See also: Beauvais (homonymy)
Currency and blazonPalus C difficulty fixus constans and firma manebo. Such this driven pile, constant and firm will remain. Currency being reproduced on the first blazon of the city.
The blazon is " of Mouths to the stake of argent" , i.e. two red bands separated by a gray band (or white).
GeographyBeauvais is a city located at an about sixty kilometers in the north of Paris, bathed by the Thérain, affluent of the Oise. It extends to the foot from hills timbered, on left bank of Thérain, with the Confluent of the Avelon in an old marshy area in the north of Paris.
It is the chief town of the Département of Oise
The agglomeration is served by the highway and the Nationale 1 and 31.
The Aéroport of Paris Beauvais Tillé is in the north of the agglomeration. The city has a station FOR THE THIRD TIME served by the trains Picardy.
- Mechanical (Massey Ferguson: Tractor S agricultural);
- Sponge S vegetable (Spontex).
Beauvais is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of Oise. It manages the port of Creil and the airport of Beauvais.
Here climatic data in Beauvais of 1945 to 2003.
See also: Saint-Pierre Cathedral of Beauvais
The first traces of dwellings of the site of Beauvais go back to 65.000 before our era. Camp strengthened by the Romans, Beauvais takes, in Ier century, the name of Caesaromagus: the Market of César.
Become Bellovacum, the Gallo-Roman city was destroyed again by the cruel invasions towards 275. It will be rebuilt and equipped with fortifications. In 328, the Emperor Constantin, who had authorized the practice of the Christianisme, visit veterans of his army in the Castrum of Bellovacis. It is the beginning of the christianization of our area, and the source of the capacity of the bishops of Beauvais. At the beginning of the Middle Ages, the authority of the bishops grows at the same time as grows the new Faith. Évêché of Beauvais is regarded as a all the more prestigious station as it profits from considerable incomes. Beauvais is with a crossroads of trade route and, which more is, the bishop cumulates the religious and political capacities. It is him the true Master of the City.
The commune created very early, in XIe century. It becomes a prosperous city which gradually acquires rights to promote its industry. Pragmatic, it regularly takes the party of the King against L `bishop and is pressed on the textile to sit its financial power. At that time, the cloth of Beauvais is exported until in the East and the workshops multiply. Belonging to a “League” of fifteen “draping cities”, Beauvais is the third pole by order of importance. The craftsmen work all kinds of wool, including finest, imported of London. The corporations grow rich by increasingly diversified trade associations: dyers, finishers, shearers, finishers… a group of 80 regent families workmen. The rise of Beauvais can begin: it is, as of this time a rich city and we are close to his golden age. The mayors of this period come most of the time from the narrow circle of these traders. The hierarchy is strict and the social quarrels subjected to the authority of the King who undertakes, if it is needed, to force the bishop. To this time, the Low-Work goes back, which, if it is well the old Carolingian cathedral, is not the first “cathedral” built in Beauvais. Thanks to excavations, one could date his construction from second half of Xe century. Low-Work comprised various appendices contemporary of the church. Frescos were to animate its walls. One found of them various fragments, of which a head of man, of a remarkable quality. Rare witness in France of the Carolingian Architecture still preserved, the building is built according to the techniques of the time, with re-employments Gallo-Romans.
At the same time, appear the Ordres beggars whose convents rise in the east of the city, in full working district. It is about this time that date the Maladreries Saint-Lazare and Saint-Anthony. At the beginning deprived of goods, these orders grow rich gradually and play a considerable part in the city. To the economic advancement that Beauvais during XIIIe century and the beginning of XIVe century knows, corresponds an intense artistic life. The building sites multiply. The church dedicated to Saint-Etienne, located close to the town square, is completed in the neighborhoods of 1220, and a little later opens the building site of the Gothic cathedral. In 1225, the bishop-count Milon de Nanteuil lance the project of what will become the monument emblematic of Beauvais: the Cathedral Saint-Pierre. This gigantic work must exceed in height the cathedrals of all the close cities. Gothic splendor, it exceeds its 48 meters all that had been made before. The Chorus and the Eastern side of the transept are completed in 1272. In 1284, the high parts of the right spans of the chorus crumble. The hard rebuilding until the medium of XIVe century, but work stops during the Guerre One hundred Year old. The transept, chief of work of blazing architecture, is carried out in XVIe century by the architect Martin Chambiges under the impulse of the count-bishop Louis de Villiers of Isle-Adam. An immense arrow of more than 150 m height is set up thereafter with transept crossing, instead of building a nave which would make it possible to consolidate the monument. But, hardly finished, the arrow collapses in 1573. The nave was never carried out, for lack of funds. The church measures 72m50 length for an extraordinary height of vault of almost 48,50 m, highest of the Gothic architecture in Europe. Even unfinished, the building remains one of the high places of the religious heritage.
