The Bible is the name running of the regrouping of the crowned texts, in the Judaïsme and the Christianisme, although each one of these Religion S, even each current in its center, has a different report/ratio with these texts.
The word “bible” comes from the old Greek grc βιϐλία ( biblía ), which means “books” in the plural neutral, via Latin ( bíblia ). The direction was: “Books (holy)” or “the library (crowned)” by indicating the whole of the religious corpus. It acts indeed, under the appearance of a single work, a collection of very varied writings (accounts of the origins, legislative texts, accounts historical, texts sapientaux, prophetic, poetic, hagiographies, letters) whose drafting spread out during more than one millenium.
The Christian Bible is divided into Old Testament, including/understanding the books inherited the Judaïsme, and New Testament, written testifying to Jesus-Christ. The word “Will” comes from Latin testamentum , translation of the Greek grc διαθήκη who means “written provision”, from where “will”, “convention”, and in this context “pact”, “alliance”.
In the Church, the Bible is called the Word of God .
A collection of ScripturesThe milked Bible, from the point of view of the faith, the history of the people of Israel and its relationship with God, YHWH/ Elohim , the Alliance, and in the way in which the people of Israel feels his presence in the History. With the wire of the texts, proclaimed God becomes single (Hénothéisme), then universal (Monothéisme), since the creation of the world until the Greek domination.
Le average of Alliance, for the Judaism, it is the Torah, taught from generation to generation, reported in the Old Testament. For the Christianity, it is on the one hand the double command given by Jesus in New Testament: “You will love the Lord your God” and “You will like your next like yourself”, which constitutes an indissociable whole, in addition faith in the Résurrection of Jesus-Christ and, more generally, adhesion with confessions of faith. One will make the distinction between Old Testament/Ancienne Alliance and New Testament/Nouvelle Alliance in order to apprehend well the contents of these two parts.
The book more diffused in the world
Structure of the texts
The biblical gun
The biblical corpus joins together several books of various origins, from where etymology of the word Bible. The current list of these books, called gun (Greek word κανων meaning rule ), varies only on some books of the late Judaism being initially present in the versions in Greek language of the Old will (the Hebraic part) like the Seventy (see the Liste of the books of the Bible). Their number varies from 22 to 73 pounds (the difference is also due to regroupings). For the list of the books retained in the Judaism, to see Tanakh (One will notice that the name of the books is different; most of the time, it takes again the first word of the book).
The history of the fixing of the gun is complex, the more so as that relates to the two religions, themselves various, and which separated at this time. Thus, for example, the Talmud guard traces discussions to know if it were necessary to admit in the Jewish gun the Cantique of the Canticles and the Livre of Esther , which were accepted, or the Wisdom of Ben Sira ( Siracide or Ecclésiastique ), which was not it. The canonical Hebraic version is known as " massorétique ", of the name of its last editors. The Biblia hebraica stuttgartensia is the principal critical edition published for the first time in 1936.
Chapters and versesEach biblical book is divided initially into chapters, which themselves are divided into verses. These divisions did not exist in the original texts. King James Version (in English) includes/understands 1.189 chapters and 61.171 verses. The Massorètes divided the Hebraic Writings into verses. In 1227, Stephen Langton, professor at the University of Paris, then archbishop of Canterbury, divides the Bible into chapters; previously, the size of the parchment ordered division. In 1250 the Cardinal Hugues de Saint-Expensive takes again this division. The verses were created by Robert Estienne in 1539 at the time of the impression of the Bible of Olivétan, 2nd edition. In 1555 the edition of the Latin Vulgate by Robert Estienne was published; it was the first complete Bible with the current classification of the chapters and the verses.
This system makes it possible to make correspond conveniently the versions Hebraic, Greek, Latin, and others (for little which they have the same text).
The Hebraic Bible knows another type of division, that of the parashiot (singular: parasha ) (marked by a phé in the text) which represents the distribution of the weekly readings of the Torah.
The Hebraic Bible
See also: Tanakh
The Hebraic Bible is written in Hebrew (as the name indicates it) with some passages in Araméen. The Jewish tradition divides it into three great parts, summarized by the term of TaNaKh , initial their Hebrew titles, the Torah, the Neviim, the Ketouvim:
- Law, whose Hebrew name is the Torah, constituted of five books allotted to Brace, and whose narration covers the period going of the creation of the world with died of Moïse, which brought the people of Israel out of Egypt to the doors of the Promised land, while passing by the mount the Sinai where it received the commands of God;
- the Prophets, in Hebrew Neviim, who tell the installation of Israel in Canaan until the Exil in Babylon, and report the preaching of the Prophète S sent by God speech on his behalf;
- the Other Writings, in Hebrew Ketouvim, which open by the Psaumes and of the writings of Sagesse, and supplement historiography with the return of the Exile.
