See also: Bird (homonymy)
A bird (or class of the Aves ) is a Animal Tétrapode pertaining to the junction of the Vertébré S. If there exists close to: 10 000 species of birds, very different as well by their ecology as their behaviors, each one of them presents the same whole of obvious characteristics making it possible to gather them. Those are in particular them Bec, their Plume S, their wing S and them Oviparité.
Initially, the French language laid out, to indicate the birds, of generic names only based on morphology like Rapace, Vautour, wader, Canard, Perroquet, Hirondelle, Oie, Cygne, etc or on their use such Volaille or Gibier; some of these terms not indicating the same birds from one area to another, like “Chouan”. Then with the appearance of systematic, the ornithologists created names more based on the anatomy to make regroupings adapted to a classification taxinomic. Those passed in the language running, but much proved Polyphylétique S, for example Palmipède. During the 20th century, classification evolved/moved by gathering the various species according to more subtle affinities. Another revolution in taxonomy occurred during the Années 1990, with the appearance of a classification based on the Génétique, in fact of the experiments of hybridization of DNA. This one as a whole is accepted in America while the reserves are more important in Europe.
Contrary to the majority of the other animals, each species of birds has a single standardized French name allotted by the International commission of the French names of the birds.
MorphologyA bird is an animal with four member S, Ovipare (it lays egg S), with the covered body of feather S, with a horn Bec deprived of Dent S. Its rear limbs are legs and its forelimbs of the wing S allowing the majority between-them to steal. The type of flight and the performances which these species can carry out can be very different. Size going of a few grams for the hummingbirds with more than 100 kg for the Ostrich S.
See also: Identification of the birds
The plumageThe birds are the animal to only have Plume S, their plumage is a good means besides of recognizing the species. There exist many kinds of feathers which form the plumage. The plumage and the different ones left specialized feathers which compose them have many functions for the bird. Most universal being to maintain the temperature internal of these Tétrapode S homéothermes. For certain species, the plumage little to offer a held of effective camouflage. For others, the plumage of the males is used in the bridal parades or is essential to the seduction. Moreover, the youthful immature ones sexually often have a particular plumage which it will lose before their first season of reproduction. The state of the plumage allows a female to determine the health of a male. Lastly, for good number of species, the feathers are essential to the vol.
The shape of certain feathers makes it possible to know if the species is able to fly or not. Their number varies: 1000 for a Hummingbird with more: 25000 for a Swan. The feathers represent an important weight, at the Frégate S, it represents more than 50% of the total weight and in the sparrows, surroundings the third. The shapes of the legs depend primarily on their environment and their food mode. Thus, the Rapace S have greenhouses, the water birds of webbed or lobed legs. The running birds, the such Ostrich, are didactyles. The majority of the species have a spur, or pin, on their legs.
See also: Anatomy of the birds
Some characteristic anatomical of the birds point out those of the Reptile S or those of the Mammifère S. They are Homéotherme S and Ovipare S. the anatomy of the birds shows many unusual adaptations, especially to facilitate the flight, including for the birds which cannot fly.
The anatomical adaptations for the flight is found obviously in the morphology of the skeleton but also in that of the Os. Several of between-them are hollow and amalgamate with the air bags which are bodies of the respiratory system. This system is one of most complex and most powerful of the animal kingdom. In fact, the skeleton of the birds is very light (approximately 15% of the total weight of the bird). The wing S are also an adaptation to the flight, but like specifies it the theory of the evolution, the wing preceded the vol.
One notes also various adaptations to the level of the spinal column whose vertebrae of the cervical areas which allow an important inflection of the neck for much of bird, on the other hand the inflection in the part posterior of the body is very limited (Pygostyle, Synsacrum). All the birds, even those which do not fly has a furcula. The anatomy of their digestive system answers the need for satisfying a high Métabolisme. The flight being a greedy means of transport in energy.
Like the reptiles, the birds are provided with a cesspool and like they, the birds are mainly Uricotélique S, excreting of the Uric acid and urates and not amino-ureoletic (excretion of a combination of Ammoniaque and Urée). Among the excrements, one finds Créatine whereas the Mammifère S eliminate from the Créatinine. So as for the mammals and the Crocodiliens, them Cœur has four rooms but it is the aortic Crosse of right-hand side which persists whereas it is that of left in the mammals. Moreover érythrocyte S have cores. Adapted anatomical can be also related to the food, this is very easily observable year level of the Bec S and the digestive systems. They can also be related to the latitude of life and thus with the cold adaptation, for example the Scandinavian birds, circulation is with counter-current in the legs, so as to reduce the losses of heat.
The nervous system is, on average, a little bulkier than that of the reptiles but less than that of the mammals. Except exception, the visual surface is particularly developed what testifies to the single visual performances and the olfactive surface is reduced except for certain species like the Vautour S or the kiwi S. the size of their Télencéphale and their Cervelet returns to them possible of the astonishing singing exercises and the capacities of rather high training and abstraction at certain species. The eye is in the birds a very complex body. Their cries is not due to vocal cords but to a body called syrinx.
The reproductive apparatus of the birds resembles that of the reptiles Ovipare S.
DisplacementsThe majority of the birds are able to fly; there exists only one about sixty species of running birds, incompetents to fly. It is estimated that all the ancestors of the modern birds were able to fly. The loss of this aptitude, often in isolated places, could be due to the absence of predator or an extreme adaptation. Many disappeared birds could not fly.
