See also: Belgrade (homonymy)
Belgrade (in Serb Sr Београд or Beograd ) is the Capitale and more the big city of Serbia. According to the census of 2002, the city itself counted: 1281801 inhabitants and, with the surroundings: 1576124 inhabitants. In 2007, the population of the city was estimated at: 1111825 inhabitants
Belgrade is one of the oldest cities of Europe, with a history which extends on more: 7000 years. The first traces of human installations in the area go back to the Préhistoire (culture of Vinča). Historically, Belgrade is the antique quoted of Singidunum, Roman colony located in the province of Mésie. The Slavic name Beograd was officially pronounced for the first time the April 16th 878 in a epistle sent by the pope Jean VIII to the prince Boris of Bulgaria. It has as a significance “the white city”.
General dataBelgrade is located at 44°49' 14" of northern Latitude and with 20°27' 44" of Longitude is, to 116,75 m above the Sea level. Built in the north of the central Serbia, with the confluence of two rivers, the Save and the the Danube, the capital of Serbia is in extreme cases between two geographical spaces: the Flat pannonienne, which belongs to the Europe of the East, and the Péninsule of Balkans.
The historical center of the capital, today the citadel and the district of Kalemegdan, are on Right Bank of the two rivers. Since the 19th century), the city extended in direction from the south and the east. After the Second world war, the district of Novi Beograd, “the Belgrade news”, were built on left bank of Save, thus joining together Belgade at the old town of Zemun. Residential localities, on the other side of the Danube, like Krnjača and Ovča, were also integrated in the town of Belgrade.
The city itself, within its current limits, covers a surface of 359,96 km ², and, if one adds the whole of his metropolitan zone to it, i.e. the district of Belgrade: 3222,68 km ².
ClimateBelgrade has a continental Climat moderate. The annual average temperature rises with 11,7 °C. The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 22,1°C. However, the city knows an higher temperature with 30°C during thirty days per annum and 95 days with an higher temperature with 25°C.
Belgrade receives approximately 700 mm of Précipitations per annum and knows on average: 2096 hours of Sunning. The sunniest months are July and August, with a 10 hours average of sun per day. On the contrary, December and January are the months which receive less sun, with an average from 2 to 2,3 hours of sunning per day
The Danube and SaveBelgrade is located at the confluence of the Save and the the Danube.
This position often impressed the travellers. Thus in September 1833 the poet Alphonse of Lamartine, return of a visit to the prince Miloš Obrenović and evoking the Danube, written in its notebook of voyage: “The river, broad and deep, has waves like the sea. ”. One also finds, in 1888, under the feather of the count d' Haussonville, this description of the river observed since the citadel of Kalemegdan: “After having walked its ribbon of light around Semlin (Zemun), it follows in the plain a perfect curve and picking with the passage greener water of Save; then, grown bigger of its tributary, carrying with him the fortune of twenty sovereign people, it takes again his race towards the East”.
Belgrade enters the East and the OccidentAs much of other cities, Belgrade is regarded as a crossroads between the Orient and the Occident: “The city (Belgrade), similar to all the Turkish cities, goes down in narrow and tortuous streets towards the river. Semlin ( Zemun ), first city of Hungary, shines on other side of the Danube with all the magnificence of a town of Europe; the bell-towers rise opposite the minarets”.
The celto-thrace period
Towards 600 before J.C., of the tribes cimmériennes, then Scythes crossed the area of current Belgrade but did not settle there. At the 3rd century before J.C., the Scordisques, people celto - thrace, was established with the confluence of Save and of the Danube and built there a strengthened city called Singidūn ; this city, founded in 298 front J.C., is mentioned for the first time in 279 front J.C. The first part of the name Singi- would mean “round”, while dun indicates “the fortress” or “the city”. According to another interpretation, Singi would return to the Sings , thrace people installed at this place before the arrival of Scordisques.
The Roman period
The Romains seized Singidūn at the beginning of the 1st century of our era and they Latinized the name of the city in Singidunum . The city was integrated into the higher province of Mésie (capital Viminacium, today Kostolac) and became a garrison town located on the Limes . In the vicinity the town of Taurunum was, today Zemun.
In 86, Domitien, with the aim of reinforce the borders of the Empire against the Daces, made of Singidunum the place of quartering of the Legio IV Flauia Felix. It was for the city the one boom beginning. A Castrum was built with the site of the current fortress of Kalemegdan. Singidunum and Taurunum were connected by a bridge.
