The bioéthanol is the ethanol of biological and agricultural origin. It is used like Biocarburant (or agrocarburant ) in the Moteur S with gasoline. It is about a energy Vecteur resulting from agriculture and pertaining to the family of the renewable energies.
Plants containing of the Saccharose (beet, canes with sugar…) or of the Starch (corn, corn…) can be transformed to give bioéthanol, obtained by Fermentation of the sugar extracted the sugar plant or by enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch contained in cereals. One generally speaks about die " sucre" to indicate this die of production of bioéthanol.
This ethanol of vegetable origin is anything else only of the ethanol, the same one as that which one finds in all the alcoholic drinks. It can be mixed with the going gasoline in proportions from 5 to 85%. Beyond 20% of the adaptations to the engines of cars are often necessary.
Compared to the die " huile" allowing to produce raw Plant oil and Biodiesel (methyl plant oil ester or EMHV), the die " sucre" by far is developed in the world, mainly with the Brésil, where bioéthanol of cane with sugar covers 22% of the national needs while carburizing, in Sweden and to the the United States, where more than 10% of the gasoline bioéthanol (mainly of corn) to a total value of 10% containcontains.
In 1904, the French Ministry of Agriculture organized a Road racing set of North intended to propagate the use of alcohol like fuel in the spark-ignition engines. (Review of Touring Club of France, March 1931).
Fuels and engines with ethanol
Mixtures with the gasolineThere exist several types of fuels containing of ethanol the majority are mixtures of gasoline and ethanol to various proportions. One indicates them by the letter E followed by the percentage of ethanol in the mixture: for example of the E85 represents a fuel containing ethanol 85% and gasoline 15%. In this nomenclature, E100 indicates pure ethanol.
One finds thus of E5, E7, E10, E15, E20, E85, E95, E100 according to the country in which one is and of the use that one wants to make some.
In France, the marketing of E85 to the private individuals, legally named Superéthanol, is official since January 1st, 2007.
Bioéthanol with the ETBEIn Europe, the tankers prefer to transform ethanol into ETBE (éthyl thirdly butyl ether) which can be built-in with the gasoline until height of 15%. The ETBE would have the advantage of being better adapted to the engines. Indeed, the direct incorporation of ethanol to the gasoline poses certain technical difficulties: the gasoline mixture/ethanol has more raised steam pressure and badly tolerates the presence of water traces. These difficulties can be surmounted by a reformulation of the bases gasoline and the elimination of the water traces in the tanks. Nevertheless, the ETBE is less virtuous for the environment, of or the choice of France (and of many other countries) for E85.
DiscussesThis agro-fuel is presented like a green fuel , but the interest of the ETBE like ecological fuel, and its name of " bioéthanol" are very discussed for several reasons:
- the transformation of ethanol into ETBE uses toxic chemicals (sulphuric acid) and a great quantity of energy, which gives to final energy assessment for the ETBE almost as bad as that of the fossil gasoline of origin (cf Notes synthesis common ADEME-DIREM, December 2002).
En comparison, the Biocarburant S for diesel engines (pure Plant oil, EMHV, EEHV) offers definitely higher energy assessments (in a report/ratio 2 to 5 following indicators taken).
- a North-American study led by the pr. Mark Z. Jacobson (University of Stanford) concluded that the bioéthanol presented as many health hazards and pollution the gasoline; It could cause an increase in respiratory pathologies in the USA, according to a mathematical model simulating the quality of the air in 2020, year when the vehicles functioning in E-85 should be largely disponibles.
Deux substances Cancérogène S (Benzène and Butadiène would decrease in the air, but they are then the Formaldéhyde and the Acétaldéhyde, two other carcinogens which would increase (It is also expected that the number of the vehicles increases). Marc Z. Jacobson, estimates that the number of cancers related to E-85 would be of the same order of magnitude as that which one considers induced by the gasoline.
- If the contribution to the greenhouse effect is famous quite less (it is not null), the impacts differed from the intensive agriculture seem, badly or very partially not taken into account by the éco-assessment S of the agroéthanol whose production is likely still to increase the problems involved in the chemical Engrais, Pesticide S, Labor, erosion and risks GMO, ground consumption gained on the Forêt or who could have been restored by true Jachère S (rest and restoration of the Humus and ground) or occupied by food cultures).
- the use with large scales of bio-éthanol very implies the use of agricultural large surfaces for the production of but or cane with sugar. There is an unquestionable risk of competition the food needs of the population of planet and the energy needs of our cars. In certain areas, the price of basic food already started to go up (e.g.: but in Mexico).
- the production of ethanol, according to various studies, is a process having a negative energy contribution. See: () and () and ()
Engines functioning in ethanol and the VCM or FlexfuelThe current engines with ethanol are slightly modified petrol engines, in particular on the level of the joints which are improved to resist the corrosive effect of alcohol, the vehicles after 1994 have joints and hose connections compatible with E85. The vehicles are been driven either by these engines specifically designed for ethanol, or of engines known as Flex-Fuel, or the cases " flex " to transform a car gasoline has conveys containing hydrocarbon Bi of it.
Flexfuel (or VCM, Vehicle with Flexible Fuel) is the name given to the vehicles especially designed to function indifferently in Superéthanol E85 and/or Super without traditional lead. More precisely, the Flexfuel vehicles are able automatically to adapt their operation for any mixture of gasoline and pure ethanol in proportions ranging between 0% and 85% in volume of ethanol, from where the word “Flex”. They are in practice vehicles equipped with engines gasolines equipped with devices with injections, specific electronic sensors… Moreover, the materials used must be compatible with ethanol. The ethanol is indeed more corrosive than the gasoline. The Durit S, tank and other drivers of the mixture must be reinforced.