There exist several techniques of flight, the form of the wings testifies with which type of flight each species is adapted, the study length of the bones of the arm even makes it possible to be more precise. Certain species like the Spheniscidae (whose Penguin S), small penguins, Puffin S and Cincle S “fly” under water to move there. The other running birds in general have the more robust bones of legs and an absence of breast-bone. An attentive study of the skeleton makes it possible to know if a bird can fly or not, this knowledge are used on the fossils of disappeared species.
Other characteristicsThe lifespan is very variable according to the species, it can be three or four years for certain sparrows with more than 50 for the Albatros.
Behavior and direction
Although “to have a brain of birds” means not to have large a Intelligence in several Culture S, certain species of birds melts evidence of relatively high cognitive capacities. The Corvidés are famous being most intelligent of the birds but the Psittacidae are also capable of outstanding performances. The performances of this class in this field are however very unequal. In addition, it is however difficult to define this term and especially to include/understand what is field of the Inné and Acquis and thus to evaluate their capacity of reasoning.
The birds are able to learn, it is known for example that the small cuckoos learn the song from their adoptive parents or that the corbels learn by imitating their similar.
Most common of their capacities are surely their space representation which enables them to be directed, to find food or to build sophisticated nests and their capacities of communication. One of the capacities more surprising is the rather widespread aptitude for this being used as object. The Corbeau calédonien is thus able to make use of a stick to dislodge the insects of which it is nourished. Certain birds are even able to count, the Psittacidae are known to reproduce the human way, but it is undeniable to note that they can include/understand what they say and use their vocabulary advisedly. One has also to observe birds able to look after themselves. certain faculties are practically single, the Guêpier d' Orient is able to be put at the place of its predator, differently known faculty only at the Hominidae .
DirectionsThe direction of the birds do not have basically of the mammals, but for some remain mysterious. One does not know well, for example, how the birds manage to locate themselves in their migration. On the other hand, it is known that their vision is remarkable, they are able to perceive in particular the Ultraviolet S. the raptors have a important Vision, to see two has three times better than the human one and consume only one type of food.
The high metabolism of the birds oblige them to consume much energy. As they do not have teeth, the food with is crushed best and swallowed, they will be crushed in the Gésier. Their digestive system particular makes them rather sensitive to the food toxins.
Relation between birdsThe degree of sociability varies according to the species and the seasons. The majority of the species are, at one period of their life at least, sociable even if the differences in behavior between species are very important. The birds use, within this framework, several means of communication. Their plumage is one is, but they use especially various visual signals made up of various movements. They can also emit vocalizations or other types of sounds. The complexity of these signals is maximum at the time of the bridal parades and constitutes one of the most codified means of communication animal kingdom. The relations are mainly of three types:
- parental Relations;
- Relations male-female and competition between males;
- interspecific Relations (several types of Commensalisme, especially food, are known on behalf of birds, with respect to other species but also the cleptoparasitism and the parasitism of the nests).
Types of couple95% of the species of birds are Monogame S and good number makes up of couples formed for the life. The cranes of Japan are even symbols of fidelity in the Far East. Other species are monogamists only for the year, one speaks about monogamy in series. Among the species monogamists strict, many are those at which the copulation with other partners can intervene, according to the circumstances. In these cases one observes behaviors collaboratifs of the genetic father with the couple. For certain species the monogamy is more related to the adoption of the same territory as to a true monogamy. The Polygynie is found at 2% of the species, the Polyandrie or the Polygynandrie at less than 1% for each. At the Anatidae for example, the “rape” is also practiced.
If the males help the females in the breeding of small for much of species, this is not systematic, but this behavior is much more run in the birds that at the other classes the vertebrate ones. The presence of the males is thus often necessary and in certain cases the females do not take part in it. At certain species the spots are strictly divided, incubation, defense of the nest, nourrissage of small…
See also: bridal Parade (biology), bridal Parade
The females are sensitive to many criteria and put the males in competition, although at the Phalarope S in fact the males choose the females. One of the criteria most important is the quality of the territory proposed by the male, that can correspond to some stones for a Manchot, to a very sophisticated Nid, or a vast territory for the species of solitary raptors. The male can also emphasize itself by vocalizations, visual signals very sophisticated and codified to see engagements. The health of the males is also to be evaluated by the colors of the feathers. At certain not very territorial species, these parades are made by groups of male on a small surface called Aire of parade.
The breeding of the young peopleAfter fecundation, except exception as the Guillemot de Troïl which poses its egg on the naked rock, the female lays in a nest a precise number of egg to hard shell made especially Carbonate of calcium. The color and the number of these eggs are specific to each species. The embryo to develop must be maintained at a constant temperature, the majority of the birds incubate their egg by brooding it. This practice can be greedy in energy. For certain species known as early or Nidifuge, let us oisillons them are able immediately to follow their relative, the extreme case being that of the Mégapode S where the small ones are completely independent or that of the Synthliboramphus as the oisillon of the Guillemot to white neck which gives up the nest the night after their blossoming, while following the calls of parents towards the sea, where they are high far from the predatory terrestrial ones. A contrario , at the species known as Nidicole like the Ardeidae , the chicks is born blind and without feathers. It is the Frégate of the Pacific which holds the record with a chick which acquires its plumage only at the end of six months and which east nourish by his/her parents during fourteen months. The efforts which the parents must make to nourish them are thus also very different according to the species.