At the beginning of the 2nd century, in 105 - 106, the campaigns of the emperor Trajan drew aside the threat dace and the Roman province of Dacie was created. The town of Singidunum knew a period of peace then. In the middle of the 2nd century, the emperor Hadrian conferred to him the statute of Municipe ( municipium ), which granted a greater freedom of administration to him.
But, following the attacks of the Carps and the Goths, the province of Dacie was lost by the Romans under the emperor Gallien in 268. The emperor Aurélien then transferred the legions on southern bank from the the Danube and reorganized the area by creating the province of Dacia Ripensis (the “Dacie of bank”).
The 4th century was still a boom for the city: it obtained the statute of colony of Roman law, which still reinforced its autonomy. The future emperor Jovien was born to with it towards 332. And, in 395, at the time of the division of the Roman Empire by Théodose, Singidunum was attached to the Roman Empire of the East, which was going to become the Byzantine Empire.
Under the Roman Empire, Singidunum was integrated into an important defensive network. The city and its castrum were located on a via militaris which, of is in west went from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) to Viminacium (Kostolac), Trimontium (Plovdiv) until Byzance. This military way was defended by forts, of which there remain vestiges in the area of current Belgrade, like those of Mutatio AD Sextum (Mali Mokri Lug), Castra Tricornia (Ritopek) and Mutatio AD Sextum Militare (Grocka). A road also connected mining of the mounts Avala, Kosmaj and Rudnik.
Military city, Singidunum/Belgrade experienced an important development. The veteran S of the legions, in particular, settled in the low city, creating a true Roman city. Many traces of this imperial period were found a little everywhere in the surroundings (tombs, monuments, sculptures, ceramics, coins). The current city still partly preserves the print of ancient town planning, as one can observe it in the orientation of the streets Uzun Mirkova, Dušanova and Kralja Petra. The Studentski Trg (Place of the Students) guard of old the forum which it replaces its rectangular form; vestiges of thermal baths were put there at the day in the years 1970. Then it was the turn of Sarmates to occupy the city (450). Singidunum reinstated the Empire in 454 but, a little later was conquered by the Ostrogoths (470) before being taken by Gépides (488) then by Goths (504). In 510, a treaty was signed which restored the city with the Byzantine Empire.
In 512, the emperor Anastase Ier establishes in the area the Germanic tribe of the Hérules to protect the area from Belgrade against the Gépides. In 535, under Justinien, Singidunum was surrounded by a powerful wall which ensured a few decades of relative peace to him. In 630, under the reign of the emperor Héraclius, the Serb , supported by Avars, seized in their turn Singidunum/Belgrade. The catch of the city is mentioned in the Byzantine chronicles but one loses then any hard copy of Singidunum during two centuries and half. The archaeological excavations, on their side, show a progressive slavisation of the area. In 1182, the Hungarians, again, ransacked the city but, as of 1185, the Byzantines recovered it by the negotiation. In 1189, the Germanic Roman Emperor Frederic Barberousse, one of the chiefs of the Third crusade, also passed him to Belgrade to the head of: 190000 pilgrims; the city had become a field of ruins.
In its death in 1316, his/her brother Stefan Milutin reigned in its turn on Belgrade. But as of 1319, the Hungarians seized again the city and destroyed completely it. Belgrade became a fortress which was used as head of bridge for the hostile Hungarians with the expansion of the Serb State southernmost”.
With died of Stefan Lazarević in 1327, the new despot Đurađ Branković, in accordance with the agreements made in 1403, had to restore the city in Hungary. Smederevo, not far from Belgrade, became the new capital of the despotat; Đurađ Branković made there build a new fortress. Nevertheless, under its reign, the despotat fell almost entirely between the hands from the Othomans.
In 1440, the sultan Mourad II, conscious of the strategic importance of Belgrade for the conquest of the Central Europe, with the head of more than: 100000 Turks put first once the seat in front of the city but the city resisted. In 1443, an army was raised and placed under the command of Vladislas I Jagellon, king of Poland and Hungary, who chooses to assist it Jean Hunyadi and Đurađ Branković; the army gathered in Belgrade. Its successes against the Othoman forces forced Mourad II to temporize. But its successor, Mehmed II, took again the offensive. In 1453, it seized Constantinople. Belgrade was once again besieged in 1456 but the city could still resist, in particular thanks to Jean Hunyadi. On the other hand, Smederevo fell to the hands from the Turks in 1459 and shortly after the despotat of Serbia was found under their domination.