The Jews consider traditionally that the Torah was promulgated at the time of Esdras. At the time Roman, the Prophètes are not received by the totality of the Judaïsme, and lists it Other Writings was still open. Before even the Greek translation existed in araméen, official language of the Persian empire in the west of Euphrate, of the translations with accompanying notes, called " Targoum ", which attests a public reading of the biblical books.
The origins of the TaNaKh do not make consensus; The tradition undoubtedly allots its current composition to the Fathers of Yabné at the beginning of the 2nd century of the Christian era. It is the Bible according to the Judaïsme. It is this text which will be retained in 1530 like Old Testament by the Protesting S, which will however publish it in the order of the books of the Greek Bible.
The Greek version of the Seventy
See also: Seventy
According to a legend reported by the Letter of the pseudo-Aristée ( Christian Sources n°89, Paris, the Stag, 1962) and amplified since, the translation in Greek of the Torah, said Seventy or alexandrine , is the erudite work of soixante-douze Juif S, six per tribe, which, at the request of the Greek authorities of Egypt (and isolated during soixante-douze days, according to certain versions), ended to a common text. there
Il acts, probably, of a Midrash founded on the chapter 24 of the Exode, which sees Moïse going up to the Sinai to receive the Law, accompanied by Aaron, its two sons and " seventy of Old of Israël". The translation is addressed to the Jews speaking Greek. The Greek version was to be received like having as much value than the original word (in spite of some critical). The Bible is then preserved at the library of Alexandria with the " Lois": it does not concern then the religion, but the usual code of the Juif people. Always it is that the name of Seventy remained with this translation of the IVe or of the IIIe front century J. - C. and with all the Greek Bible by extrapolation. The other books were translated, even written directly, in Greek, with the wire of the following centuries. This corpus will be adopted such as it is by the first Christian S, and constitutes the Old Testament.
During its Latin translation, the Vulgate , Jerome will choose the Hebraic version when it exists, and will put in appendix the books for which it does not exist or more. But the Churches catholic and, orthodoxe will keep the order of the books of the Seventy , namely:
- the Pentateuque (= five books of the Law, five " étuis"),
- historical books (gathering the first Prophets and some of the other writings ,
- poetic books and of wisdom,
- writings of the prophets.
The deuterocanonic Pounds (apocryphal books for the Protestants)
See also: deuterocanonic Pounds
They are books present in the Seventy, that Catholique S and orthodoxe S regards as belonging to the Old Testament, but which was rejected gun by Luther because they do not belong to the Hebraic Bible. Luther regarded them nevertheless as useful. The Protestants name them apocryphal books (of the Greek αποκρυφος, hidden); the Catholique S name them deuterocanonic , i.e. entered the gun secondarily (of the Greek δευτερος, second), which was definitively confirmed with the Concile of Thirty in 1546.
It should be noted that some of the books of the Seventy were not received even like deuterocanonic. They are recognized by no Church and are called apocryphal books or pseudépigraphes (= written under a false signature). They what is called form with others of the same time today the written intertestamentaires .
The New Testament
See also: New Testament
The New Testament, or New Alliance , is the whole of the twenty-seven canonical books for the Christianisme, which testify to the person of Jesus de Nazareth that the Christians declare being the Christ, the Messie, of his preaching, its Resurrection, and its advertisement by the Apôtre S of the primitive Église. It is written, like the Seventy , in Greek common, κοινή ( koinè ), at the 1st century with many syntactic forms " calques" of Hebrew training a judéo-Greek.
As for the Old Testament, the canonicity of several books of the New Testament was discussed a long time. It is about the Epistle to the Hebrews, of the Epistles of Jacques, the Second epistle of Pierre, the Second and Troisième of Jean, that of Jude and the Apocalypse (this one made the subject of debate until the Ve century). Several other books, the written apostolic Fathers and the apocryphal book S of the New Testament, for the majority of the 2nd century, were not included in the biblical gun.
Hebraic Bible and Old Testament
Biblical interpretation was a major activity as well of the rabbinical Littérature as of the Christian churches. However, an either founded research field biblical on the denominational membership but on textual criticism was born as from the sixteenth century, and is currently most widespread. After having been widespread during the 20th century, the documentary Assumption, left the idea that the various names given to God reflected different sources, is largely abandoned today. Current research leans today in favor of a “low” dating rather of the final development of the various corpora. Two consensuses are organized: One going a drafting extending from the 7th century or 6th century at the time Persian, the other (the school of Göttingen) deferring the final drafting to the hellenistic period.