At certain species, the couple is made help by another member of the species. This phenomenon is particularly present at the species of Corvidés but it was also observed at species as various as the climbing Xénique, the royal Milan or the Australian Pie.
During the few hours which follow the blossoming, the animated object that the oisillon sees, is regarded by him as his/her relative. This particularly strong behavior in the birds is called the Imprégnation.
Social relationsMajor the part of the species are social, they can the being all the year like the Rook, the Sterne S, the Goéland S or that over one period of the year like the Bécasseau X. In this last case, the regroupings can have an precise objective like the migration or the nesting. Certain species live in multi-species group of others in group of the same species. When they are Grégaire S, they melts evidence of social behaviors or collectives which can be very complex as hunting in group, the constitution of hierarchy, the co-operation subsidiary companies in the breeding of the young people, the presence of guetteurs, the constitution of mono cloud or flight or multi-species, or quite simply the constitution of colony.
With this intention the birds need to communicate. It primarily melts it by aural or gestural signals. For these behaviors, it is necessary to announce the presence of behavior cleptoparasite and parasitism of nests.
These behaviors are not in contradiction but is complementary to the need for territoriality thus the adults of unquestionable species living in colony become very aggressive with respect to any intruder in on this side minimal distance from their nest.
Interspecific parasitismsCertain birds are cleptoparasites, i.e. that they are nourished, at least partly, of preys concealed with other species. They are in particular the Labbe S and certain species of Laridés, but a great number of species are concerned, in particular Rapace S and Limicole S.
Certain species of birds voluntarily lays in the nest of other birds, of the same species or not. This Cleptoparasitisme of brooded exists in two forms, certain species are obliged to use this method because they are unable to raise their own young person, and of other using this method only punctually, as for some Phaethornithinae . There exists approximately a hundred species among the Cuculidae , Indicatoridae , Icterinae , Estrildidae , Anatidae which are obligatory parasites and oisillons them of the majority of them kill small species parasitized and are nourished by their hosts.
The females of gray Cuckoo, for example, lay an egg directly in the nest of various species of Passereau X and those often raise it at the cost of their characteristic brooded. This cuckoo learns even the song from his/her adoptive parents. The Cuckoo geai parasite almost exclusively the Black and white chatter box. This behavior also exists at several Canard S as the russet-red Nette which generally lays in its own nest but also frequently deposits eggs in the nests of other connected species, in particular the Fuligule tufted duck. This type of parasitism, as at the Fuligule with white back on behalf of the Fuligule to red head, can have a significant negative effect in the long run, even in the additional case or chicks do not kill or alimentairement do not compete with chicks of the range. The goal of the first of this parasitism seeming to be simply to benefit from the nest.
See also: Chronobiologie
The life of the birds organize according to several biological rates/rhythms. Most common to vertebrate circadian Rythme is the . The majority of the birds are Diurne S, but some birds, like the majority of the Hibou X and the Caprimulgidae are night S or twilight. Other species as the Limicole S follow a rhythm of life based on the Marée.
The birds because of the existence of the seasons also mark a rate/rhythm circannuels. The birds which migrate on long distances go then subirs of the anatomical changes like the Zugunruhe or the moults to prepare this voyage. According to the seasons, certain species also can of the migrations day laborers, altidunales for example.
The circadian and seasonal rates/rhythms seem related to the duration of the day. The cycles of reproduction are annual, several incubations being able to take place in one season for certain particularly prolific species.
SleepThe day laborer activity of the major part of the birds is supplemented by periods of rest and short periods of Sommeil. This period is called vigilant sleep, the birds frequently open the eyes and observe the neighborhoods to allow the escape in the event of threat. This period of sleep is a phase of paradoxical Sommeil short which one estimates on average at less than one minute even if the Spheniscidae , which hold a record in capitalize up to 80 minutes per day or are able to remain several days without sleeping. There does not exist however experimental proof. The behavior associated with the sleep is very different according to the families from birds. Many species cause a drop in the temperature of their body to see even entering in torpor as the Trochilidae while the Engoulevent of Nuttall hibernates. The Anserinae are the only birds known in which one observes a loss of Muscular tone. The state of sleep is very recognizable at these species which take refuge their nozzle under a wing and often only one their legs on the ground pose. Many nicheuses species on the ground as the Phasianinae take refuge in height with the shelter of predatory, sometimes jointly, to sleep. Some parrots of the kind Loriculus perch upside down to sleep.
Renewal of the plumageThe Plumage is regularly lost and recycled at least once per annum, one speaks about “incubating plates”.
The loss of feather can be also the signal of a disease.
See also: Migration of the birds
The migration is a annual movement seasonal observed at very many species. This displacement is, for example, a manner for these species of escaping a change from habitat or a fall from availability of food related to the rigors of an unfavourable climate, but can be also interpreted like a maximization of the chances of reproduction. They can take form very different according to the species and induce other behaviors, food for example, very private individuals.
Activities of comfortBirds part of their time in activities known as of comfort. According to the authors, they expenditure 9,2% of time for that. For example, it smooth their feathers with waxy secretions of their Glande uropygienne. The utility of this practice is discussed but it seems that this wax acts on flexibility of the feathers and like an agent Antimicrobien by inhibiting the growth of bacteria degrading the feathers. More than 250 species these secretions with formic Acid supplement drawn from Fourmi S.
