinet is then replaced by the men of Eltsine.
The August 25th 1991, Boris Eltsine suspends the activities of the PCUS and confiscates its goods. The suspension will be transformed into dissolution on November 6th. Lastly, the fate of the Supreme Soviet is regulated of the 26 with the August 29th. The September 5th, it is the Congrès deputies of the people of the USSR which scuttles itself.
The October 28th, the Russian president denounces an economic agreement signed by the presidents of eight republics and Gorbatchev, whereas it presents his economic program before the Parliament of Russia. November 1st, a reform of the Russian Constitution grants capacities reinforced to the president. The November 15th, Boris Eltsine decides to cumulate the president's functions and of Prime Minister.
The Soviet Union saw its last hours. The Ukrainians vote in favor of independence during a referendum held on February 1st. The Russian president recognizes the independence of the Ukraine before finding the presidents of the two other Slavic republics in Bielorussia, the December 8th, to note the “disappearance of the USSR” and to create a “community of independent States”, CEI.
Gorbatchev tries to be opposed to it, but it will be in vain. The December 20th, the Russian government seizes the Soviet Central bank. Soviet presidents of 11 ex-republics, whose Eltsine, meet the December 21st. They adhere to the CEI, which devotes the end of the Soviet Union and removes the position of president of the USSR. All are meant so that the seat of permanent member at the Safety advice of the UNO which the USSR held returns to Russia. Eltsine and Gorbatchev meet last once the two days before of Christmas. The December 25th 1991, Gorbatchev announces his resignation and the Russian president takes the control of the 27.000 nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union. Boris Eltsine is from now on the Master of Russia, but of sick Russia from the points of view economic and political.
The year 1992 starts in Russia with the liberalization of the prices. The consumers, confronted with an market economy, face an explosive inflation: 200% for only January! It will reach 2600% in 1992, and 1000% the following year. The rouble, it, tumble down. From 220 RBL for 1 $ US at the beginning of January, it pass to 420 RBL to the end of the year. In addition, political uncertainty delays the overseas investments. The popular grogne starts to settle. The Russians receive their wages, but it does not follow the rate/rhythm of inflation. Worse, the pensions adapt more slowly and turn into to pensioners the main victims of inflation.
The June 17th 1992, the president of the United States, George Bush, and Boris Eltsine get along in Washington to reduce their nuclear arsenal of two thirds. This American-Russian top will be followed, in January 1993, of the visit of the president from the United States in Moscow. This last sign with Boris Eltsine the treaty Start II on the reduction of the strategic weapons. It is the end of the Cold war.
Boris Eltsine wishes that the CEI obtain a “unified” conventional defense. He will essuiera a refusal on this question on behalf of the Ukraine, the Moldavie and the Azerbaïdjan in February. But this refusal does not stop it. The president signs two decrees, one creating a ministry for the Defense of the federation of Russia, and the other creating the Russian armed forces, a “multinational” army. Russia is at the edge of the bursting, but, the May 31st, 18 of the 20 autonomous republics of Russia sign the Traité federation of Russia.
One starts to speak openly about the alcohol overconsumption of the Head of the Russian State. Whereas its arrival in the Ouzbékistan, the May 14th, is retransmise on television, all can note that the president is drunk.
In December 1992, president Eltsine replaces the Prime Minister Egor Gaïdar by Viktor Tchernomyrdine. Moreover, the president announces for the month of April 1993 the behavior of a referendum intended to solve the crisis which opposes it to the Parliament. This crisis will be prolonged until April 25th, date of the popular consultation. In March 1993, the deputies refuse to prolong the capacities of exception granted to the president. They also refuse to organize the referendum claimed by the president to sit his authority. March 20th, Boris Eltsine deprives the Congress of the deputies of his capacities by founding a system of valid government by decrees until the referendum. The Parliament would like to relieve Eltsine. The March 26th, the president escapes the dismissal, its popularity having made move back the deputies.
It is finally 58% of the participants in the popular consultation who will grant their confidence to Boris Eltsine the April 25th 1993. Extremely of this result, it engages the final fight with the Congress of the deputies. The April 29th, the president reveals a constitution project which reinforces its capacities, project which will be ratified the July 12th, at the end of a constitutional conference. Boris Eltsine must deal with new political crisis, one month and half later, when the Central bank of Russia withdraws the roubles put in circulation before 1993. In September, Boris Eltsine dissolves the Parliament and convenes anticipated legislative elections to get rid of a too communist congress of the deputies to his taste.
The Parliament is not long in retorting by relieving Boris Eltsine and by replacing it by Alexandre Routskoï. The preserving deputies dissatisfied with the economic reforms are locked up in the building of the Parliament, on September 24th, with their chiefs, the president of the Parliament, Rouslan Khasboulatov and Routskoï.