The Turkish period
In 1521, Soliman the Magnificent the again put the seat in front of Belgrade. The August 28th, it succeeds in seizing the city, which was shaven. In accordance with its waitings, this conquest opened the doors of the Central Europe to him: it succeeds in putting the seat in front of the town of Vienna in 1529. During 150 years, the city was the place chief of a sandjak, a district of the Ottoman Empire. It attracted new merchants and new inhabitants Armenian Turkish, , Greek, as well as merchants come from Raguse. One estimates at: 100000 inhabitants population of Belgrade at the beginning of the 17th century, which made of it the second city of the Ottoman Empire after Istanbul.
The city was touched by a major Serb revolt which took place in 1594, the revolt of Banat, and which was crushed by the Turks. To impress the population, the pasha of Belgrade ordered that one made come the relics from Saint Sava which rested with the Monastère of Mileševa; the April 24th 1594, they were burned in public on the plate of Vračar (today a district of Belgrade). With the site this to rough-hew rises current the Temple of Saint Sava.
After the failure of the Othoman in front of Vienna in 1688, the duke Maximilien-Emmanuel of Bavaria seized Belgrade. The Turks took again the city in 1690. In 1717, Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered the city again. Between 1723 and 1736, Nikola Doksat built there the fortress of Kalemegdan. But by the Treated of Belgrade, signed the September 18th 1739, the Habsbourgs returned the city to the Turks. By twice, the Othomans punished the population of the city while devoting themselves to destruction. In both cases, the reconquest by the Turks was accompanied by important a Serb emigration: many populations, fleeing the area of Belgrade, settled in Austria, Voïvodine and Slavonie.
In 1789, at the time of the austro-Turkish War of 1788-1791, the marshal Ernst Gideon von Laudon seized the city again. But by the Treated of Svishtov (1791), Belgrade was once again restored with the Othoman . In exchange, the Janissaires had to leave the pachalik of Belgrade.
The 19th century
The first and the second revolt of Serb against the TurksIn 1799, to calm the agitation which shook its empire, the sultan Selim III authorized the return of the Janissaires in the pachalik of Belgrade. In 1801, increasingly independent, these janissaries killed the pasha Hadji Mustafa and multiplied the exactions. To repress the incipient revolts, the February 4th 1804, they made stop and kill 70 notable Serb. This event, known under the name of " Massacre notables" or " Massacre of Princes" ( seča knezova ), in fact at the origin of the First Serb revolt against the Turks (1804-1813) was.
The repression which followed gave place in 1815 to a second revolt led by the prince Miloš Obrenović. At the conclusion of the negotiations, the Turks preserved the fortress of Kalemegdan, but Serbia became de facto an autonomous principality inside the Ottoman Empire. The sultan Mahmoud II recognized officially the autonomy of the Serbia in 1830.
The principality and the kingdom of Serbia
The autonomy of Serbia opened for Belgrade one period of changes. Important buildings were built there like the Résidence kneginja Ljubica (1829 - 1831), the Résidence Milošev (1831 - 1834), in the district of Topčider, or the cathedral Saint-Michel (1837 - 1840). In addition to its economic functions, Belgrade became an important arts center. In 1831, the first printing works was installed there and, in 1835, the newspaper " Novine Srpske" started to appear to with it. The Faculty of Theology and the first College were created there and the city attracted intellectuals of foreground like Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, the large reformer of the Serb Langue, Jovan Sterija Popović, a famous playwright, Joakim Vujić, him also playwright and writer, or Dimitrije Davidović, which was journalist, minister of Miloš Ier Obrenović and, in these functions, the instigator of the National library of Serbia. But in 1905 it counted some already more: 80000 and, the day before the First World War, it exceeded already them: 100000 inhabitants, without counting Zemun which still belonged to the Austria-Hungary.
The 20th century
The First World War and Inter-war period
There was an important antagonism between the Royaume of Serbia, which wished to carry out the unit all the Slavic people of the Balkans inside a Grande Serbia, and the Empire of Austria-Hungary, present in the area, and wishing, in particular, to continue its projection in the valley of the the Danube until the Black Sea. The June 28th 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a Serb anarchist born in Bosnia assassinates with Sarajevo the archduke François-Ferdinand, heir to the imperial throne of Austria-Hungary. Serbia refusing to open its territory with Austrian investigators, this event started the First World War.