Thus the meetings of Toilettage can be mutual. Certain birds also like to bathe.
DistributionThe birds constitute one of the most homogeneous groups of alive, their architecture is indeed conditioned by rigorous adaptations to the vol. One indexes some, according to the authors with close to: 10000 (from 9,800 to 10,050 species). Their distribution is world and depends on the seasons because of many species are migrating. The highest diversity is under the tropical areas. Good number of species are gregarious, the populations are thus concentrated on certain sites, mainly under the high latitudes. This can be due to a Spéciation or a higher extinction in these areas. Certain birds as the petrels of snows are able to venture up to 400 km in the Antarctic, further that no other vertebrate. Some Manchot S can plunge to more than 500 meters. Several species of marine birds if adapted to the seamen circles which they regain the ground only for the nesting.
It seems that one can divide the families of birds in 6 groups according to their origins, the zone pantropicale, the zone panboréale or holarctic, Side-American become zone néotropicale, the palearctic zone, the nearctic zone, and the last being a group formed starting from the very mobile birds. The Continental drift played an obvious part in the Endémisme of certain families, for example the hummingbirds are present only in America while the move are present only in Australia. The zone Australasian, is not as for the class of the mammals, the écozone which has the strongest rate of endemism with 16 families out of 64 and for example 308 sparrows out of 385.
- Species endemic in an original manner or become endemic, the number given is necessarily approximate because it depends on taxonomy and the appointed time.
The natural leading cause of expansion of the surface of distribution of a bird is the search for food. It can be made either erroneous migration randomly, or in a slow way by adaptation. The extension of the surfaces of distribution for certain species to the detriment of others has strongly grown for a few years and they all are probably due to the action of the man on the environment, such as for example the Climate warming. These changes of surface existed always and cause in the long run speciations, and consequently they are a normal process of the evolution. However by the acceleration of this phenomenon, the changes of surface testify to a total change of the environment. In addition to the warming, the Urbanization and the Déforestation are also in question. In North America, one observed that the Scardafella INCA is little by little replaced by the sad Tourterelle, more adapted to the presence of the man. Certain species became invasive after direct introduction by the human ones such as for example the pigeons bisets, the starlings sad starlings or the martins in Australia. These species were introduced to fight against the Criquet S. the Faisan of Colchide was introduced into many places for the Chasse. Others like the Conure widow, domestic birds, are simply escaped. One finds of them colonies installed in North America, Spain or Belgium. Some wild species extended beyond their natural surfaces following the extension from some practical agricultural like the Héron buff-backed herons, the Milvago chimachima , the Cacatoès rosalbin. Finally the domesticated species were spread within the framework of the human breedings like the Coq gilded become domestic cock. It should be noted that the House sparrow which is domestic only insofar as it followed the man everywhere, saw human activities.
These colonizing species, by their reproductive or food strategies, compete with and end up supplanting the species autochtones involving on a human scale, a fall of the genetic Diversité.
PredatoryThe adult birds of the greatest species have few predatory except the men, other species of birds but also of the Félin S, Mustelinae and some Viverridae . Many birds are found at the top of the food pyramid and as for other type of animals are for this reason victim of the Pollution by concentrating the pollutants. The man, by his direct predation, is the cause of the disappearance several species of birds like the Moa. Other species of birds as the Xénique de Stephen disappeared or are seriously threatened by the predation of pets like the Chat. But in fact the eggs and let us oisillons them are most vulnerable and which undergo an important predation.
Certain birds secrete chemical components against their predatory, for examples the Procellariiformes are able to eject an unpleasant grease. The skin and the feathers of some species of Pitohui of New Guinea contain powerful a Neurotoxine.
Commensalism of the birdsCertain birds, as the Piquebœuf S feed by removing the large mammals or the reptiles from their parasites. The Indicatoridae indicate to human or to find Ruche S savages. A contrario certain species are regarded as parasites because they consume small Fruit S or corn like the carouges with shoulder pads, the Moineau X, some starling X, the grosbeaks, some Corneille S and Corbeau X. The pigeons are as for them a harmful effect for the buildings although in England one sees them tackling certain cultures. Good number of species, by their cries of alarm prevent the preys of the approach of a predator.
Certain species of birds granivores or frugivorous support the dissemination of plant species as GUI by the Grive drains and certain species as the hummingbirds are the only ones with being able to pollinate certain flowers.
Certain watery species are nourished sometimes while benefitting from displacements of preys caused by other species feeding. Such commensaux behaviors were observed at the castagneux Grèbe in Europe, in particular in France with respect to the Cygne tuber and of the Canard chipeau, and in Madagascar with respect to Erismature with white back, of the widowed Dendrocygne, Anserelle dwarf and Duck with red nozzle. They were also noted at the Aigrette garzette, the Grande Brush and the ashy Héron with respect to the Grand Cormorant.
Parasites of the birdsThe parasitic most current are the avian acarina, lice and the worms. Other microscopic parasites like some Protozoon S, cause diseases.
