Bologna is a Italian city of approximately: 375000 inhabitants, located in the North-East of the country, between the Po and the the Apennines. It is the chief town of the area of Emilie-Romagna (Plaine of Po) and of the of the same province name and one of the principal cities of Italy.
It is the seat of oldest the university of the western world, the Université of Bologna (1088). This cultural radiation and its university were worth the nickname of to him Dotta (the erudite one). The city also has other nicknames like Rossa (it red), in reference to its terra cotta tiles and also for its left-wing policy and heart, Grassa (the fatty one) for its excellent kitchen.
Its inhabitants are Bolonais but very curiously one speaks about “spaghetti to the bolognaise” (who do not exist besides in the kitchen bolognaise). Each year in spring, Bologna accommodates a living room of the book youth of international repute, the Will trust It del Libro per Ragazzi or Foire of the children's book of Bologna .
Bologna is located in a zone of plains and hills, between the valley of the Reno and that of the Savena. The commune is divided into nine administrative units which bear the name of " quartiers": Borgo Panigale, San Donato, San Vital, Sàvena, Navile, Oporto, Saragozza, Santo Stefano, Reno.
Bologna was founded by the Étrusques under the name of Felsina in 534 av J.C in an inhabited area of long time by the people of Villanova, people of farmers and shepherds. The Etruscan city grew around a sanctuary built on a hill, which was surrounded by a necropolis. With the IVe front century J. - C., the city was conquered by the Boïens, from where its old name, Bononia , give by the Romans to this colony conquered in 191 av. J. - C.. 3000 Romans families of settlers carried out by the Consul S Lucius Valerius Flaccus , Marcus Atilius Seranus and Lucius Valerius Tappo , settled in this new Roman colony. The construction of the Via Æmilia in 187 av. J. - C. makes of Bologna a road crossroads, connected to Arezzo by the Via minor Flaminia and to Aquileia (Aquilée) by the Via Aemilia Altinate.
In 88 av J. - C., the city becomes a municipium . It consists of rectilinear streets with six cardi and eight decumani , which still make the structure of the city today. The city counted nearly 10.000 inhabitants under the Roman Empire, as well as many temples, thermal baths, theaters and an arena. For Pomponius Mixed, Bononia appeared among the five opulentissimae (richer) towns of Italy. The city was rebuilt by Néron after a fire.
After a long decline, Bologna reappears at the 5th century under the impulse of the bishop Petronius, who built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Bologna was transformed into fortress on the borders of the Exarchat de Ravenne in Pianura Padana. The city was protected by an enclosure which did not protect nevertheless the ruins from the old Roman ancient city. In 728 the city was conquered by Liutprand, King of the Lombards, and was annexed to the Kingdom of Lombards.
At the 11th century, Bologna knows a new period of growth and it becomes a Commune then joined the Ligue Lombarde in 1164 to fight against Frederic Barberousse. In 1088 the Université of Bologna is created, it is today the oldest university of Europe. Famous characters attended this university with the Moyen-âge like Irnerius, Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarca. At the 12th century, the urban development requires the extension of its enclosure, followed by a new extension to the 14th century.
In 1256 Bologna promulgates the Legge del Paradiso (the " law of the paradis"), which removed serfdom feudal and released the slaves thanks to the money of the city. At the same time the center of the city covers turns, built by the rich person and influential families of the city to show their power, public edifices, churches and abbeys. This growth and this richness lead the city to appear in 1294 among the ten most populated cities Europe.
Like the majority of the Italian communes of the time, Bologna was torn by the internal struggles, which led to the expulsion of the family Ghibelin in 1274. After being crushed at the time of the battles of Zappolino by Modena in 1325, Bologna starts to regress and requires the protection of the Pope at the beginning of the 14th century.
After happy years under the authority of Taddeo Pepoli (1337-1347), Bologna falls to the hands from the Visconti, but returns in the papal orbit with the Cardinal Gil de Albornoz in 1360. The following years saw an alternation between republican governments (as in 1377, which made build the Basilica di San Petronio and the Loggia dei Mercanti and a papal domination or of Visconti. During this time there, the families of the city began in fratricidal combat for its control. In the middle of the 15th century, the family Bentivoglio conquers the capacity with Sante (1445-1462) and Giovanni II (1462-1506). This period is one of most flourishing of the city, with the presence of famous architects and painters in its walls, which transform Bologna into a true Italian city of the Renaissance.
The reign of Giovanni II finishes in 1506 when the papal troops of Jules II besiege and plunder the city. Of this date, and this to the 18th century, Bologna will belong to the papal states and it will be directed by a Cardinal legato and a Senate which elects every two months a gonfaloniere (judge), assisted by eight older consuls. The prosperity of the city continues to grow, although a plague at the end of the 16th century brought back the population from 72.000 to 59.000 inhabitants. This prosperity results in the construction of many buildings, as in 1564 with the Piazza Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi. The papal domination sees the construction of much religious churches and other establishments, and the restoration of oldest. With 96 convents, Bologna holds the record for Italy. The artists working at that time in the city founded the École bolonaise, among which appear Annibale Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino and others of European fame.
