The Canche ( Kantia, coming from kant meaning rock ) is a Fleuve coastal French of the Pas-de-Calais, length 88 kilometers. Although the length of its course is modest, Canche profits from the contribution of many affluents and a high flow. Its valley was testimony, since the Moyen-âge, of the development, by the men, of an moist environment. Its Picardy estuary, typically with its sand bank and its pierhead, was transformed, after having escaped with the artificialisation, in protected medium, concealing a varied flora and a fauna.
GeographyCanche takes its source with Gouy-in-Ternois, passes to Frévent, Hesdin, Montreuil-sur-Mer. After a remarkably rectilinear course and of an average slope of 1.5 ‰, about parallel with that of the Authie and with the higher course of the Somme, the river is thrown in the Manche between Étaples and the Touquet-Paris-Beach. Its Valley, forming an alluvial plain from 1 to 2 kilometers broad, hardly boxed with the foot of long the glacis which form its basin, offers a wet and green landscape: water calm, Marsh, meadows, glazing bar. In its downstream part, the weakness of the slope leads to the formation of vast Méandre S.
Its WISE, under development, relates to 203 communes, covers: 1274 km ² and required the constitution of a mixed trade-union.
HydrographyLike the other rivers of the area, Canche follows a Synclinal throughout its course: the Synclinal of Canche, directed South-eastern/North-western, for which dissymmetry is responsible for that of its catchment area. The Southern side of the basin, runs and fast inclined, is traversed only by rare small valleys from 3 to 4 kilometers often elementary ( only one river without affluent ). On the other hand, the Northern side, soft but irregular inclined, is largely developed especially in its upstream part and carries long affluents which drain the major part the top Boulonnais and the top Artois (Ternoise, Planquette, Course).
The principal affluents of Canche (of the upstream towards the downstream) are:
- Right Bank
HydrologyWithin the framework of a oceanic rain mode, Canche profits from a raised flow, of a great regularity, for a river this length: approximately 12 m ³ /s with Brimeux, a few kilometers upstream of Montreuil-sur-Mer, approximately 15 m ³ /s with the estuary. Its specific flow (or Qsp) is of 13,5 liters a second and per square kilometer of basin (9,5 l/s/km ² for the whole of the rivers French, 10 l/s/km ² in the case of the basin of the Canche and 6,9 for that of the Somme).
History: the installation of an moist environmentThe valley of Canche constitutes a for a long time occupied wetland by the men who exploited it because of his productive character but which also stigmatized it like spaces unhealthy, which brought its partial destruction and its artificialisation in the name of the hygiène.
As of the 12th century, the main activities of the village communities occupying this space are represented by the breeding, fishing, the mowing and the culture of the Roseau X. The extraction of the Tourbe in the marshes of the downstream part of the river is attested at the 16th century; peat being at the same time the principal means of heating and a very required manure).
Environment: the estuary of CancheThus, the Estuaire of Canche was the first French site on which the Academy of the littoral in 1976 intervened fundamentally. This operation aimed to put in failure a project of bay stopping of Canche which had been born at the end of the Années 1960 and which one can regard as the last attempt, undertaken by the authorities, of artificialiser this medium. The construction of this work (partner besides with the installation of a marina and a marina), which intervened in compensation of a project of pumping of water of Canche on the level of Hesdin in order to feed the agglomeration inhabitant of Lille, threatened of destruction the estuarien medium and the rich person fauna and flora developing to with it. The strong mobilization of the inhabitants, associations, of many scientists, made it possible to make however move back the policies all favorable to the project.
With its Sand bank and its pierhead, the estuary of Canche proves to be most characteristic of the Picardy estuaries. The natural environment is primarily represented by littoral dunes which shelter a varied flora (485 species) and a rich person fauna. Many sedentary or migrating birds (75 species) nidifient in these places like the Engoulevent, the Alouette excentric, several types of Fauvette S, the Bécasse, the Tadorne of Belon oyster which makes rabbit burrows its habitat and a frightening predator, the Faucon swivel. This space shelters mammals like the Chevreuil, the Sanglier, the Renard, the Blaireau, the Fouine, the squirrel, some seals calf-sailor can be seen there, but, contrary to the Baie of Somme, the estuary of Canche does not seem to have of colony of these marine mammals. Triton S, clamping plates calamite and others Rainette S represents the many batrachians
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