At least 2.500 species of Acarien S distributed in 40 S live in a narrow way with the birds, occupying their Nid S, their feathers, or even their nozzle like certain acarina of hummingbirds. These acarina can be the simply phorétiques ones with disturbers of their parasitic behavior or like the Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus . All the species of birds are concerned, including those without feathers like the Manchot S, which have ticks. The lifestyle of a Tique of bird depends of course on its species; however, it is noted that the Larve lives generally only in the nest. These acarina have short cycles of reproduction and are able to pullulate very quickly. Certain acarina nourish died skins, others as in the hummingbirds, are made transport flower in flower and nourish nectar there. In the nests, there are even discovered parasitic dwarf ticks of avian ticks. Of these facts, these Zoonose S is studied and their propagations carefully observed. Fact also of the economic importance of the poultry breedings, the discoveries of avian hearths of diseases can lead the local authorities to take radical measures with respect to these breedings. Thus in September 2007, 205.000 poultries were destroyed in Bavaria following the discovery of stock of the avian flu. Certain diseases can be more specific to an order like the Maladie of Pacheco for the Psittaciformes.
See also: evolutionary History of the birds
The study of the evolutionary history of the birds is made difficult owing to the fact that the fossils of birds in good state are difficult to find. However the oldest fossils considered as pertaining to this class go up with the Jurassic higher, there is more than 150 My. The birds all are probably resulting from an ancestor dinosaurien Théropode (there were dinosaurs with feathers, the feather does not make the bird). This class knew the first speciation mainly in two large branches which was going to survive the Extinction of Sort-Jurassic the, the Enantiornithomorpha and the Ornithurae . The Ornithurae and more particularly the Neornithes will know important a evolutionary Radiation. Many species will disappear with the Extinction from the Cretaceous. In fact only the branch resulting from the Neornithes , the S of the Paleognathae and Neognathes whose for example Anseriformes , Galliformes and Neoaves will survive, then hunting (for certain species), poisoning or an immunizing weakening by the Pesticide S and others Polluant S. Certaines species know a more or less unsuspected increase in the hybridization; Certain close species, seeing them habitat parcelling out, cross by producing even sterile hybrids in quantity so large that can put these species in danger. For example, the many hybrid hummingbirds found in the western north of South America can represent a threat for the conservation of these distinct in cash species. Certain rare species are the subject of a traffic (Perroquet S).
La genetic loss of capital is one of the problems for the long run, which concerns also and more still the domestic birds and of breedings (Poule S, Canard S, Oie S in particular, following the industrial production of one day old Poussins starting from selected reproducers). CNRS estimated into 2005 that 50% of the domestic races are in the process of disappearance. Reactions aiming at protecting from the wild species and avian races are carried out, with some successes. In 2004, sixteen species of birds, which would have disappeared without conservative measures, are always existing.
The diffusion of Zoonose S because of the methods of industrial breedings is also a threat, the breedings constituting of the potential reserves of disease or the sensitive hearths of infectious incubations.
Classification and nomenclature
See also: International commission of the French names of the birds
Use and etymology of the bird termBird derives from Latin bottom aucellus , it is a syncopated form of *avicellus , diminutive of opinion . By bird, one understands usually whole of the existing species the having of the feathers, but also good number of species disappeared ancestors or connected with the current species, which are gathered in Neornithes.
The youthful ones of the birds bear the name of oisillon or Poussin. Several species of birds comprise the bird term in one of their vernacular Nom like the Bird-cabbage tree, the lyrebirds or ménures, hummingbirds, bird of the paradise, bird-elephants or æpyornis, birds of the islands or bird of paradise, the royal bird describes by Buffon…, but certain species are it génériquement as name “birds of the storms” which indicate the Hydrobatidae . Gradually, especially thanks to work of Carl von Linné appeared in 1758, this classification will improve grace in particular to work on the Comparative anatomy, the Embryologie. Thus, certain terms any more will not be regarded as carriers of a scientific direction like wader or palmipède and are judged like obsolete from a taxonomic point of view.
In the traditional vision of the evolution of the modern birds ( Neornithes ), one places at the base of the Phylogenetic tree, after the ratites and tinamous, the groups of marine birds the such Manchot S, the Grèbe S, the dive S and Pélican S, etc Towards the end of the Années 1970 and during all the following decade, Charles Gald Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist undertake studies based on methods of Hybridation of the DNA, which deeply modifies knowledge on the phylogeny of the birds. New classification showed that the gallinacés Canard S and were the parents closest to the ratites (which integrate the tinamous) forming the paléognathes. The Galloanserae constitute a line of old at Néognathes. The groups of marine birds traditionally considered as antiquated are now placed in the order of the widened Ciconiiformes , which includes/understands also the diurnal raptors ( Accipitridae , Sagittariidae (Aves) and Falconidae ) and the limicolous ones ( Scolopacidae , Charadriidae , Laridae , etc). In this news Taxonomy Sibley-Ahlquist of alive, known as the phylogenetic Classification, the birds belong to the Archosaurien S which include/understand a great number of fossils called Dinosaure S. This systematic as a whole is accepted in America while the reserves are more important in Europe.
Research to include/understand the relative position of each group of bird continuous and other fields which the genetics is explored. A Russian researcher showed that the structure of the shell of eggs could be useful in the determination of the relations between birds.