Since 1664, a royal manufacture of tapestry was installed in Beauvais, then become important “a draping city” of the kingdom. More half of its inhabitants work then in the textile. Its productions are famous in all Europe and other craftsmen profit from this fame. Manufacture reaches its apogee under the artistic director of Jean-Baptiste Oudry, at the XVIIIe century. Soon, appears on the market “the Indian”, a printed cotton fabric which quickly will provide work to hundreds of workmen without however détrôner the trade of wool. At the end of XVIIIe, the decline begins from this so active city. Beauvais remains faithful to the textile whereas S `accelerates the Industrial revolution everywhere else. While concentrating on wool, the brush-factory, the food and the tablettery, local industry passes beside important markets. The railroad is established elsewhere and does not stop. At the beginning of the Second Empire, Beauvais is still at the era of diligence whereas rail reached Rouen, Le Havre, Lille, Saint-Quentin… It is not that in 1876 qu' a hot line towards the Capital opens. But it is also about a period of architectural changes: the city opens with the installation of the boulevards to the site of the old medieval rampart. Important public edifices are high: the hospital, the college Felix-Faure, the station… In the Saint-Jacob suburb, the slaughter-houses… are built and profit from a neat industrial architecture. On the principal place is inaugurated in 1851 by prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the statue of Jeanne Hachette. The astronomical Horloge (1865-1868) of the cathedral hiding place under its piece of furniture 12 height meters romano-Byzantine, a very complete mechanism due to Auguste Vérité. Whereas the movement of urbanization continues out of the old center, a new element is introduced into architecture: the Ceramic whose Beauvaisis is producer. The frontage of Gréber manufacture is very an good example of this production. Houses of English style, villas of balneal imitation, frontages Art déco punctuate in particular the Saint-Andrew boulevards and the Victor-Hugo avenue.
In 1900, Beauvais counts 20.000 inhabitants, twice as much as in 1850. But great fortunes and the big bosses are done rare and the local middle-class dominates the political scene.
During the First World War, Beauvais was going to live during four years the existence of a city of the back, rather near to the face, a complicated existence by the risks of an irregular supply.
In March 1918, the Town hall becomes the HQ of the general Foch, it is there that he sees himself entrusting to the Supreme Command of the Allied Armies, by the French governments, English and American.
Towards the end of the war, April in June, the city is bombarded with eight recoveries, which causes the destruction of 80 houses. The day of the Armistice, the city deplores 719 dead with the combat, and 13 civilians killed during the bombardments.
In the Inter-war period, Beauvais continuous of living of its activities of the past, but the economic crisis precipitates the decline of the city, and more largely of the Beauvaisis. As of the declaration of the Second world war, Beauvais finds the role of city-hospital which she had known between 1914 and 1918. But, at the beginning of June 1940, the city is attacked by the Luftwaffe, whose bombs light a gigantic fire. Two thirds of the city are in flames, half of the destroyed houses. The martyrdom city, which almost lost all the vestiges of its past, is inserted in misery and the deprivations.
It is during this black period that four common neighbors were attached to Beauvais.
“ Good town of France, old woman quoted of the Ile-de-France, ravaged city, mutilated city… ”. It is in these terms that the Général De Gaulle greets Beauvais in August 1945. It is indeed necessary to rebuild on the 43 hectares of cuts, squared by deserted streets. “ the witnesses of the past died and died well ” said the architect Georges Christmas, and it was necessary to avoid imagining “a bad decoration”, while emphasizing the churches and the buildings which had survived the destruction. Years are necessary to make a success of this bet, to build new residences, to rebuild the public buildings, the hospitals, the educational establishments. The plan of rebuilding endeavors to respect the balance of the old districts, with broader streets, more regular.
But it will be necessary to wait the years 1960 so that the rebuilding is completed truly, so that new cities are built on the plates, and so that new industries give again dynamism at the city.
In 1974 the Law courts are inaugurated, in 1976, opens the National Gallery of the Tapestry. The old slaughter-houses of the city accommodate the tapestry workshop. During the Nineties, the old office of the Poor is arranged in arts center and the university antenna opens its doors. Beauvais between then on one level in XXIe century…
before this date, the function of mayor was annual, or without reality capacity, the administration of the city depending largely on Evéché.
Beauvais is the chief town of the department of Oise.
In 1943, several communes were attached to Beauvais: Marissel, Our-Lady-of-Thil, Voisinlieu and Saint-Just-of-Marsh
Beauvais is divided into 3 cantons:
- the canton of Beauvais-North-Is made of part of Beauvais (Argentina districts and Marissel) (18 036 inhabitants);
- the canton of Beauvais-North-West is made of part of Beauvais (districts Saint Lucien, Our-Lady-of-Thil, Saint-Just-of-Marsh) and communes of Fouquenies, Herchies, Pierrefitte-in-Beauvaisis and Savignies (19 414 inhabitants);
- the canton of Beauvais-South-West is made of part of Beauvais (districts Midsummer's Day and Voisinlieu) and communes of Allonne, Goincourt, With-Marsh and Saint-Martin-the-Node (24 284 inhabitants).
- the downtown area is regarded as a district of the town of Beauvais.