The July 29th 1914, of the monitors of the Austro-Hungarian navy bombarded Belgrade and, the November 30th, the city was taken first once by the general Potiorek before being released by the marshal Putnik the December 15th. The October 9th 1915, Belgrade was taken once again by the German and Austrian troops ordered by August von Mackensen; the battle had made rage several days and the city had undergone many destruction.
Belgrade was finally released on November 1st 1918 thanks to a free-Serb army ordered jointly by the marshal Louis Franchet d' Espérey and the crown prince Alexandre to Serbia. At the end of the war, Serbia had lost 28% of its population, while Belgrade was the city of the country which had undergone the most destruction. The city was modernized and known a considerable population growth. It incorporated the town of Zemun which had remained Austrian to the war, the president of the Council Dragiša Cvetković and its Foreign Minister signed with Vienna the accession of Yugoslavia to the tripartite Pacte, thus arranging the country at the side of the powers of the Axe; by this agreement, the prince Paul, regent of the kingdom, hoped to keep the kingdom away of the Second world war. In Belgrade, this decision immediately caused the many ones and big demonstrations of street; and, the March 27th, with the support of the Great Britain, a Coup d'etat, led by the general Dušan Simović and organized by the general Borivoje Mirković, forced prince Paul to leave the capacity and installed on the throne the king Pierre II before his majority.
Consequently, the April 6th 1941, Belgrade, however declared open City, was bombarded by the Luftwaffe, bombardment which made at least: 2274 dead; the National library of Serbia was burnt, which caused the destruction of tens of rare thousands of books among which appeared of invaluable manuscripts of the Middle Ages. Yugoslavia was invaded and, the April 17th 1941, the capitulation of the kingdom was signed in Belgrade. The Serbia and the Banat were placed under the authority of the Nazis, independent Croatia was created, while the remainder of the kingdom was divided between the various powers of the Axe; the royal government left in exile to London and a government directed by the general Milan Nedić was installed in Belgrade by the Nazis.
Very quickly resistance was organized around two men: Draža Mihailović, a faithful partisan of monarchy, coordinated the action of the Tchetniks (as from May 1941); Josip Broz Tito was with the head of the in favor Communists (as from July 1941). In reprisals with the guerilla who settled, the autumn and during the winter 1941, the general Franz Böhme, the military governor of Serbia, made stop and kill out of many Belgradois and, in particular, the members of the Jewish community; its " règle" was to carry out 100 Serbes or Juifs for all German killed.
The April 6th 1944, the Alliés bombarded Belgrade, making approximately: 1160 died, it was released by the Partisans Communists and the Red Army . During the war, Belgrade had lost approximately: 50000 inhabitants and suffered from important material damage. Were also held to with it of the assemblies of the the World Bank or the Fonds international currency, as well as many cultural and sporting events.
The problem of nationalities also brooded. In 1974, a new Constitution was proclaimed in Belgrade. The historian Dušan Bataković analysis in these terms: “Each republic, like each autonomous province, seemed not only like the single representative of determined people, but also a constituting element of the federation. Thus was founded a double sovereignty. (…) The disintegration of Yugoslavia, was so facilitated. ”
The period post-Communist
Belgrade lived the by-effects of the crisis which Yugoslavia underwent.
The March 9th 1991, the capital was the theater of big demonstrations of street led by Vuk Drašković against the capacity of Slobodan Milošević. According to the media, between: 100000 and: 150000 people ravelled in the streets. The tanks were deployed to bring back the calm one. It two had died there and 203 wounded. 108 people were stopped.
In 1992, the city became the capital of the Federal republic of Yugoslavia, formed of the République of Serbia and the République of Montenegro and re-elected in 2003 Communauté of States Serbia-and-Montenegro. It had like first chair the writer Dobrica Ćosić, member of the Académie of the Rue Knez Mihailova.
After the return to the capacity of Slobodan Milošević, new demonstrations took place in Belgrade of November 1996 at February 1997; the government was shown of electoral fraud. These demonstration led to the election of Zoran Đinđić, member of the Democratic party; he was the first communist mayor not of Belgrade since the end of the Second world war
In 1999, during the Guerre of Kosovo, Belgrade was bombarded by NATO, which caused many damage in the city. Among the bombarded sites were several ministries, the building of the Radio Television of Serbia (RTS), several hospitals, the hotel Jugoslavija, the Tour Ušće, the transmitter of television of the mount Avala, as well as the embassy of China. The bridges of the capital were preserved at the request of the France.