Supporters of entreated gather around the parliamentary building to defend it against the troops of elite sent by Eltsine. The patriarch Alexis II is used as negotiator with the two parts. Its action fails and the president issues the state of emergency the October 3rd. The following day, Boris Eltsine orders with two special commandos to give the attack to the Parliament. Entreated go and Routskoï and Khasboulatov are imprisoned.
The official results of this day rise with some 150 dead. The state of emergency will be raised only the October 18th, 3 days after Boris Eltsine had announced the behavior of a referendum on the Constitution and the legislative elections. The two polls are planned for the December 12th 1993. Previously, the president suspended the activities of the Constitutional court and prohibits the newspapers of opposition.
The November 5th, the president presents a constitution project which gives him more capacities. The November 7th, one does not celebrate the birthday of the revolution of October. It is a first since 1918.
The December 12th 1993, the Russians adopt the Constitution suggested by Boris Eltsine, but only 53% of the registered people voted and the project was approved by 58,4% of the voters. In addition, the same day the first free legislative elections have taken place for 76 years. The Parti liberal-democrat Vladimir Jirinovski precedes that of Boris Eltsine with almost 23% of the voices. But the party of Boris Eltsine will have more seats at the Duma than the party of Jirinovski, with 96 seats against 70.
Eltsine needed a war fulgurating and victorious as Chetchnia to prove with her people which Russia was still a super power and to thus sit his authority the day before the presidential election. But instead of a spectacular blitz, the war proved to be a military and humane failure for Russia which met a wild resistance combatants of different nationalities, using very modern heavy weapons.
The personality and the health condition of Boris Elstine were the subject of a certain number of controversies: he was shown of Alcoolisme, which led some to doubt its capacity to take up its duties. Reached of a cardiac disease, Boris Eltsine undergoes several attacks, in particular in 1995 and 1996, which does not prevent it from being re-elected vis-a-vis the Communist candidate. He undergoes at the end of 1996 a quintuple coronary Pontage.
In 1998 and 1999, face an economic crisis situation, Eltsine changes several times of Prime Minister: Viktor Tchernomyrdine, Sergueï Kirienko, Ievgueni Primakov, Sergueï Stepachine and Vladimir Poutine follow one another in less than two years the head of the Russian government.
Boris Eltsine remains president of Russia until the December 31st 1999, date on which he resigns for health reasons, convinced by his daughter and adviser Tatiana Diatchenko. Its successor is Vladimir Poutine.
Capacity of Eltsine seen by the Russians
The period of the Presidency of Eltsine is regarded overall as negative by 47 % of the Russians. The massive Privatization S, the " Therapy of shock " (brutal passage to the market economy), the Corruption with the highest levels of power (oligarchs within the leading authorities), the media wars between concurents political and economic by the means of press groups to the hands of private interests, explain inter alia the indifference (51%) and the disapproval which the Russian population feels in its connection. Broadly 47 % of probed estimate that the Eltsine time brought to Russia more evil than of good. 26 % of the questioned people have a different opinion .
The heritage of Eltsine is interprêté differently in Occident. Certain analysts estimate that the contempt or the hatred of Russian with respect to Eltsine, and its good reputation in Occident must with its policy of support of the United States without fault, with the tax avoidance massive and the benefit from Western countries (Great Britain with financial placements out of Stock Exchange or in sporting clubs, France and Spain with purchases of properties, etc) and whole pieces from the Russian economy which were in the process of pass between Western hands (example of Ioukos, with the quasi completed negotiations, carried out by Mikhaïl Khodorkovsky to resell this major oil company with a Western group).
DiedEltsine is deceased the April 23rd 2007 at the 76 years age. According to medical sources quoted by the Interfax agency, its death is due to an cardiac arrest. The coffin of Boris Elstine is carried the April 24th by a guard of honor in the cathedral of Christ Saver to be exposed with the public until the April 25th in middle of day (with an interruption in the night). The Russian president Vladimir Poutine, the former Prime Minister Iegor Gaïdar, the former Soviet leader Mikhaïl Gorbatchev and of the international personalities, the old US presidents George Bush and her successor Bill Clinton, the former president Finnish Mauno Koivisto, the Polish Lech Wałęsa, the president of the Kazakhstan Noursoultan Nazarbaïev, the former British Prime Minister John Major, the Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Ianoukovytch, Prince Andrew of York, the minister French of the Foreign affairs Philippe Douste-Blazy, the president of the Spanish Constitutional court María Emilia Put, the former Prime Minister Italy N Giulio Andreotti, the ambassador Japan board Yasuo Saitō, the president of the Bielorussia Aliaksandr Loukachenka, the president of the Arménie Robert Kotcharian, the president of the Lithuania Valdas Adamkus, the Prime Minister for the Tajikistan Oqil Oqilov, the Prime Minister Kyrgyzstan Almaz Atambaïev, the former president of the Georgia Nino Bourdjanadze, the German president Horst Köhler and chair it Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves attend a office for the dead April 25th. The body of Boris Eltsine is then transferred to the cemetery from the monastery Novodevitchi.
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