List birdsOne also gathers the birds according to their biome, like the marine birds or of the geography, or the biomes (tropical birds), if they migrate or if they are sedentary. Thus one speaks about water birds, marine, terrestrial; migratory birds, of passage, travellers, nicheurs; running birds, climbing, plunger, jumping; birds of prey; day birds, night.
to also see: alphabetical List of vernacular names of birds
Studies of the birds
See also: Ornithology, Chronology of ornithology, : Category: Ornithologist, List of ornithologists
The study of the birds, is hardly any more a speciality of ornithologist, it is one of the rare sciences practiced by a vast majority of amateurs. Indeed, the observation of the birds and the collection of information always concern a simple technique and hardly ask material. The official scientists (far from many in the majority of the countries) are thus based on networks of observers amateurs, which sometimes are very packed (2 million British adheres to the Royal Society for the Protection off Birds). The scientists who allow to increase our knowledge on the birds work themselves today generally on the biology of the behavior, molecular biology, the genetics, but also the Paléontologie (to include/understand the Phylogénétique birds). The Pinsons of Darwin are at the origin of our comprehension of the phenomenon of speciation.
The applications on these studies are varied, they made it possible to understand for example that the birds at the forming top of food chains of the very sensitive indicators of pollution, one from of deduced that their decline is related to the use of the pesticides.
GeneticsThe Système of sexual determination is of type WZ/ZZ. In system WZ of sexual determination, the females have two Chromosome S of various kinds (WZ), whereas the males twice have the same kind of chromosomes (ZZ). However the general outline of determination of the sexes is badly known and very different from that observed in the mammals. The genome is rather homogeneous with 60 to 75% of single sequences. The microchromosomes of the traditional chromosomic charts of birds, contrary to what was supposed in the first studies cytogenetics, constitute major elements of the genome.
The stockbreeders of birds are particularly attentive with the genetics of their birds to try to make express certain visible alleles which increase the value of those. This practice is current for the Psittacidae at which the stockbreeders select strange colors, it is for example the case of the Inséparable rosegorge. The genetics proves to be essential in order to determine their precise phylogeny and thus to include/understand their evolution. The news taxonomy known as of Sibley-Ahlquist is based on the data resulting from the studies using the techniques of Hybridation from the DNA.
Birds of laboratoryThe class of the birds is one of the classes most studied in laboratory. Many species are studied in laboratory because of the simple conditions of breeding. Certain species are studied for their vocalizations like the diamonds mandarins, others for their intelligence like that of the kind Corvus . The chickens and the pigeons are also popular for biology and comparative psychology.
- Alex the parrot
- William d' Orange
Birds and human culturesThe birds or the eggs, from their distribution, are known of all the human cultures and this directly influenced their habits, their Religion S by the symbolism which is associated to them, and their life in multiple manner.
CultureOne thus allotted to them, as with all the animals familiar with the man of the anthropomorphic characteristics more or less according to the species but also generally. The bird or its associated characteristics like egg, the feathers, the wings or the greenhouses can be regarded as symbol. The flight of the bird is naturally carrying a symbol of freedom as the Greek myth of Icare expresses it. For example the Aigle is a symbol of majesty this is why have finds it on the armorial bearings of the United States and various empires. Peace is symbolized by the Colombe of peace.
The majority of the birds are regarded as positive symbols, but there exist however exceptions according to the cultures. The Vautour S have a negative reputation for many people, however the parsis and the zorostriens before them, give to these birds a singular role. They offer the corpse of their deaths to the vultures, the Inhumation or the Crémation being an offense with the ground and fire. With the the Middle Ages in occident always, the Raptor S, especially those night S like the Strigiformes (Owl S, Owl X) although very beneficial with the peasants because eating species ravageuse like the small rodents, were judged like malefic or harmful. A habit consisted in nailing on the doors these birds to drive out the bad spirits and all the others Strigiformes . Several species of raptors besides were pursued. These animals are protected today and their current image of majesty is strongest, although the vultures with their ungrateful aspect, are always badly accepted.
In Africa, some songs and cries is interpreted and translated by certain people which draw a particular significance from it, that it is harmful or positive. The birds producing these cries are then regarded as beneficial or malefic.
French birdsIn French, for example, to sing as a bird means to sing merrily. To have an appetite of bird means to eat very little. A brain or head of bird is a spirit light, carefree, dazed, and an individual who lives like a bird, the fact without concern of the following day. To be free as a bird means not to have any obstacle. In the popular language a bird designates an individual, with a rather negative direction. A bird of passage designates an individual of which one will not intend any more to speak party once, a bird bad Augure is a carrier of bad news. A night-bird is a night bird. A rare bird is a person whom one seeks to contact but who makes oneself not very available. Good number of expressions are related to precise species according to the particular symbols related to the species considered: to make the peacock to make the beautiful one, to be a pigeon to be naive, a goose for a naive young woman, to be a mother hen for a very attentive mother. The terms Vulture, Corbel, Raptor and as those divided by others Charognard S are not pleasant qualifiers.
Birds of fiction
See also: : Category: Bird of fiction, List of birds of fiction
Mythical birdsAmong the mythical birds, one can quote the Roch “Thousand and One Nights” which is a giant raptor able to capture boats, or the Pouākai which, according to the legends Māori S, was able to capture human. This mythical bird being probably the sublimation of the giant Eagle of Haast, disappeared with the extermination from the Moa S by these same Māoris. The Greek Sphinx, harpie, PEGASE, sirens, Chimère S are hybrid creatures having of the features of birds and are rather hostile with the man. The Phoenix, symbol of the rebirth is a mythical creature which was readily used by the Christians who see there a symbol of the rebirth of Jesus Christ. Garuda is a giant bird of the Indian Mythologie, incarnation of Vishnu. The Simurgh, bird of the Persian Mythology, also present in the Avesta or the Shahnameh.
