The Bavaria ( Bayern ), officially called Republic of Bavaria or free State of Bavaria ( Freistaat Bayern ) is southernmost of the sixteen German Länder S. Its capital is Munich. It is named Noricum , then Boiaria or Bajuvaria in Latin, Bayern in German. These names come from the people of Bayouvates which occupied it.
Bavaria is bordering on the Austria and the Suisse (in the south), of the Czech Republic (in the east), of the free State of Saxony, in the North-East, of the free State of Thuringe, in north, of the Land of Hesse, in the North-West, of the Land of Bade-Wurtemberg, with the ouest.
It is largest Land of Germany.
LanguagesThe German is the official language of Bavaria, but the regional dialect, the Bavarois is also widespread there: one estimates at approximately 16% of the population the number of speakers using it each day, and this figure still rises when one includes/understands all those able to speak it. The Bavarian one is also spoken in Austria: half of its speakers is there besides.
AntiquityAt the time of Jules César, this region still appears to be deserted, but under Auguste one already sees it appearing in the number of the Roman provinces; it was included/understood in the Vindélicie and the Norique.
The Middle AgesTo the 5th century, the Boïens extend their possessions in Western Norique. These new conquerors are subjected thereafter by Dagobert Ier king of the Francs Austrasiens (630 - 660). At that time it is with the hands of the dynasty of the Agilolfing S, whose founder Agilulf reigned towards 530. The dukes agilofides continue to govern Bavaria in the name of the frank kings until Odilon of Bavaria which in 743 takes the title of king.
As of 739, Boniface fixes the dioceses of Ratisbon, Freising, Passau and Salzburg. Odilon tested but in vain to withdraw itself from the Suzerain be of Charles Martel. After the death of Odilon, in 748, Hiltrude, sister of Pip the Brief, exerts regency for her son Tassilon.
In 757, Tassilon lends oath of fidelity to Pépin the Brief, with the plaid of Compiegne. But it follows then a dangerous policy of autonomy with respect to the king of the Francs, and violated its oath of fidelity which it had lent to Pépin. It leagued initially with Didier of Lombardy, king of Lombards, and with the Duke of Aquitaine. He concludes in particular a matrimonial alliance with the lombard E Liudberg. He joins together Concile S and the Pape Hadrian baptizes his son in 772. This is why Charlemagne requires a renewal of its oath in 787: Tassilon then receives the solemn nomination of its duchy of Bavaria. Following a plot with the Avar S, Tassilon is locked up by the Carolingien in a monastery (788).
Charlemagne entrusted the government of the duchy to his/her brother-in-law, Gérold, count of Souabe. In 794, Bavaria enters the direct inheritance of the Carolingians. In 798, Arn of Salzburg becomes the first archbishop of Bavaria. Louis Débonnaire set it up in kingdom (814), and gave it to his/her oldest son, Lothaire, which in 817 yielded it to Louis Germanic the. The kingdom of Bavaria included/understood then, in addition to clean Bavaria, the Carinthie, the Carniole, the Istrie, the the Friuli, old the Pannonia, the Moravie and the Bohemia. In 912, the race of the Carolingians being itself extinct in the person of Louis the Child, the Bavarian ones choose for chief the Margrave Arnulf the Bad one, wire of Luitpold, which took the title of duke. To its death the July 14th 937, the duchy passed successively in various houses: it was had by dukes of the Maison of Saxony (947 - 1004), Maison of Franconie (1004 - 1070), by the Welfs of the Maison of Este (1070 - 1139), then, by dukes Autrichiens.
In 1180, the Emperor Frederic Ier Barberousse gives Bavaria to Othon II Large the, count Palatin of Bavaria, descendant of Arnoul de Carinthie; wire of Luipold, belonging to the family of Wittelsbach, house which reigned until the 18th century. Under the successors of this prince, the duchy of Bavaria, which had been considerably reduced, took again new increases. After the death of Othon III Famous the (1253), its two sons Louis II and Henri XIII shared his states: Louis reigned on the High-Bavaria , Henri on the Basse Bavaria . Louis III, known as the Bavarian , wire of Louis II, joins together in 1312 the High one and Low-Bavaria and was crowned Empereur in 1314. Louis III increases his fields considerably; when he died (1347); it had, in addition to Bavaria, the Brandebourg, the Holland, the Zealand, the the Tyrol, etc the wire of Louis divided these various provinces, and formed a great number of branches which died out quickly, so that in 1507, Albert II, of the branch of Munich, joins together all Bavaria again.