Dynamics, Beauvais is a young city: nearly a quarter of the population has less than 20 years. The City also shelters a varied industrial fabric: Agroalimentary, Textile, Chemistry, mechanical engineering… It is also an important administrative and commercial center. Beauvais, located in the middle of an area at agricultural vocation, is also an important industrial city. With the installation of 18 Zones of economic activities and the improvement of the communication network, large companies came to be established in Beauvais. One counts currently more than 3000 companies on the territory of the Communauté of agglomeration; Beauvais concentrates 90% of the companies there.
- Vincent of Beauvais, (v. 1190 - v. 1267), French Dominican monk, author of the Speculum naturale , encyclopedia constituting a panorama of knowledge of the Middle Ages;
- Martin Chambiges, XVI century, Parisian Architect, author of the transept and his frontages; Saint-Pierre cathedral;
- Pierre Cauchon, (1371 - 1442), bishop of Beauvais, indicter of Jeanne d' Arc;
- Jeanne Teased, said Jeanne Hatchet, (1454 -?), Heroin of Beauvais;
- Nicolas Choart de Buzenval, Humanistic;
- Antoine Loysel, (1536 - 1617), French jurisconsult, author of Institutes usual;
- Catherine Bellier, baroness of Beauvais, first love of Louis XIV (Cateau borgness);
- Jean Root, (1639 - 1699), student in Beauvais, playwright;
- Pierre Restaut, (1696-1764), French grammairien;
- Felix Faure, (1841 - 1899), President of the Republic, which studied in the college which bears today its name (Lycée Felix Faure);
- Jean-Claude Decaux, the inventive of the Bus shelter and the Urinal S with parts;
- Hubert de Givenchy, (1927 -), Dressmaker;
- Guy Grosso, (1933 - 2001), Actor;
- François Watrin (1772 - 1802, general of Empire;
Beauvais is classified Ville of Art and History.
See also: Saint-Pierre Cathedral of Beauvais
The cathedral Saint-Pierre is a Chef-d'oeuvre of the Gothic architecture.
It has the effect of not having a Nef supplements, and has the the highest chorus Gothic of the world.
Saint-Etienne churchThe Église Saint-Etienne supports, on one of the two gates of its transept, a Sculpture named “Wheel of Fortune” representing the life of the man of its birth until his death. Inside one can also contemplate several curiosities. The first is the whole of very beautiful stained glasses, of which the Arbre of Jessé, representing the Family tree Christ. This Vitrail paints by Engrand Leprince is with predominance of a blue which one forgot the formula today. There is also a very curious statue of holy Wilgeforte, virgin crucifiée by her father because of his faith. This building with the characteristic to be half-Gothic half-novel.
National gallery of the tapestry of Beauvais
Built in the fields of the architect Andre Hermant in 1964 near the cathedral, the Gallery sat on the buttresses of the Gallo-Roman ramparts . It was inaugurated in 1976 to return to the town of Beauvais its historical tradition of high place of the tapestry after the destruction of the buildings of the manufacture in June 1940. In this gallery temporary exhibitions are presented which reflect the richness of the collections of carpet, tapestries and of pieces of furniture of the State-owned furniture.
Address and schedules:
One finds, in the neighborhoods of the place of the Town hall and the cathedral, of many houses dating from. Beside the town hall, built in 1752, the Statue is held of Jeanne Hachette. The episcopal palate, which is used now as departmental museum, was built at the 16th century partly above old the Fortification S Gallo-Roman S.
Maladrerie Saint Lazare is a hospital unit medieval best preserved North with its buildings Des.
Twinnings of the city are organized by the Joint committee , an association Loi of 1901.
- . It is the chief town of the Kent, the exchanges are Artistique S, Sportif S (Table tennis: ACE Beauvais Marissel TT and Beauvais Oise TT) and associative.
- , although exchanges already took place as of 1961. The exchanges started between old marine S, the sporting club of the city (GOAT) and the Philatéliste S. are also practiced the school exchanges, Culturel S and sportsmen.
- , joining together sporting and cultural exchanges. At the school level, establishments practice many exchanges via Internet.
There exist also partnerships with:
Beauvais accommodates each year, in May, the International meetings of Whole of Violoncelle S, which saw creation, by violoncellists of foreground (Gary Hoffman, Yo-Yo Ma, János Starker, Ernst Reijseger), the important works ordered from contemporary type-setters of international scale (of which Kaija Saariaho). The Festival gave place to the foundation of Octuor of violoncellos, directed by the violoncellist Jacques Bernaert.
Other festivals :
- Pianoscope (October)
- Blues around Zinc (March)
- Scenes of summer (June at September)
- Cinema festival (in November)
In 2006, Beauvais was indicated the most sporting city of France.
- During the Second world war, Beauvais was, with Le Havre, the French city most damaged by the German bombardments. Surprising fact, at the end of the war it remained in the middle of the ruins only the intact cathedral.
Notes and references of the article
|Random links:||American Samoa | Country Charolais Brionnais | Louis el tartamudo | The Adverts | Dunstan of Canterbury | Intercommunalities of the Territory of Belfort | Économie_du_Grenada|