See also: Bienne (homonymy), Biel/Bienne (homonymy)
Bienne (in German, Biel ; officially, Biel/Bienne ) is it tenth Ville of Switzerland. Located in the Canton of Bern, it is the chief town of the District of Bienne and the area of the Zeeland. The commune of Bienne counts 49.038 inhabitants (in 2006).
Located at horse on the linguistic Border between the areas French-speaking and German-speaking, it is more the bilingual big city of Suisse. Its population is made up to 60% the German-speaking ones and 40% of French-speaking people. The population of Bienne tends to increase these last years.
Bienne is leant on the southern side of the chain of the Jura. In the west of the city, a lake is to which the city gave its name, the Lac of Bienne.
It was (with Neuchâtel, Yverdon-the-Baths and Morat) one of the organizing cities of Expo.02. In Bienne, almost all the buildings built for the exposure were destroyed at the end of this one. Some were moved: the building of " Territory imaginaire" moved with the street Alexander-Schöni, becoming a room of congress and spectacles which competes with the Palate of the Congresses, with a few meters from there.
PolicyThe executive power of the town of Bienne is represented by the Municipal council, it is composed of eight members including four on a purely permanent basis and four on a purely additional basis. The city council men on a purely permanent basis are in load of a department for each one of them while the four members on a purely additional basis do not have a dicastère.
The departments of the executive, directed by the permanent city council men are the following:
- Direction of the formation, the social welfare and the culture, directed by Pierre-Yves Moeschler French Socialist party (PSR)
- public Management works, directed by Hubert Klopfenstein Party radical-democratic (FDP)
- Direction of safety, directed by Jürg Scherrer Party Swiss of freedom (PSL)
The city council men on a purely additional basis are the following:
ARIANE Bernasconi, Left radical-democratic (PRD)
- François Contini, the Greens (green and social Alliance)
- Alain Sermet, French Socialist party (PSR)
- Rene Schlauri, Left freedom (PSL)
The legislative power of the town of Bienne is represented by the Council of City which is composed of sixty members who meet in theory monthly.
The the Council of the French-speaking businesses of the bilingual district of Bienne, commonly called the CIF, is a nonparliamentary political institution which has as a role to exert the particular responsibilities allocate by the Canton of Bern to the French-speaking minority of the bilingual district of Bienne (Town of Bienne and commune of Evilard).
Created by the Canton of Bern in 2006 in order to promote bilingualism and to reinforce the role of the French-speaking people in the bilingual district of Bienne, it is the first institution of this type in Switzerland. The CIF also collaborates with the Conseil of the Bernese Jura, a parliamentary body also pioneer in the country.
It is in load of school coordination with the others French cantons as well as granting of subsidies to the French-speaking cultural activities being held in the bilingual district of Bienne. It is composed of 15 members elected for 4 years, that is to say 13 seats for the commune of Bienne and 2 seats for the commune of Evilard. The introduction of the CIF was approved by popular voting on April 9th, 2006. Concerned of the harmonious cohabitation between comunautées French-speaking and German-speaking ones, the CIF guaranteed that at least 10 of its members are French-speaking. The CIF rises from the Law on the particular status of the Bernese Jura and the French-speaking minority of the district bilingual of Bienne of September 14th, 2004 and approved by the Great Bernese Council.
- the clock industry
- Seat of the ridge federation of the Swiss clock industry: Federation of clock making industry Swiss FH
- Head office of the greatest clock making group of the world Swatch Group (Marks, by order of decreasing prestige: Breguet, Blancpain, Original Glashütte, Jaquet Droz, Leon Hatot, Omega, Longines, Rado, Union Glashütte, Tissot, Calvin Klein watch and jewelry, Balmain, Hamilton, Certina, Mido, Swatch, flik flak, Endured)
- Fabrique of the watches Rolex
- mechanics and micromechanics
- Micro Precision Systems AG (in the past miniature Roulements)
- Fabrique of components for bicycles DT Swiss
- the communications
- the federal Office of communication (OFCOM)
- Cal center several communications companies (Orange, Sunrise,…)
- Swiss TXT (Teletext), of which draftings German-speaking, French-speaking and italophone was delocalized respectively with Zurich, Geneva and in Tessin
- ViaSuisse, road informations
- the federal Office of water and geology (OFEG)
- the federal Office of the sport Macolin (OFSPO)
- Mail service
- the postal company UPS (United Parcel Service), general headquarter for Europe, the Middle East and Africa
- Grands Stores Bouldoires (1918-1978): Jean Bouldoires, wire of a farmer auvergnat, initially hawker, was established in Bienne where it opened in 1909 a shop in the old city with the sign of the Modern Galleries. In 1918, it settled with the street of Nidau, where its trade was going to develop to become the Bouldoires Department stores, occupying a whole block of houses. In 1942, it was the first commercial one of Switzerland to equip its store with a lighting to neon. In 1978, the building of the street of Nidau was sold by the Bouldoires family to the Bernese tradesman Loeb.
- It obtains the Prix Wakker in 2004, to reward an active and original policy as regards town planning.
