Battle of the ditch
In 627, the battles of the ditch is one of the episodes of the war between the prophet Mahomet (Mohammed) exiled with Médine and the inhabitants of Mecque which had constrained it with the exile in 622. It is also called battles of distinct the , or battles of united the , this last name refers to the United Sourate XXXIII entitled the which prophesies the course and the exit of the battle.
HistoryBecause of persecutions that Mahomet and his underwent them with Mecque, the Musulman S mecquois emigrated with Médine (called then Yathrib) in 622. It was the beginning of the hégire. Mahomet became the leading one of Médine and wrote the treaty of Médine, one of the first constitutions. This constitution was accepted by all the tribes of Médine, which they are Arab or Jewish. One of the articles of this constitution obliges all the parts to defend Médine against any foreign attack. In 624, Mahomet and them his had gained the Bataille of Badr against the mecquois. In 625, carried out by Abû Sufyân, the mecquois of the clan Quraych ite had gained the battles of `Uhud. Mahomet passes there even for death. After this battle, the Jewish tribe of the Banû Nâdir plotted to assassinate the Mahomet prophet. Consequently of this treason, they were exiled towards Khaybar.
The tribe polytheist of Quraych of Mecque launched a third and last attacks against Médine in 627. It was the battle of the ditch. Quraych wanted to get rid once for all of the Mahomet prophet and the Muslim community of Médine. They formed a coalition with the Jewish tribe of benû-Nâdir and the two armies of approximately 10.000 men and 1000 riders went on Médine.
The Mahomet prophet was informed of this attack and brings together these companions to discuss the procedure to follow. Persan named Salman (rear RTL سَلمَانُالفَارِسِيُّ Al-fārisīy) advised with the Mohammed prophet to dig a ditch around the camp of the Moslems in order to break the loads of cavalry. The ditch made 20 bent (10 meters) from depth and 20 bent the broad one. According to various sources, it took a whole month it to dig or only 6 days. This current tactic at Persians was unknown Arabic. Médine being equipped with ramparts, the ditch was dug only at the places where those missed. These ramparts were kept by various tribes of Médine, of which the Jewish tribe of the Beni Qurayza.
When the ditch was finished, Mahomet and its army of 3000 men camped derrrière to await their enemies, united. The women and the children had took refuge in the strengthened house of the poet médinois Hassân ibn Thâbit. The enemy armies arrived and reflect the seat in front of the city. 26 days passed without no true combat committed, being put besides some exchanges of arrows and some unfruitful attacks of the cavalry of united. One of these attacks was carried out by `Amr ibn `Abd `Wudd which had valiantly fought with the battle of Badr. `Ali and some men went to be opposed has them. `Amr required of them to fight in duel with one of them. `Alî accepted the duel and killed `Amr ibn `Abd `Wudd.
After a score of day of seat, the vivres started to miss in the two camps. The desired prophet to sign peace with the enemy to reduce the sufferings of its people. The chiefs of the principal tribes médinoises understood that Mahomet wanted to sign peace only for their good. Then they asked him not to sign, which it did.
Abû Sufyân had an alliance with the Jewish tribe of the Banû Qurayza. Those had agreed to let enter the troops to attack the Moslems in spite of the treaty which they had signed with the Mahomet prophet. A new convert, Nu `aym ibn Mas `ûd found the prophet Mahomet and offered its services to him. Its conversion was not yet known of the enemy and it went to Banû Qurayza to try to sow the discord. It made them believe that Abu Sufyan would be likely in the event of defeat to leave them without protection. He thus advised in Banû Qurayza to ask hostages in exchange of the passage. Naked `aym ibn Mas `ûd then went to find Abu Sufyan and its companions. He declared to them that the Jews had repented their control towards Mahomet and that they were going to ask them hostages to give them to the Moslems. The trick of Naked `aym functioned and saved the city.
The seat of united was finally broken when a storm devastated the camp of united by saving that of the Mahomet prophet. The Moslems believe that it was the consequence of a divine intervention.
Immediately after the unexpected victory of the médinois, the Mahomet prophet dealt with the treachery of Beni Qurayza. The Moslems believe that it is at the instigation of the Gabriel angel. Beni Qurayza had not only refused to fight at the sides of the Mahomet prophet, with the contempt of the treaty of Médine, they had also scheme with united. If their plan had succeeded, it would have caused the death of many civilians and all the Moslems of Médine.
The Mahomet prophet besieged them. After twenty-five nights of seat, Beni Qurayza agreed to go to the judgment of Its `D ibn Mu `âdh, a man of their own clan. Its `D was wounded of an arrow at the time of the battle of the ditch and was transported near the Prophet. He asked the two parts if they would accept its judgment, thing which they made. Its `D ibn Mu `âdh then says “My judgment on Banû Quraydha will be: that the men are killed, that their goods are distributed between the Moslems and that the women and the children are banished. ”. The Mahomet prophet answered “Your judgment, His `D, is the judgment of God. ”. The majority of the men of the tribe of Beni Qurayza were then carried out for treason and the majority of the women and the children were reduced in slavery or more probably banished. This last explanation comes from the bibliography of Ibn Hischâm which is the oldest historical source of the life of the Mohamed prophet.
In CoranThe sourate XXXIII united the would have predicted this battle and its exit. The term united indicates the quraychites of Mecque combined with other Arab tribes and the Jewish tribes of Médine having betrayed their alliance with the Prophet. *Ô you who believe! You recall the benefit of God on you, when troops came to you and that We sent against them a wind and troops which you did not see. - God remains Clairvoyant on what you do
- When they transfer you of in top and of bottom of all shares, and that the glances were disturbed, and the hearts went back to the throats, and you made on God all kinds of assumptions…
- the believers then were tested and shaken of a hard jolt.
- And when the hypocrites and those which have it to it doubts in the middle said: “God and His messenger promised only fraud to us”.
- In the same way, a group of them says: “People of Yathrib! Do not remain here. Turn over on your premise”. A group of them asks for to the prophet the permission of leave while saying: “Our residences are without protection”, whereas it were not it: They wanted to only flee.
- And if an opening had been made on them by the sides of the city and that then one had asked them to disavow their faith, they would have accepted certainly, and would hardly have delayed,
- while before they had pledged towards God whom they would not turn the back.
- Say: “Never the escape will not be useful if it is to you death without combat or the murder in the combat which you flee; in this case, you will enjoy the life only little time”.
- Say: “Which is that which can protect you from God, if He wants you evil or if He wants to grant a mercy to you? ”
- Certes, God knows those among you who cause obstacles, as those which say to their brothers: “Come to us”, while they deploy only little heat to the combat,
- Avares in your connection. Then, when the fear comes to them, you see them being looked with counterirritated eyes, as those of somebody who disappeared by fear of death. Once the fear passed, they lacerate you with sharpened languages, whereas they are scanty to make the good. These never believed.
- They think that united did not leave. However if united returned, these people-there would wish to be nomads among the Bedouins, and would be satisfied to ask for your news. If they were among you, they would have fought only very little.
- Indeed, you have in the Messenger of God an excellent model, for whoever hopes as a God and at last Day and frequently calls upon God.
- And when the believers transfer united, they said: “Here is what God and His messenger had promised to us; and God and His messenger said the truth”.
- It is, among the believers, of the men who were sincere in their engagement towards God. Some of them reached their end, and others still wait; and they did not vary at all in their engagement;
- so that God rewards the veracious ones for their sincerity, and punishes, if He wants, the hypocrites, or accepts their repentance.
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