After the elections of 2000, Belgrade was the theater of new demonstrations which brought hundreds of thousands of people in the streets (: 800000 according to the police force, more: 1000000 according to the British journalist Misha Glenny). These demonstrations forced Milošević to resign on October 5th, 2000. This resignation what is called put a term at familiarly the Révolution of the bulldozers .
Since 2006, following the independence of the Republic of Montenegro, Belgrade became the capital of only the Serbia.
The district of Belgrade (Town of Belgrade)
See also: Districts of Serbia, District of Belgrade
Belgrade has a particular status which makes capital a territorial unit with whole share. In fact, Belgrade is also the administrative center of a district called Ville of Belgrade, in Serbe Cyrillique ГрадБеоград. This district is divided into 17 municipalities. Ten of them have the statute of “urban” municipality: they are integral part of the city-capital. The seven others have the statute of municipality “périurbaine”: they are located near the capital.
Municipalities of the Town of Belgrade
- Novi Beograd
- Savski Venac
- Stari Grad
The majority of these municipalities are located at the south of the the Danube and the Save in the area of the Šumadija. Three municipalities, Zemun, Novi Beograd and Surčin, are located at the north of the Save in the area of Syrmie, the municipality of Palilula, it, is located on two banks of the the Danube, in the area of Šumadija and in the Banat.
See also: administrative Subdivisions of Serbia
As a territorial unit with whole share, the town of Belgrade is equipped with an autonomous municipal government.
It has a mayor elected for four years, which exerts representative and executive functions. It is assisted by a " mayor adjoint". Nenad Bogdanović was mayor of Belgrade starting from 2004 and until the September 27th 2007, date of its death; he was member of the Democratic party. The first member of to be indicated democratic party as mayor of Belgrade during the recent time is Zoran Đinđić, elected in 1996.
The Town of Belgrade has also a Parliament, made up of 90 members. The local majority is formed by the Democratic party (33 deputies), by the Democratic party of Serbia (13 deputies) and by the Groupe 17 Plus (5 deputies). In the opposition, the Serb Radical party, the Socialist party of Serbia and the Mouvement “Forces of Serbia” (PS) respectively collected 28,6 and 5 seats.
This assembly, elected for 4 years at the same time as the mayor, meets according to the circumstances and at least once every three months. The current president of the Parliament is Milorad Perović.
Districts and suburbs of Belgrade
See also: List of the districts and the suburbs of Belgrade
With the census of 2002, Belgrade counted: 1576124 inhabitants.
Composition of the population
Serb: : 1417187;
- Yugoslav: : 22161;
- Montenegrins: : 21190;
- Roms : : 19191;
- Croatian: : 10381;
- Macedonians: : 8372;
- Moslem (nationality): : 4617;
In June 2007, the population was estimated at: 1588381 inhabitants. Belgrade accommodated the many Serb ones come from the various areas of old Yugoslavia, in particular those which fled the wars and their continuations. If one takes account of the refugees come from Croatia and of Bosnia-Herzégovine, of those of the Kosovo, if one holds account also students, the population of Belgrade could exceed the two million inhabitants.
The capital also accommodates several thousands of Chinese, come intaller in the middle the years 1990; thus the Blok 70 a district located in the municipality of Novi Beograd became the Chinese district of Belgrade. Belgrade also has inhabitants come from the Moyen the East, prinicipalemnt of Syria, Iran, Jordan and Iraq; many arrived in the years 1970 and 1980 to carry out their studies, then settled and founded families.
The orthodoxe Serb Christian constitute the most important religious community of Belgrade, with: 1429170 members. There is also: 20366 Moslem: 16305 catholic and: 3796 Protestant. There was formerly important a Jewish community, but after the occupation of the city by the Nazis and the emigration of many Jews in Israel, the community counted officially only 415 members in 2002.
Many cultural events proceed in the capital: the International festival of film of Belgrade (FEST), the International festival of theater of Belgrade (BITEF), the Festival of summer of Belgrade (BELEF), the International festival of music of Belgrade (BEMUS), the International exhibition of the book of Belgrade or the Festival of beer of Belgrade.