Under Napoleon, Bologna becomes the capital of the République cispadane. After the fall of Napoleon, Bologna falls down under the papal cut, rebelling in 1831 then in 1849. After the visit of the Pope Black and white IX of 1857, the city votes its annexation with the Royaume of Sardinia in June 12th 1859, thus taking part in the Risorgimento. Since the history of Bologna merges with that of Italy.
During the Years of lead, the Attentat of the station of Bologna (known in Italy as the strage di Bologna ) was one of the most important terrorist activities which touched Italy. The attack made 85 dead and wounded more than 200 people in the station of Bologna the August 2nd 1980, with 10:25. Members of a group of extreme right-hand side were condemned for the attack.
Bologna is today an important arts center but also a commercial, industrial node and communications. At the beginning of the 20th century the old walls were destroyed in order to build a boulevard and new dwellings.
Economically, Bologna is a very prosperous city. It is the capital of a rich and dynamic area, grace amongst other things, with the innovation, research and its student pole. It has a large industrial activity (30% of employment in 1998) with in particular of the prestigious groups like Ducati or Lamborghini in automobile industry and Borbonese in the fashion. The city also has one of the largest parks of exposure of Europe. Bologna is also an important arts center and tourist thanks to its history and its superb monuments.
Bologna still benefits from its position, to be aujourdhui a European crossroads. It is in the middle of the highway network of north of Italy (A1, A13, A14), but also on the layout of the most important Italian railway line. Finally its airport " G. Marconi" , located at 6 km of the city proposes national and international flights.
The city and its monuments
Bologna remained one of the medieval cities best preserved Europe, having a great historical value. In spite of the considerable damage during bombardments in 1944, the historical center of Bologna, one of largest of Europe, conceals richnesses as well medieval, Rebirth that Baroques.
the Piazza Maggiore is the principal place of the city whose current form dates from the 15th century. This place contains the principal medieval buildings of the City. Indeed, Palazzo d' Accursio, the Basilica San Petronio, the Palate of the Notaries, Palazzo del Podestà and Palazzo dei Banchi give on this place. The place is adjacent in another remarkable place of the city, Piazza Nettuno.
the Palazzo d' Accursio, also called Palazzo Communal , is the town hall of Bologna. In the beginning, residence of François Accurse, it quickly became the seat of the capacity bolonais. The palate which saw the crowning of Charles Quint, has many frescos recalling the history of the city.
the Basilique of San Petronio is the largest church of the city, and the fifth in the world. The Basilica whose construction began in 1390, is located on the Piazza Maggiore and it is one of principal curiosities of the city, grace in particular to its unfinished frontage.
the Palazzo dei Banchi is a palate, dating from the XVe 16th century located on Piazza Maggiore. It is from there that share that celebrates it gantry: the Pavaglione .
the Palais of the Notaries ( Palazzo dei Noted ) is a palate set up by the company of the Notaries in 1381. One of the frontage was remade in 1437, and the building renovated as a whole at the beginning of the 20th century.
the Fontaine of Neptune ( Fontana del Nettuno ) is a monumental bronze sculpture posed on a base. Realized by Charles Borromée between 1563 and 1537, the statue throne on the Piazza Nettuno in front of the Palate of the King Enzo.
- Diocese of Bologna
- Cathedral of Bologna
Although football is the sport king in Italy, Bologna is characterized by its Tennis shoe. Indeed the city is called " Tennis shoe City " ( the city of the Tennis shoe ), and it owes that with its two clubs of Basket-ball: the Virtus Bologna and the Fortitudo Bologna. These two teams are among best Italian but the also European ones with championship victories of Europe. The city has nevertheless a football club, Bologna FC 1909, but this one, aujourdhui, do not play the first parts, it currently evolves/moves in Serie B.
- Virtus Bologna (Basketball)
- Fortitudo Bologna (Basketball)
- Fortitudo Baseball (Baseball)
- Zinella Bologna (Volley ball)
Communes borderingAnzola dell' Emilia, Calderara di Reno, Casalecchio di Reno, Manor house Maggiore, Castenaso, Granarolo dell' Emilia, Pianoro, San Lazzaro di Savena, Sasso Marconi, Zola Predosa
Bologna is twinned with 12 cities in the world:
- (August 5th)
- (November 23rd)
- (May 2nd)
- (July 30th)
- (October 29th)
- (May 21st)
- (December 9th)
- (November 23rd)
- (July 21st)
- (March 27th)
- (May 5th)
Moreover, various protocols of co-operation were signed with the cities of:
Florence, Belo Horizonte (Brazil), Chongqing (China), Craiova (Romania), Hitabashi (Tokyo, Japan), Nijni-Novgorod (Russia), Portland cement (Oregon, the United States)
List of the Italian cities of more than 25.000 inhabitants
- Sport in Bologna
- Common di Bologna
- magic of the town of Bologna
- Genius Loci Bologna
- International fair automobile of Bologna
In addition, possible confusion with Boulogne east development in the list of the French Proverbs.
Gallery: Some images of Bologna
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