See also: Bombay (homonymy)
Bombay , officially called Mumbai (in marâthî: Mumba: goddess and Aai: mother) since 1995, on the coastal island of Salsette, in the Mer of Oman is more the big city of India and the capital of the State of the Maharashtra. It is estimated that it is the sixth the most populated agglomeration world. The new city of Navi Mumbai is near Mumbai itself, but on the continent
Bombay is the most important Indian economic center, the main port and the principal stock exchange place of the country.
HistoryThe city was made up in the beginning of a group of seven islands, perhaps the Heptanesia of the geographer Ptolémée, sheltering the small port of Thana which traded with the Arabia and the Egypt. Its inhabitants belonged to the caste of the " Koli".
Named first of all Mumbai , it belongs to the kingdom of Ashoka, then towards 1300, the king Bimba of the dynasty of the Silhara is installed there, pushed back by the Moslem raids on the Goujerat, but in 1343, it is conquered by the Sultans of Gujarat.
In 1534, the Portuguese take the islands with Bahadur Shah of Gujerat and re-elect the zone Bom Bahia , i.e. the good bay . They remain about it Masters until in 1661, when it passes under English control as part of the dowry of the Infante Catherine de Bragance which becomes the wife of Charles II of England which gives it in hiring, in 1668 for £10 per annum, with the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies which obtains an excellent damping thus. The population thus increases by 10.000 inhabitants in 1661 with 60.000 in 1675, and in 1687, the East India Company transfers its general headquarter to it since Surat to benefit from its best damping. In 1817, the city is reorganized by great projects of civil engineering which amalgamate the seven islands to lead to a whole of approximately 435 km ² towards 1845. In 1853, the first rail link of India east brought into service between Bombay and Thane. The city remains thus between the hands of the Company until the Révolte of Cipayes (or first war of independence) of 1857 where it passes under the control of the crown of the the United Kingdom. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 makes it possible Bombay to become one more important ports of Asia. Bombay was one of the great centers of the movement for independence. It is from there that Gandhi will launch the movement Quit India.
In 1995, under the impulse of the Shiv Sena, left regionalistic and Hindu extremist who arrived at the head of the marathy municipality, Bombay is renamed Mumbai. No relationship however with the traditional name of " dorée" city;. Bombay comes from Bom Bahia, the " good baie" , expression used by the Portuguese at the beginning of the 16th century to describe the peninsula. Mumbai comes as him from the contraction of Mumba, name of the goddess Mumbadevi, whom the inhabitants of the places would have formerly venerated, and of the word Aai, " mère" in Marathi, the regional language.
GeographyBombay is on the trajectory of the Mousson which can cause fatal floods. Mumbai was thus paralyzed by 944,2 mm of water fallen the July 24th 2005 on the metropolis: suspended flights, cut roads, transport in common decrees. This pouring rain caused the death of more than 5 000 people by counting the area of the Maharashtra. The only district of Andheri lost approximately 1 000 people in simple but terrible landslide. This monsoon without precede continued until the beginning of September with violent one storms, storms…
TransportThe majority of the inhabitants of Mumbai use public transport to move towards and of their work place because of the automobile lack of parking, the congestions and the state of the highway network, in particular during monsoon.
Train The city is the head office of two divisions of rail - the central Railroad (CR) whose head office is in Chatrapati Shivaji the Terminus (formerly known like Victoria Terminus) and the Western Railroad (WR) whose head office is close to Churchgate. The spinal column of the transport of the city, Mumbai Ra of Suburbs
Bus The public buses directed by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all the parts of the metropolis, as well as the parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane. The buses are used to make the short shuttle at the average distances, while the prices of train are more economic for the long distance makes the shuttle. The fleet of the BEST is composed of individual-decker, double decker bus and bus air conditioning.
These buses are clean and effective to cross the city. The bus depots are present everywhere in the city and the bus stop…
Taxi and rickshaw The black and barred taxis of yellow can transport to four passengers with the luggage and cover the majority of the metropolis. The taxis having the air conditioning are present in the city and the old FIAT is removed little by little.
The rickshaws of car, having a license to operate only in the suburbs are the principal form of transport rented here. These vehicles with three wheels can place to three passengers. These rickshaws, which run on compressed natural gas, available anywhere in the suburbs, are a way clean and easy to move there.