The writer Ivo Andrić, prize winner of the Nobel Prize of literature in 1961, wrote in Belgrade his most famous work, the Bridge on Drina . Other authors of foreground are associated with the town of Belgrade: Branislav Nušić, Miloš Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavić and Meša Selimović.
The essence of Serb cinema industry is located at Belgrade. In 1995, Emir Kusturica gained the Palme of Gold for its film Underground .
In the years 1980, on the musical level, Belgrade was one of the centers of the Yugoslav New wave, with artists like SCREW Idoli, Ekatarina Velika and Šarlo Akrobata, which was all originating in the capital. Among the famous rock groups, one can quote Riblja Čorba and Bajaga I Instruktori. The city is the center of a known musical style under the name of Turbo-folk, whose singer ECSC Ražnatović is one of the most famous representatives. Belgrade plays a big role on the scene of the Serb Hip hop, with the group Beogradski Sindikat, with Rappeur S like Škabo and Marčelo and especially with the label Bassivity Music.
Belgrade counts many theaters, of which most important are the National theater, the Yugoslav dramatic Théâtre, the Théâtre Zvezdara and the Atelier 212.
The town of Belgrade is also the seat of the Serb Académie of Sciences and Arts, the National library of Serbia and the National museum as well as many foreign cultural institutions, like the Institut Cervantes, the Goethe-Institute and the Arts center French, which are all three located Rue Knez Mihailova. One finds there also the American Corner, the Austrian cultural Forum ( Österreichischen Kulturforums ), the British Council, the Russian Center for science and the culture (Российскийцентрнаукиикультуры), the Institut Confucius, the Canadian Arts center, the Istituto Italiano di Cultura and the Arts center of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Following the victory of representing Serb the Marija Šerifović with the Eurovision Contest of the song 2007, Belgrade will organize the Concours Eurovision of the song 2008.
See also: List of the museums of Belgrade
The most important museum of Belgrade is the National museum, created in 1844; it shelters a collection of more than: 400000 parts, among which is celebrates it Évangile of Miroslav (Miroslavljevo Jevanđelje) which goes back to 1180 and which was registered in 2005 on the list Mémoire of the world of UNESCO; the museum also presents important collections of painting. The Musée of contemporary art of Belgrade gathers approximately: 8540 works created in Yugoslavia since 1900. With approximately: 95000 national and international film copies, the Archives of Yugoslav film of Belgrade appear among the ten cinematographic files richest of the world; this institution also functions like a museum, with its cinema and her hall of exposure; in 2007, a modern deposit was inaugurated.
The military Musée presents more: 25000 parts, of which oldest date from the Préhistoire, of the ancient Greece and the Roman period. The Musée of the aviation of Belgrade has more than 200 apparatuses, of which around fifty are exposed; some of them are the single specimen of their type remaining in the world, like FIAT G.50. The museum also presents the wrecks of American planes of NATO shot down in the years 1990; one can see there, in particular, a furtive plane of attacks on the ground F-117 cut down by the Yugoslav forces.
The ethnographic Museum, created in 1901, shelters more: 150000 parts presenting to the public the daily life in the campaigns and the cities of the Balkans and in particular in the countries of the ex- Yugoslavia. The Museum Nikola Tesla, created in 1952, preserves objects and documents having belonged to Nikola Tesla, the inventor who gave his name to the Tesla (measuring unit); the collection is rich of approximately: 160000 original documents and of: 5700 other parts. One can still quote the Musée of Vuk and Dositej, which presents the life, the work and the heritage of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, the large reformer of the Serb Langue at the 19th century, and of Dositej Obradović, a writer who was the Prime Minister for the education of the country.
Belgrade also has a Musée of African Art, created at the time where Tito a policy of opening in direcion Tiers-monde practiced.
See also: List of streets and famous places of Belgrade, List of famous buildings of Belgrade
Belgrade has a Architecture very varied, center of Zemun, which, a long time under Austrian domination , offers the typical aspect of a town of Central Europe, until modernistic architecture more , such as one can find it with Novi Beograd. Because of the many destruction which the city knew, the oldest buildings of the heart of Belgrade date only from the 19th century. The oldest public edifice of Belgrade is a Turbe (Turkish tomb) of hexagonal form; it is located in the park of the fortress of Kalemegdan. The oldest private house of the capital, with walls into simple Clay dried, completion date of the 18th century; it is located in the district of Dorćol. The Western influence started to be exerted at the beginning of the 19th century, with constructions of neo-classic style , romantic and academic. At the end of the 19th century, the Serb architects created the National theater, the Vieux Palate (1882-1884), the cathedral Saint Michel and, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Parlement of Serbia (1907-1936) and the National museum, influenced by the Art nouveau. One can practice also there the extreme sports like the Saut with the rubber band, the Water skiing and the Paintball. Many tracks also make it possible to practice the bicycle or the jogging.