Tales and legendsThere exists very many Conte S and Légende S putting in scene birds.
In occident, in certain areas, to hide the existence of sexuality to the children, one tells that the Bébé S are brought to the parents by the Cigogne S, making this animal a positive symbol. This legend probably saved extinction the populations of these species in the east of France. the Goose that lays the golden eggs is at the same time a myth on the chance an allegory on the economic importance of the poultry.
The fables of Jean of the Fountain for example, put in scenes characters zoomorphes.
AnimationsIn occident, there exist hundreds of cartoons or cartoons comprising birds like main characters and secondaries. It is caricatures to which one allots a character that one lends to these birds, thus, for example, the hen is mother hen or frivolous idiot, the cock is bold and arrogant as in animated Charlie the cock produces by Looney Tunes. Orville the Albatross of Bernard and Bianca, does not have simply a comic step, it is it. Often, the Canard S are coleric, noisy and crafty beggars like Donald of Disney and Daffy Duck of Looney Tunes. The raptors are in general malicious, like Beaky Buzzard, Henery Hawk or more recently the falcon of Stuart Little 2 and clashes with nice mice or other birds such as Woody Woodpecker. Vis-a-vis the Hero of these works Manichean born, the malicious ones always finish bredouilles. Among these famous birds, one can also quote Woodstock, the best friend of Snoopy, Chilly Willy the penguin, Doodle Yankee the pigeon of Hanna-Will bore.
In the more provocative cartoons, these stereotypes are less true as in Cléo and Chico, the characters being Anti-héros. Through these cartoons, unquestionable standard of relations human-birds can be evoked such as for example the breeding out of battery in Chicken run and be thus denounced.
The cinemaThe cinema is rich of situation or the birds are shown, evoked, where even in the center of the action. A work particularly marked the spirits of the 20th century is that of Alfred Hitchcock, the birds drawn from the news éponyme of Daphne of Maurier which presents the birds like a threat, in the form of dangerous clouds. Birdy is a work or a man is caught for a bird. Several documentary films, left to the cinema, was carried out, like the Walk of the Emperor of Luc Jacquet or the Migrating People of Jacques Perrin.
Birds in artThe birds appear in the culture and the parietal Art since the Préhistoire where they appear on cave paintings. Homère made use of the birds in its work and in particular of the Rossignol in the Odyssée. Because of elegance and complexity of its song, many poets imitated it.
In medieval art also, the Iranian poet Been enough Farid ud-DIN Attar, wrote the history of a band of 30 birds pilgrims leaving under control the crested to research Simurgh in the book the conference the Birds (Arab manTiq At-Tuyûr ). At the end of their search, they discover them to me deep (word game on Simurgh = 30 birds).
The birds did not cease inspiring the artists by their forms, their colors and symbolisms with which they are associated like the Trône of the peacock. Certain artists specialized successfully on the birds as John James Audubon which was going to give its name to the National Audubon Society. The relation between the Albatross and the sailors, central theme of the Lament of the old sailor of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, is a poetic example of Allégorie.
ReligionIf several Religion S directly used certain birds like religious symbol, the majority used egg, the feathers or the wings. Certain religions regard certain birds as carrier of one of a divine gasoline because symbol of their (S) God (X). For example, following the example several other types of animals, the Egyptian Religion ancient raised with a great ostentation and respect the specimens of Faucon, of Ibis, Huppe fasciée in their temple. Certain populations dravidiennes regard the blue peacocks as divine, manifestation of the Ground mother. Other people, more simply, represents to them (S) god (X) in the shape of bird, as the yézédi S which represent Melek Ta' custom in the form a Paon, as the Christian use the Colombe like demonstration of one of the gasolines of their Holy Trinity, the Holy Spirit. The Bible also makes use of the dove with several associated significances, fear, passivity, mourning and beauty. The color of the “white dove” in fact a symbol of purity which was very common to the Moyen the East during antiquity. Human interpretations of these messages are not uniform since, the fasciée Huppe is crowned in ancient Egypt, it is symbol of virtue in Perse and it is sign of war in the Scandinavian countries.
Certain worships or mythologies conferred powers on certain birds, without making gods of them, like the role of messenger of the gods allotted to Hugin and Munin, two large corbels in the Scandinavian mythologies. They can also be simply instrument without conscience of a god. The Bible, which takes again the account of the Épopée of Gilgamesh, tells that Noah releases a dove then a corbel to find a ground after the flood. In the Book of the Kings, corbels are sent by God to nourish Élie. In Coran, a corbel sent by Allah learns with Caïn how to bury his/her brother.
They can act as messengers of the God X for the priests as in the Mythologie Grated Harmed where Tangata manu, the Man-bird, the king of the Easter Island was indicated by a race with discovered of an egg. This was probably the case for all the ancient Mediterranean cultures. Philon of Alexandria, a hellenized Jewish philosopher, recognizes this role of messenger to the birds. In the Roman Religion for example, the flight of the birds or their entrails were interpreted by the Haruspice S and Augure S to determine the will of the gods.
Also, for certain worships, the birds can be offered in Sacrifice. The Lévitique specifies that the dove and the pigeons are the only birds offrables in sacrifice, the rich person, him, being able to sacrifice cattle.