By Plane Chatrapati de Mumbai Shivaji the International airport (formerly, Sahar the International airport) is the most occupied airport in India and the flights, interiors and outsides, are present there. The Juhu aerodrome, in the vicinity, before the first airport of India, now accommodates a flying-club and a heliport.
With its single topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural ports in the world, by handling 50% of the momentary circulation of the country and of most of the loading of India. It is also an important base for the Indian Navy.
Cultural cityThe Indian Cinéma local - known as Bollywood - is the first distraction of the Indian masses. Indeed, the city with it only concentrates more than one hundred of cinemas. Bollywood makes more films and has a greater assistance than any other cinema in the world.
Mumbai is also an important center concerning the Indian classical music and the other performing arts.
Industry and tradeMumbai is the economic capital of India. Principal industries, others that the cinema, are there those of the Chimie, the Textile and the fishing.
There the city knows big problems of overpopulation, the populations of countryside coming to seek a means of survival. The grounds are rare and the cost of living is very high. The demographic explosion weighs enormously on the equipment, the infrastructures and transport of this city. In fact, certain projections provide that Mumbai will replace Tōkyō like the most populated city world from here 2020.
- the Cave of Elephanta: located on an island, formerly named Gharapuri, with 10 kilometers with broad of Mumbai, these caves dug in the basalt of the hills comprise sculptures dating from the 6th century. The island of Elephanta owes its modern name with the Portuguese which found the statue of a elephant close to the place where they unloaded. These temples cut out in the rock and devoted to Shiva Mahadeva are very richly carved. Motorboats take on board the passengers below the Gateway off India , the Porte of India for leading to it.
Hanging Gardens, in Mumbai, India, also known under the name of gardens of Ferozeshah Mehta, are the gardens in terrace perched above the hill of Hefty fellow, on his Western side, just with respect to the park of Kamala Nehru. They provide beautiful sights to lay down sun above the Arab sea and hedges of device of many cut out in the shapes the animals. The park was presented in the principal tank of 1881 Bombay finished, some indicate to cover water to potentially soil the activity of the towers close to silence.
the station Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus or CST (in the past Station Victoria): A splendid building, completed in 1888, the station was baptized according to the queen Victoria, empress of the Indies the day of its jubilee, in 1887. The construction started in 1878 according to the plans of F.W. Stevens, is finished in 1888, but the station was opened with the public as of the New Year's Day 1882. It is now the starting point of the company of the Central Railways. It was re-elected in Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus of the name of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at the request of the Minister for Transport Suresh Kalmadi in 1996. The architecture of style Gothique Italian deserves the turning. Located on Bori Bunder, it is now a protected building. This building at summer added to the list Unesco' S World Heritage of UNESCO in 2004
the Museum of the Prince de Galles (famous Chatrapati Shivaji Museum ): At the beginning of the 20th century, some notable of Bombay decides to create a museum with the assistance of the government to commemorate the visit of prince de Galles. One of the resolutions of the committee at its meeting of the June 22nd 1904 was that “the building must have a beautiful and noble structure being appropriate for the site chosen, and in the agreement with best of local architecture. ” The committee did not save any effort in order to carry out this dream. Following a contest, George Wittet is commissioned to design the building of the museum in 1909. Wittet had already collaborated with John Begg in the construction of the building of the General Post Office .
- Gateway off India: Built in the style indo-Moorish, Gateway off India commemorates the visit of the king George V and the Mary queen in Bombay, before the Darbâr of Delhi in December 1911. The door is built in Basalte yellow of Kharodi and reinforced by Béton. The central dome makes 16 meters in diameter and rises with some 28 meters at its highest point. The Door was supposed to belong to a vaster unit which was never built for lack of funds and itself was finished only in 1924 and was inaugurated the December 4th of this same year by the viceroy Rufus Isaacs, the count of Reading. The last British troops to leave India passed under the door the February 28th 1948.
the National park of Borivili: Located at Borivilli, suburbs of Mumbai, this national park accommodates Panthère S, Chital or Axis stag of India ( axis axis axis ), Sanglier S savages, etc
TwinningMumbai is twinned with
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