In addition to Ada Cingalija, Belgrade has in all 16 islands; much of them is unoccupied; on the other hand, the Large Island of the war to the confluence even of Save and the Danube constitutes concerning the wild life (and particularly for the birds). So the authorities of the Town of Belgrade transformed it into Natural reserve, as well as the Small island of the war, located just at côté
Belgrade has reputation to offer a particularly animated night life, with open clubs to the paddle a little everywhere in the city. Along banks of the Save and the Danube follow one another many barge S ( splavovi ) which are among the most appreciated places night birds.
Many visitors, coming particularly from Bosnia-Herzégovine, Croatia and Slovenia, come to spend the night to Belgrade because of the friendly atmosphere which reigns in the capital and to benefit from the large clubs and the bars.
One finds there clubs alternate famous like Akademija and the KST ( Klub studenata tehnike ), located in the basements of the Faculty of electronic engineering of the Université of Belgrade. One of the places most famous for the alternative cultural events of the city is the SKC (" Arts center of Étudiants"), located just opposite the tower Beograđanka. Concerts given by groups from Serbia but also from the whole world are often organized in this center. The SKC also proposes exposures of art, debates and discussions.
The nights belgradoises can also be rythmées by a known more traditional music under the name of Starogradska (" music of the old woman ville"), typical of the urban areas of the north of Serbia. One especially hears it in the district of Skadarlija, the Bohemian district where the poets and the artists of the capital found themselves at the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century; this district is located around the street of Skadar (Skadarska or, familiarly, Skadarlija). One finds there also many restaurants traditional called kafanas , which for the majority goes back to this time. Is one of oldest the kafanas of the capital the Taverne “? ” (Znak pitanja, the " not interrogation"), open in 1826. In this district also the oldest brewery of Belgrade is, created in first half of the XIXe century.
Belgrade has also a gay embryo of scene. The city lays out one gay club, and of some coffees gay or opened to the gays; they are located in the center of the capital. Intolerance against the sexual minorities is not rare, in Belgrade as in the remainder of the country.
See also: Sport in Belgrade
There is a thousand of sporting installations in Belgrade. The capital recently accommodated several important sports events, of which the Championnat of Europe of basketball 2005, the Championnat of Europe of volley ball masculine 2005 and the Championnat of Europe of toilets sports shirt of 2006. Belgrade will accommodate the Olympic Festival of European Youth of 2007 and the Universiade of summer of 2009.
The city presented in vain its candidature to organize the Olympic Games of summer for the year 1992; it was isolated with the third turn by the International Olympic committee, with the profit of Barcelona. The Olympic Games of summer of 1996 finally took place with Atlanta.
Belgrade has two large clubs of Football, the Red Star of Belgrade or the Partizan Belgrade. The two most important stages for this sporting discipline are the Marakana (Stade of red Star) and the Stade of Partizan. The Arena of Belgrade and the Hala Pionir accommodate competitions of Basket-ball, while the Center of sports and leisures of Tašmajdan accommodates competitions of Water sports shirt. It is in this center that was held the first Championnat of the world of swimming, of the August 31st to the September 9th 1973.
Belgrade is, economically, the most developed part Serbia. The national Banque of Serbia is in Belgrade, as well as important companies like Jat Airways, Telekom Srbija, Telenor Srbija, Delta Holding, the General society and Japan Tobacco.
During the years 1990, Belgrade, as the remainder of Serbia, was seriously touched by the international embargo on the trade. The Hyperinflation of the Yugoslav Dinar, the most rate of inflation ever recorded in the world, devastated the economy of the city. On the other hand, since 2000, the growth is of return and it is maintained at high intervals; from now on, more than 30% of Serb GNP comes from Belgrade, and the capital concentrates more than 30% of the active population of the country.
In June 2007, the average monthly salary in Belgrade was assembled to: 34256 Serb dinars (either approximately 427 € or 588 US$), which constitutes the highest average of all Serbia. The budget of the town of Belgrade for 2007 is approximately 64,4 billion dinars (more than one billion American dollars).