See also: synoptic Problem
The dominant theory today on the composition of the Évangile S is that known as “of the two sources”: Matthieu and Luc would have been written starting from Marc and of a source of words of Jesus (known as “Q”, of German Which , source); Jean would come from an independent tradition, which would have also produced the epistle S and the Apocalypse placed under same patronage. The '' Actes '' are incontestably the continuation of Luc . The epistles recognized by all as being of Paul are those with the Romans , with the Corinthians , with Gallates , and the first in Thessaloniciens (perhaps oldest writing of New Testament). The period of drafting is thus very short: three generations to the maximum, at the latest at the beginning of the 2nd century. Certain researchers (the theologist John A.T. Robinson, Jean Carmignac and Claude Tresmontant in the field of the linguistic origin, the papyrologist Carsten Peter Thiede or Jacqueline Genot-Bismuth with regard to archeology) tend to bring back the date of drafting of all the books of New Testament to a date former to 70 a. JC.
Readings of the Bible
The readings of the Bible can be different between the Judaïsme and the Christianisme, and between the various branches of the Christianisme. This is why, in addition to the biblical Interpretation, the biblical studies comprise a branch, the Herméneutique, which sticks to the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures to find the Sens crowned Textes.
For the Judaism, the question of the composition of the Torah does not arise. Maïmonide, however suspect of rationalism, poses in article of faith which the Torah was given to Moïse, as it is described in the Exodus. And as the literal reading is only the first level of the comprehension of the text, free with each one to imagine, under the control of the Wise ones, how the things are " réellement" passed. The reading of the Torah is in the center of the worship synagogal: with the office of the morning of the Chabbat and Festivals, one reads a section of one of the five books of Moïse, named parasha , the same one in all the Synagog S of the world, fundamental demonstration of the unit of the Jewish people. The faithful ones dispute the honor of the lira themselves, or, if they cannot read Hebrew, to follow the reading of the officiant. In which case, they recite the blessing which precedes and follows the reading. The Bar-mitsva, ceremony of reception in the community of the 13 year old boy, consists in checking its capacity of reading of the biblical section of the day. The reading of a passage of the Torah is supplemented by that of another passage of a book of the Prophets (Haftarah). In the same way, the comments of the Bible are in the center of the ic literature Talmud.
The Christian doctrines, for the catholics and the orthodoxe ones, come from only one source: The Gospel proclaimed by the Christ known by the apostolic Tradition. This one reaches them by two channels which are attached to the apostolic testimony: the Writings and the not-written Tradition S transmitted with hand in hand, practical traditions preserved in the continuity of the life of the Church. The role of the Magistère is to preserve this tradition. The Concile of Thirty insists on this single source of the faith. The Protestants stick to the Sola will scriptura, the Writing alone. The holy of the last days refer to the Holy Scriptures and the modern Révélation.
The Bible was always read and studied by the monks and the intellectuals in the catholic world , but, until the Concile Vatican II, the great mass of faithful especially knew it through the Sunday Lectionnaire. In the Catholic church, the importance was often attached to the Eucharistie beyond the various biblical readings.
The knowledge of the Bible increased at the faithful ones by the diffusion of the translation, carried out by the biblical and archaeological École French of Jerusalem, called Bible of Jerusalem (first edition in 1961). Moreover certain dioceses propose a formation with the Langue S of the Bible (Greek of the Koinè, biblical Hebrew, occasionally araméen). The readings are generally made in vernacular Language (French in France, etc).
In certain particular ceremonies, the such Liturgy of the Mass tridentine, the reading of the Gospel can be in Latin; in this liturgy, a last Gospel at the end of the office is also read which is a passage of Jean.
The pope Pie XII affirmed that interpretation, the history often made it possible to exceed interpretations of the fathers of the Church and allowed a better reading of the bible.
The pope Benoît XVI reaffirmed on May 2nd 2007 the attachment of the Church to the reading of the Holy Scriptures, such as it is practiced in the Christian tradition since Origène (3rd century), namely the Lectio divina
The reading and the comment of the Bible, which are the heart of the worship Protesting, form also part of family and personal piety in historical Protestantism.
The biblical text itself (Old and New Wills), insofar as he is preached/brought up to date, is carrying the Word of God addressed by the Saint Spirit to each listener/reader. It is this meeting caused by the Bible which gives birth to and which maintains the Church as well as the personal Foi.
The Bible is thus also the last authority for the Foi as for the life, given that nobody holds of magistère to impose an interpretation rather than another. Some will include/understand literally the texts when others have an interpretation plus spiritual symbolic system or , some will consider each extract as carrying all the biblical truth when others read each passage for itself, etc
Un so direct and fundamental report/ratio with the biblical text supposes and involves biblical studies pushed for the futures Pasteur S, of the biblical studies in parish, a Catéchèse children it also centered on the Bible, the recourse to the Langue S of origin, the use of a multiplicity of translations, daily lists of readings with accompanying notes, etc
Protestantism evangelicThe Bible is the Word of God . The faithful ones of these evangelic churches read it in theory as often as possible “to listen to what God wants to say to them”. An extract of a biblical course describes this tendency to a normative reading of the Bible: “Beyond the creation which testifies in an extraordinary way of its power and its wisdom, the Bible is the revelation of God to the man. It is a " lettre" of the Creator to his creature, a letter where all the fundamental questions as for the origin, the destiny and the direction of the life find answers convincing. The problem of the relation of the man with God there is dealt with and solved, in a final way, with the full satisfaction of God and of the men who accept his message. ” (Site Information-Bible , P. Oddon).