- It obtains the Prix Bicycle in 2005, to reward its policy which improves at the same time comfort and the safety of the cyclists
- It obtains the Prix of the culture of the Canton of Bern in 2006, allotted with the Forum for the architecture of Bienne
- High specialized schools:
- High technical training school and data processing
- High school of wood
- Training center of the federal Office of the Sport of Macolin
- High school of arts of the Canton of Bern (HEAB), rhythm section
- High school of arts of the Canton of Bern (HEAB), section Operated (Swiss Studio of opera)
- High school of arts of the Canton of Bern (HEAB), Swiss literary Institut, delivers a Bachelor in literary writing
- Swiss Center of teaching of marketing, publicity and communication (SAWI)
- Swiss Center of formation for the protection of nature and of environment (SANU)
- Four gymnasia (higher secondary school, college): Gymnasium of the street of the Alps, French Gymnasium, Deutsches Gymnasium, Gymnasium Linde/Gymnasium of the Limes
- the School of Visual Arts (graphics)
- the Music school of Bienne (Conservatory of Bienne)
- Professional training center (CFP, in German: BBZ)]
- Bienne is a bilingual city
- the languages are the French and the German
- the name of the city east Biel/Bienne
- the parents can choose in which language teaching will be given to their children.
- the official informations are communicated in the 2 languages
- the street names are in the 2 languages (except for some exceptions)
- the Forum foundation of bilingualism created in Bienne in 1996, aims at the promotion of bilingualism
- the Newspaper of the Jura, daily newspaper of French language
- Bieler Tagblatt, daily newspaper of German language
- Radio operator Channel 3, bilingual local radio
- TeleBielingue, bilingual regional television
- Biel Bienne, the largest bilingual free weekly magazine of Switzerland, founded in 1978 by Bureau Cortesi
- Intervals, re-examined cultural of the the Bernese Jura and Bienne
Small history of Bienne
- It is thanks to the Archéologie that we know the existence of an agglomeration on the territory of Bienne at the time Roman.
- In 1846, one finds in the commonly called source “Source of the Romans”, of the coins which had course between I er and the
- In 1234, the mention of burgum of Biello appears in an instrument.
- It is since the 13th century and especially since 1275, when it had accepted Rodolphe 1st of Habsbourg its charter of franknesses, that Bienne was regarded as a city with whole share. Bound to other cities (Soleure, Bern, Freiburg and Morat) by various treaties of alliances, it developed the structures of its own municipal administration and its independence, as well with regard to its suzerain, the prince-bishop of Basle, as Bernese protection.
- In 1296, Bienne obtains its first charter of pacification of the hands of the prince-bishop Peter Reich von Reichstein.
- In 1367, following a conflict enters the inhabitants and the episcopal garrison of Jean III of Vienna, a fire devastates the city.
- At the 15th century, the city acquired the right to raise troops in Ergüel. It took part in various wars of the Confédérés, which was worth to him to be regarded as their allied as of 1478 and to take part like such in the federal Diets.
- In 1528, the city adopts the Réforme.
- In 1541 prevails the first epidemic of plague.
- With, one notes in Bienne, as in other cities, a aristocratisation of the controlling families of the city.
- In 1747, foundation of a factory of Indian in Pasquart.
- In August 1796, the chancellor of the city, Neuhaus, goes to Paris to obtain Directory the creation of a canton of Bienne, formed of the city and Erguël (small valley of Saint-Imier, more precisely part of current the the Bernese Jura).
- In 1798, Bienne became French. Since 1800, it was attached to the Département of Haut-Rhin.
- In 1815, the city was joined together with the Canton of Bern where it concerned the District of Nidau. As from 1832, it became chief town of its own district.
- In 1857, inauguration of the first railway station.
- In 1862, construction of the first gas works. Bienne is thus the first town of Switzerland having a lighting with gas.
- Between 1900 and 1920, the neighbouring communes of Vigneules, Chews, Madretsch and Boujean amalgamated with Bienne.
- Since the middle of the 19th century, thanks to the establishment of clock making industry, the city experienced a population increase and an urban development remarkable. Bienne became also an important point of the rail links of the Swiss Plateau.
- In 1964, one observes a record of population, the town of Bienne counts 64.848 inhabitants .
- In 2002, national exposure to Bienne, Morat, Yverdon-the-Baths and Neuchâtel.
- One already finds hard copies of the existence of bilingualism biennois at the end of the Moyen-âge. This characteristic of the city was certainly revived as of the end of the 19th century by the important arrival of Jurassic clock and watch makers in the metropolis seelandaise.
- Municipal Theater of the Town of Bienne , the high-place of the theater and the lyric opera with Bienne.
- French Spectacles , commonly called " The Palace" Theater; , the large theater of the town of Bienne of French language.
- Theater of the Black Square
- Theater for small the , a room of theater with programming conceived for the children
- Cultural center Rennweg 26 , institution cultural which proposes spectacles of theater, dances and music
- the Theatrical one of Bienne , theater company French-speaking
- Filmpodium Biel/Bienne , film projection not very visible in the trade-circuits.
- Company of the Art schools
- Visarte - Company of the visual artists
- Company of orchestra of Bienne , symphony orchestra directed by Thomas Rösner
- Library of the city
- the Cupola , concert hall self-managed by the Autonomous Center of Youth of Bienne.
- Pasquart Center - Center of contemporary art
- Photoforum Pasquart - Gallery devoted to photography
- Neuhaus Museum - Art and history
- a museum of art and history to the multiple facets:
- history of the industry and the clock industry of Bienne
- middle-class life at the XIXe century
- Cinécollection W. Piasio; Karl and Robert Walser, painter and poet;
- Robert Collection: watercolours of flora and fauna; etc
- Schwab Museum - Prehistory and archeology
- Museum Omega - Watches Omega and timing Omega
- Musée of optics
- Some 300 objects evoke four centuries of history of optics (binocles, glasses, telescopes, binoculars, barometers, etc)
- Center Müller - Museum of the machine
- Some 200 machines going back to 1880 to 1912 are presented in workshops reconstituted with mannequins out of clothes of time. The showrooms are decorated audio-visual programs. The museum is installed in an old entirely renovated foundry which also comprises a training center and a versatile room.