See also: List of media in Belgrade
Belgrade is the most important media center of Serbia. The city shelters the studios of the Radio Television of Serbia (RTS), which is becoming the public channel of the country. The label of recording of the RTS, PGP RTS, is also located at Belgrade. The chain RTV Pink, popular and commercial, is known for its programs of entertainment and its emissions with feelings. Its main competitor is called B92; it has its own television channel, of a radio station; it publishes music and books and proposes the most popular site of the Serb Internet. Other television channels diffuse from Belgrade, like TV Košava, TV Swallowed, as well as other chains which cover only Belgrade and its area, like Studio B and RTV Politika. Many specialized chains are also proposed to the televiewers, like S.O.S Kanal (sport), TV Metropolis (music), Art TV (art), TV Sinemanija (cinema) and Happy TV (programs for the children).
Among the daily newspapers with high circulation figures published in Belgrade, one can quote Politika , Večernje novosti , Blic , Glas javnosti and the Sportski žurnal . Other daily newspapers are also published in the capital, like Close , Danas and Kurir . A new free distributed daily newspaper, 24 sata , was created in October 2006.
The magazines NIN and Vreme are also printed in Belgrade.
See also: Education institutions in Belgrade
Belgrade has two public universities and several private institutions of higher education. The " High School " , founded in Belgrade in 1808, was the first establishment of higher education in Serbia. Came then the Lycée in 1841, which was moved of Kragujevac in Belgrade. In 1905, it became the Université of Belgrade, one of the oldest education institutions of the country (the " College of the professeurs" , with Subotica, date of 1689). More: 70000 students follow courses in this university.
The capital counts moreover 195 elementary schools (elementary) and 85 establishments of secondary education. Among the elementary schools, 15 are specialized in arts and 4 are reserved to the adults. The system of secondary education counts 51 vocational schools, 21 colleges of mainstream education, 8 schools of art and 5 schools specialized. : 230000 pupils are framed by: 22000 adults, divided in more than 500 buildings.
See also: Transport in Belgrade, List of the stations of the subway of Belgrade
Belgrade has a dense grid system, founded on the Autobus (118 urban lines and more than 300 suburban lines), the Tramway S (12 lines) and the Trolleybus (8 lines). It is managed by the companies GSP Beograd and SP Lasta, in co-operation with several privately held companies. Belgrade also has a network of suburban trains and Métro, Beovoz, managed by the Railroads of Serbia.
The main station connects Belgrade to the other European capitals and many towns of Serbia. The voyage by Autocar S is also average a rapid and effective to go in each city of the country. A network of Autoroute S makes it possible to join easily Novi Sad and Budapest, the capital of the Hungary (in north), Niš (in the south) and Slavonski Brod (in the west). Located at the confluence of two important rivers, the Save and the the Danube, Belgrade has many bridges, whose the two principal ones are the Pont of Branko and the Pont of Gazela, which connect both the center to Novi Beograd. The Wearing of Belgrade, located on the Danube, allows the supply goods of the city. The city is also served by the airport Nikola Tesla (Code AITA: BEG ), located at 12 kilometers in the west of the center, close to Surčin. He knew his hour of glory in 1986, while accommodating nearly 3 million passengers; on the other hand, this number was reduced considerably since the years 1990. Starting from 2000, the number of travellers again increased to pass very close to the figure of 2 million in 2004 and 2005 and to exceed it in 2006.
With the expansion of the city and the important increase in the number of vehicles, the obstructions became one of the main issues of the capital; to mitigate that, a peripheral is in the course of construction, which will connect the European roads E70 and E75. An interior by-pass is in project, implying the construction of a new bridge on Save which would relieve the traffic on the bridges of Branko and Gazela.
Belgrade is twinned with the following cities:
Other friendship and forms of cooperation
Letters of intent signed with capitals of the ex- Yugoslavia:
Other international honors
The town of Belgrade received several domestic and international honors, inclusive of the order of the Legion of Honor of France in 1920 (only four cities received it), the Military Cross of Czechoslovakia, the star of Karađorđe with Sabers of Serbia, and Order of the hero main road of the ex- Yugoslavia (proclaimed with the October 20th 1974, the birthday of the end of the ocupation of the Nazis at the time of the Second world war). In 2006, the newspaper Foreign Direct Investment of Financial Times decreed the title of Ville of the Future of Europe of the South in Belgrade.
Images of the city
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