If the adult birds are used as religious symbol, it is the same for eggs, symbols par excellence of the rebirth and the purity of the forms, but also for some their behaviors. The Migration of the birds is regarded as signs of a divine perfection in the Coran. The birds are perceived rather like beneficial symbols, a possible illustration of this fact is that in Western iconography the wings of the Ange beneficial S, creatures, are represented in the form of wings of birds, diurnal animals, whereas those of the Démon S, malefic creatures are represented with wings of Chiroptère S, animals night.
Commercial uses of their imagesIn publicity, like symbols of company or Mascot S, in addition to the famous birds of fiction, the images of birds are very much used in a more or less stylized way (cf postal Oiseau). In the United States, the image of the predatory raptors, therefore without the vultures, is largely used such as for example for the Seahawks of Seattle. The owl, symbol of Athéna goddess of wisdom in the ancient Greece, is used by various banks and insurance companies and is a symbol used by the Greek state.
Food rolesThe birds raised for consumption are called Volaille S. the most consumed poultry is the chicken domesticates. The named ancestral species Gallus gallus was domesticated between and of many Race S were selected. Since, the breeding of the poultries did not cease being an important economic issue. The worldwide production of poultry multiplied by ten with the transformation of the Aviculture by the method of the breedings into battery. The production of domestic chickens was multiplied by four between 1964 and 2004 and on the whole represents approximately 81 million tons in 2005. The poultries raised according to the characteristics of their race are known as of flesh or layers. Certain stockbreeders specialized in the production of chicks, other in fattening or in the production of eggs. From this type of breeding results several controversies which relate to for example the animal Bien-être, the production of Lisier polluting in too great quantity, the threat on the Biological diversity of the poultries by the reduction of the races, the introduction of resistance to the Antibiotique S by a not-reasoned use of those, a hazardous Food safety of the fact at the same time of the bad nutrition of the birds and multiplication of the Zoonose, diffusion of zoonose by transport. With the strict production of the poultries are associated an industry specialized in demolition, a processing industry into consumable food, a conditioning and processing industry of the derivative products, an industry of manufacture of food for the poultries, an industry of transport, which makes of this agricultural sector a major industrial stake. The stake eclipses the problems arising. Certain wild species are high today for the meat and their feathers like the Autruche S.
The Chasse with the birds, birds qualified in this context of Gibier, was an important stake food what even led tens of species to the extinction or at the edge of the extinction. Today, hunting for the birds is not any more one food need, but is regarded either as a distraction or as a sport. Certain traditional huntings use a bird like the Fauconnerie. In Southeast Asia, Cormoran S were formerly used for fishing. In occident, the hunters prefer to use dogs to flush out the birds and then to draw them with rifle. The practice of Hunting for the collet and the Glue also was used but is today prohibited. In France, certain huntings are very discussed as the Chasse for the wood pigeon. The practices of hunting for the birds are there often in contradiction with the European laws.
Avian fauna becoming rare because of the practices of huntings or agricultural, some associations of hunting organize breedings of birds at the wild origin like Faisan S or Caille S to be slackened so that the members of these associations have targets during the Period of hunting. These birds are often Hybride S deads, the observers notice that they do not have the behavior of birds born in freedom.
See also: Receipts of poultries and game birds
Other rolesVarious races domesticated starting from the Pigeon biset are used as messengers or food. They played, as messenger a big role during the Second world war. Other birds of breedings can also be used at other ends that food, the fighting cocks are sources of bets. Several species of birds are captured and locked up to distract the man, either by their songs, or for their feathers. The breeding of bird as pet spread. Many birds are captured for their feathers for clothing. These practices tend to decrease.
Today these practices changed. The Colombophilie became a play activity. The fauconnery changed almost everywhere with other objectives that hunting, for example of the raptors are centers of attraction intended to make come the tourists in certain parks to topics like the Château from Milandes, the Château of Valkenburg, the Château of Bubble, etc
The passion for the birds created specialized tourism which consists of voyages of observations. Installations were carried out on certain sites to facilitate these observations. For the private individuals, a sector become financially important, specialized in the food of the wild birds or the construction of nesting boxes. A study estimated that with the the United Kingdom, 75% of the households nourished the birds.
The feathers of birds are used for the clothes industry of clothing, of sleeping bags, and pillow, etc the Eider or the Oie S are famous for their sleeping bag for example. The Guano, resulting from the excrements of the birds of sea, is used as manure rt is very required, its exploitation was considerable source of revenue for Peru at the 19th century. In addition, several types of commensalism between birds and human are known.
Human diseasesThe birds can be carrying, healthy or not, of communicable disease to the man. The birds can trained also Allergie S.
Fight against the birdsCertain birds are regarded as Nuisible S. the causes various and certain are very discussed of it. The means set up to fight against them can be very different. Demolition by certain hunters of Raptor S, particularly useful for the farmers because driving out vermins especially but perceived as an unfair competition for hunting for the Lagomorpha , strongly reduced certain populations. The Vulture S in the south of France, shown without formal evidences to kill the sheep and cows, were exterminated, before being reintroduced there. Other species, become invasive following the human introduction because considered to be initially useful, are the subject of measurement aiming either at reducing their population or to the eradication. For the wild species autochtones, the farmers seek before very preventing the birds from consuming the plants which they cultivate. The means implemented are varied, it can act of repulsive sound, repulsive visible the such scarecrow S, hunting, the destruction of the nests, the trapping, the crop protection by nets or bags, repulsive chemicals, culture of repulsive plant species. They move in clouds towards the west during the particularly rigorous winters, pretense to bring the cold with them.
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