The consumption of an engine with ethanol is higher approximately 25% than that of a petrol engine; however, its compression ratios are higher what makes it possible to exploit more power. In general, the engines with ethanol are studied to provide powers and couples similar to those of the petrol engines. However, certain engines " Flex-Fuel" running indifferently to super the 95 or the ethanol E85, provide higher outputs (more than 10%) during operation under E85. The clear CO ² emissions are reduced approximately 40%.
There exist now kits " Flex " , it is a black box which adjusts the time of injection and allows the cars with multipoint injection or monopoint to roll freely to the superethanol. The kit exists in Brazil, in the USA, in Sweden since years. there are several marks of kit " Flex" , Euroflex, ful.flex, flextek… the tariffs are of 300 has 600 euros (according to the marks) with models of cases automatic or containing hydrocarbon Bi. more than 30.000 cars roll to Brazil with kits flex, 90% of the cars are compatible.
Production of bioéthanol in the worldIn 2003, the worldwide production of bioéthanol rose to 22 billion liters, including some 620 million in the European Union. L´ Spain is the largest producer of l´Union. In Belgium, at the beginning of January 2006, one does not produce bioéthanol yet. But it is only one matter of time because two large production units are setting up itself. Just beside its sugar refinery of Wanze (Huy), the Refinery Tirlemont oise, Belgian leader of sugar and the Inulin, develop BioWanze a project of 200 million euros to annually manufacture 300 million liters of ethanol starting from beets and wheat. BioWanze should generate 80 direct uses and the production to start in 2007. In the port of Ghent, the company Alco BioFuel, subsidiary of the first ethanol producer in Europe, the construction of three production lines mainly containing Belgian grain envisages. The first line (100 million liters/an) should be operational since 2007.
The the United States are the second world bioéthanol producers. Their production rose to 6,21 million cubic meters in 2001 and 10,2 million cubic meters in 2003. Into 2006,10% of the production of corn is transformed into biocarburants in the United States.
Future of bioéthanolA new die of production of bioéthanol is developing. It is the die BTL (for biomass-to-liquid, in English) which will make it possible to manufacture the “Carburants greens of second generation”. For many specialists, die BTL constitutes the die of the future. It makes it possible to produce bioéthanol or Biodiesel, but the industrial processes used are very different from those exploited by the dies " sucre" and " huile" traditional. Die BTL is in fact a generic label which recovers two under-dies making it possible to produce fuels of synthesis by thermochemical way (gasification) or biological way (enzymatic hydrolysis).
The thermochemical way makes it possible to obtain biodiesel. Choren Industries, undertaken German based in Freiberg (in Saxony, not far from Dresden), is leader on the matter. With its Carbo-V® technology, it produces of SunDiesel® starting from wood or any type of biomass. This thermochemical way converts initially the biomass into a gas of synthesis (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) which is then transformed into diesel by using processes originally developed for the conversion of coal into diesel by Germany lasting the second world war and then, South Africa lasting the embargo forced to counter apartheid. Another thermochemical way produces an oil by pyrolysis, oil which is then refined to extract from the fuels and the chemicals with high added value.
The biological way makes it possible as for it to generate bioéthanol. The Canadian company Iogen Corporation, based with Ottawa, has a pilot factory which converts cellulosic feedstocks (straw of corn, wood, etc) into EcoEthanol™, thanks to patented enzymes. Choren and Iogen profit both from the financial support of the Anglo-Dutch giant Shell. The factory controls Etek de Domsjö in Sweden produces ethanol containing shavings. The process of production associates acid and enzymatic hydrolyzes. The products obtained are lignin which perhaps either burned directly or dried and sold to be used as fuel, Carbonic gas which are recovered and of the ethanol which is used by the factory of Sekab to produce biocarburant E85 including/understanding ethanol 80% and gasoline 20% (E85 it is theoretically ethanol 85% and gasoline 15%).
To the Brazil, the cars run to the " oil vert"For the Brazilian ones, no doubt: their country will become Saudi Arabia of XXIe century . First exporter of the green oil or bioéthanol , Brazil is a pioneer of the die: this alcohol of Canne to sugar was developed after the first oil crisis in 1973, under the impulse of the military dictatorship. It was started again in 2003 by the marketing of a car " flex-fuel" , indifferently accepting the gasoline, ethanol or a mixture of both. In 2006, 75% of the cars sold in Brazil were " flex". The National association of manufacturing motor vehicles (Anfavea) estimates that, in 4 years, they will account for 85% of the cars in circulation. Brazil, which produces 17 billion liters of ethanol per annum, argument with the the United States the place of producing first. The passion does not go without disadvantages: the world rate of the sugar, which remains a foodstuff, flies away and the price of ethanol increases. " And the small farmers, pushed by the extension of the plantations of cane, ebb towards the Amazonia, where they clear for planter" , that alerts association " Friends of Terre". For these small farmers, the government encourages the production of another biocarburant, the Biodiesel, which mixes with the gas oil and is manufactured starting from Oléagineux easy to make push on small grounds.
In the United States
The strong development of an ethanol die containing Maïs causes a blaze of the prices of corn in Mexico.
The absence of tax on the biodiesel doped the production of this fuel of 60% between 2004 and 2005.
BMW announces 100 hydrogen cars for 2007.
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