The Greek initially indicated it by Skythikos Pontos (the “sea Scythique”). The Scythian , people of language Iran ienne, indicated it like Axaïna , i.e. “indigo”. The Greeks included/understood initially this term as axeinos (of has privative and xeinos " étranger") what means “unfriendly the abroads”, then later, when these currents were more familiar and practicable, it was indicated like Pontos Euxeinos (of have well and xeinos “foreign”) or Euxine Sea (i.e. “friendly” or “accessible” bay).
The name of Noire was given to him by the Turks Selçuks (Seldjoukides) then Osmanlis (Othoman) installed in Anatolia as from the 11th century. On their premises, the cardinal Points are indicated by colors: Kara , the “black” (Bilberry) for the Northern , Ak the “white” for the Southern, Kyzyl the “red” for the Western, and Yeshil the “green” for the Is. This sea ( deniz in Turkish) being in the north of the Turkey, it was indicated will kara , in Turkish: Karadeniz , “Black Sea”, whereas the the Mediterranean, in the south, is called sea Blanche , in Turkish Akdeniz (not to be confused with the White Mer Russians).
CharacteristicsThese data do not take into account the Mer of Azov (: 37600 km ²).
The Black Sea has a surface ranging between: 417000 and: 423000 km ² and a volume ranging between: 537000 and: 555000 km ³.
Another source gives a surface of: 422000 km ² (by not entering the sea of Azov).
Evolution of the Black Sea
In 1997, two American researchers (William Ryan and Walter Pitman) made the relation between the hydrological history of the Black Sea, described in Bulgarian and Rumanian publications little known, and a known myth of the Bible, the Arche of Noah (of the similar facts are described besides in the legend of Gilgamesh in the kingdom of Sumer or in ancient Greece in the Deucalion).
By analyzing with the Carbon-14 fresh water shells found in the corings of the sediments of the Black Sea under the marine current sediments, the Bulgarian and Rumanian researchers of years 1970 had discovered that the current Black Sea was there is nearly 7000 years a Lac of fresh water called lake Pontique. At the time the the Bosphorus was not a strait but an isthmus: indeed, the Marmara Sea stopped with a few kilometers in the south of the big lake which, it, was with 180 meters with the lower part of the general level of the seas. The deglaciation post- Würm ienne dissolved the Glacier S, involving a rise in the level of the Mediterranean and Marmara Sea. The valley of the Bosphorus was flooded by the salt water of the sea which flowed in the lake Pontique in the shape of a salt water cascade having 200 times the flow of the current Chutes of the Niagara. The level of the lake Pontique went up quickly, its banks moving back of one kilometer per day.
The banks of this lake were already populated farmers, because in Anatolia and Eastern Europe agriculture had started very early. Ryan and Pitman then thought that these farmers, driven out by the rise of water, would have dispersed in Anatolia and Mésopotamie, conveying the myth of the Déluge. They made books and the documentary ones.
The Black Sea became thus a sea connected to the the Mediterranean, but a very particular sea: the death of the lake Biotope caused a separation of deep water and surface waters (see below) and salinity remained very below the world mean: 12 to 16 grams of salt per liter instead of 35. So a salt water current runs always in-depth through the Bosphorus (the “marine water cascade” never stopped) while surfaces some, less salted water of the Black Sea run towards the Marmara Sea. In particular Soviet and American submariners know the phenomenon well and tried to benefit from it, but the narrowness of the Bosphorus (a half-thousand hardly at its point of narrower) and the intense circulation of ships make the exercise extremely dangerous (and there were accidents).
Chemistry of the Black SeaWater of this sea, beyond 200 meters of depth, is anoxic, i.e. low in Oxygène dissolved. In the place, a strong concentration of Sulfure of hydrogen preserves wood, leathers and fabrics of the wrecks of the bacterial action. The researchers of wrecks are given some to heart joy. This anoxic water is separated from the surface water, is oxygenated, by a Chimiocline, on the level of which develop Bactéries Anaérobie S. This phenomenon, also present in Caspian Sea and the Baltic, euxinism is called.
- List of the seas and oceans
- Artek, the international Center for children in the Crimea
- Sotchi, the Russian, future seaside resort host of the Winter Olympics of 2014
- Mamaia, the Rumanian seaside resort
- Albena, the seaside resort of the north of the Bulgaria
- Sunnybeach, the seaside resort of the south of the Bulgaria
- Jason and the Argonautes
- Pontus, Mithridate
- Empire of Trébizonde, Paleologists
- Kéraban-the-Obstinate , novel of Jules Verne where the hero makes it tower of the Black Sea
- Michel Pasha, architect of Provence, manufacturer of most of the Phare S of the Black Sea
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