MormonismeThe Church of Jesus-Christ of the Saints of the Last Days account the Bible in its gun of the Writings (see: The Holy Bible in the mormonism). The saints of the last days read, study, quote and révèrent the Bible while believing that the Lord continues to give, in the last days, via its prophets, of new revelations which are: the Book of Mormon, the Doctrines and Alliances, the Pearl of Grand Prix. The saints of the last days also believe in other Writings like in the modern Révélation, which distinguishes them from the Christians who consider that the gun finishes with the Bible.
Pilot of JéhovahThe Témoins of Jéhovah regard the Bible as the Word of God. They are in total harmony with the historical Protestant Churches on the shape and the size of the biblical gun. Like they, they reject the writings deuterocanonic which one finds in the catholic Bibles , that they judge apocryphal book S. the religious movement publishes its own version of the Bible, the Traduction of the New World of the Holy Scriptures in which they returned the tétragramme of the divine name in his form in Latin alphabet, Jéhovah, which is used since the Moyen-Âge by the Christians. On this level, they were dissociated in a clear way of the majority of the other editions which make the four letters Hebraic by titles such as Seigneur, Éternel, etc They affirm that it is not possible to include/understand the Bible individually and that it is necessary for that to receive the assistance of the the Holy Spirit of God who is granted to the “slave faithful and warned” mentioned in Matthieu 24:45 - 47 (i.e. concretely the Société Watchtower and in particular the Central Collège) and which is supposed to provide a refined teaching in its time. Moreover, the faithful ones must use the publications published by the Société Watchtower, those being judged essential to include/understand the Bible. Each Witness is encouraged to take time daily to read the Bible.
At the time of the interdenominational bringings together, one saw creating oecumenical groups of biblical study gathering catholic and Protestant Christians. Biblical exposures and conferences join together more and more all the Christian denominations of the cities concerned, like rather often the Jewish and the laic cultural organizations.
Writings mentioned in the Bible which do not exist today any more
the Book of alliance (Ex 24:7)
- the Wars of the Eternal (No 21:14)
- the Book of the Juste (Jos 10:13; 2 S 1:18)
- the Book of the acts of Solomon (1 R 11:41)
- the Book of Samuel the indicator (1 Ch 29:29)
- the Book of Nathan the prophet (1 Ch 29:29; 2 Ch 9:29)
- the Book of Gad the prophet (1 Ch 29:29)
- the Prophecy of Achija de Silo (2 Ch 9:29)
- the Revelations of Jéedo the prophet (2 Ch 9:29)
- the Book of Schemaeja the prophet (2 Ch 12:15)
- the Book of Iddo the prophet (2 Ch 12:15; 13:22)
- the Memories of Jéhu (2 Ch: 20:34)
- the Book of Hozaï (2 Ch 33:19)
- the prophecies of Hénoch /H énoc (Jud v. 14)
- an epistle with the Corinthiens (1 Co 5:9)
- an epistle with the Éphésiens (Ép 3:3,4)
- an epistle with the Laodicéens (Collar 4:16)
Archaeological and historical researchAccording to recent theories, as well linguistic as archaeological, the total structure of the texts of the Hebraic Bible would have been compiled at the time of the king Josias with the VIIe front century J. - C. although the raw material is resulting from older writings; final working would extend from the 1st century before the era common to the IVe century.
Concerning the Exodus and the stay with the Desert during forty years, excavations of the places which could correspond to those which are quoted did not succeed yet.
On the other hand, after the separation of the Kingdom of Israel in two, in second half of IXe S, the archaeological results correspond well to the biblical Chronologie.
Theory nomadistThe ancestors of the Hebrew and the Juifs would be either of the sedentarized nomads, or of the populations of the plains cananéennes, " retirées" on the highlands, to escape control from the cities. These positions are defended by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silbermann, in the revealed Bible , the American archeologist William Dever, in At the origins of Israel , and Jean-Marie Husser, professor with the Université Marc Bloch of Strasbourg.
French editions of the Bible
See also: Translations of the French Bible
If there were seven translations in French at the 16th century, there was only one at the 17th century of them, under the direction of Lemaître de Sacy, Jansenist, between 1657 and 1696, according to principles of logic resulting from Port-Royal (see Logique Port-Royal and Histoire of French), but it does not seem to have had there translation in English between 1611 and 1800). There of be two at the 18th century, nineteen at the 19th century, and twenty-two at the 20th century.
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