17th century, 18th centuryThe sucesseurs of Albert opposed of all their forces the reform and took party for the Emperor in the Guerre Thirty Year old. In reward the emperor Ferdinand II raised the duke Maximilien with the dignity of voter (1623) and made this title hereditary in his family. This dignity was confirmed to him in 1648 by the Traité of Westphalia. Its grandson Maximilien Emmanuel (1679 - 1726) being declared for the France in the War of succession of Spain, was after the battles of Hochstoedt (1704), put at the round of applause of the Empire and it returned in its rights only after the Paix of Bade (1714). Charles-Albert, which succeeded to him, claimed with the succession of the emperor Charles VI, conquered the Bohemia and the Austria, and was even made crown with Frankfurt in 1742 under the name of Charles VII; but overcome by François of Lorraine, with the head of the Austrian troops, he not only lives himself forced to give up the empire, but to give up Bavaria itself with François of Lorraine; he died before the end of the war. Maximilien Joseph, his son made peace with François and recovered his States by the Paix of Fussen (1745. Bavaria enjoyed a little rest when the death of Maximilien Joseph, last kid of Wittelsbach, raised new discords (1777). Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, combined with this family, however managed to reign in Bavaria in spite of the Austria; and after his death (1799), its nephew Maximilien Joseph succeeded to him.
19th centuryBavaria had to suffer much during the wars from the Revolution. By the Peace of Lunéville, it had to yield its possessions on left bank of the the Rhine, but it accepted full compensations. A long time faithful allied of France, it was obliged to provide him many quotas. It signed the act of the Confédération of the Rhine, and under the protection of Napoleon i, which had increased its territory considerably, it was set up in kingdom in 1805 and will remain under the government of Wittelsbach, with which its history will merge throughout the 19th century and until in 1918. In 1809, Napoleon beat the Austrians with Abensberg. After the disasters of 1813, Maximilien turned its weapons against France. For price of this control, it accepted with the Congrès of Vienna, the confirmation of its royalty and its possessions. It gave in 1818 in its States a constitutional charter. His/her son Louis Ier announced his reign for his taste for the Art schools. He abdicated in 1848 in favor of his son Maximilien II which, to maintain the importance of Bavaria, was constantly opposed to any attempt at centralization of Germany. But its successor Louis II, had to undergo the supremacy of the Prussia, after the war against France (1870 - 1871).
The free State of Bavaria succeeded the duchy then with the Royaume of Bavaria which became in 1871 one of the 25 Federal states of the Empire of Germany. Monarchy was abolished in 1918. The king Louis II of Bavaria is the most known monarch in particular thanks to construction of castles (like Neuschwanstein) and by his mysterious death.
XXe centuryAfter the second world war, Bavaria will belong to Länder of the West, and thus will be under supervision of the Western forces. Today, Bavaria is one of Länder richest of reunified Germany (with one of unemployment rates low).
HeraldicThe free State of Bavaria makes use, although there is not right strictly speaking, of the large weapons of the kingdom of Bavaria. Around the blue and white flag of Bavaria, are (from in top on the left then in the direction of the needles of a watch): The gold lion of Haut-Palatinat, the points money on red bottom of Franconie, three black lions of Souabe, and the blue panther High and Low-Bavaria.
One finds the colors of Bavaria on the logo of the car manufacturer BMW
SubdivisionsBavaria is divided into 7 administrative areas or districts ( Regierungsbezirke ), themselves subdivided in 71 districts and 25 municipalities not integrated into a district.
Districts ( Landkreise ) and municipalities ( kreisfreie Städte )
The CSU (Christian Social union) directs Bavaria since 1962 with the absolute majority - in the person, currently, of her chief, Edmund Stoiber, unfortunate candidate of the coalition CDU - CSU to the post of chancellor at the time of the German legislative elections of 2002. Its withdrawal of the head of the Freistaat (free State) of Bavaria is announced for September 2007.
Bavaria was the only German Land to have a bicameral Parlement of Bavaria, since it had also a Senate, proof of its singularity.
The economic center of Bavaria east Munich, city of the head office of many companies. Many a multinational firms German is originating in Bavaria, like BMW, EADS, Siemens AG, MAN, Adidas, Puma and Which.
Unemployment rate protests in 2006 to 6,4% compared with 10,7% for the whole of Germany.
Contrary to Germany of North, Bavaria is very mainly Catholique and politically more preserving, as indicates it its policy as regards abortion or the presence of crucifix on the walls of the classes of schools. One finds in Bavaria of many churches dedicated to Saint Denis and the characters of Saint Michel and the Virgin Mary are also very important. The archangel Saint Michel represents for Bavarian the victory of the catholic faith over Protestantism, that of of course the evil (through the image of the victorious angel of the dragon).
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